Factory fabrication livestock Machines
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The process of manufacturing animal feed is a means whereby raw materials of widely ranging physical, chemical and nutritional composition can be converted into a homogenous mixture suitable for producing a desired nutritional response in the animal to which the mixture is fed.
The process is basically a physical one and chemical changes are few. It should be remembered however that some raw materials will have undergone extensive processing prior to inclusion into a mixed feed, for example, extraction of oil from oilseeds by solvent or mechanical extraction, heat treatment of soya beans or other beans to denature anti-nutritive factors, or the production of fishmeal and meat meal.
These processes will not be considered here and reference should be made to Appendix 6 for further information on these subjects. The feed manufacturing process may be considered to be made up of several unit operations which, in almost all circumstances, include the following:.
Their sequence and the size and sophistication of equipment vary with the output of feed required as well as differences in manufacturer's design. For the purposes of illustration and for the development of cost models in Chapter 5, four levels of output will be considered as follows:.
A number of manufacturers supply ranges of feed milling equipment and will advise on the selection of suitable models if provided with full information on the proposed operation.
This must include the proposed capacity of the mill, the types of raw materials available, the types of livestock feed to be produced, and the characteristics of the power supply available. The chosen site for feed production should be readily accessible to transport, as near as possible to raw material sources and to the livestock owners, free from flooding, and with suitable power and water supplies available. There are no set specifications for the layout of a feed milling operation, each being designed according to individual circumstances.
The planning of larger mills requires the services of skilled engineers and draughtsmen, but small mills can usually be assembled from modules supplied by equipment manufacturers. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the concept of 'packaged' or 'containerized' feed mills where items of machinery are assembled within a space frame and wired up to a control panel at the factory.
The unit is then shipped as a whole within a container. On arrival it is placed on a level concrete base, and the electricity supply connected to the control panel. In most circumstances the raw materials coming into a feed process area will have been requested by the nutritionist as being necessary to meet the nutrient requirements of the diet to be manufactured.
In developing countries raw materials will normally be delivered or collected from a supplier in hessian, jute, cotton, paper, or possibly loosely woven polythene sacks. A standard size of sack may not be used for each consignment and care should be taken to check-weigh as many bags as possible since, for many small-scale operations, a weigh bridge for weighing a lorry before or after unloading may not be available.
Bags are often man-handled, although the use of a small sack truck see Figure 1 will considerably ease the burden of carrying heavy materials within a feed mill area. In some circumstances, and especially with larger feed mills, raw materials may be delivered in bulk, necessitating appropriate handling and storage facilities.
In order to ensure a continuous supply of raw materials at the mill, when some may only be seasonally available on the market, and to take advantage of price fluctuations, some form of storage will be necessary. The particular method chosen for raw material storage will depend on the local circumstances, but in areas where labour is cheap and plentiful and capital funds scarce, it is likely that storage in bags will be preferable.
Raw materials should arrive in good condition and in sacks which have not been used for the storage of fertilizer, pesticides or chemicals. Contamination by string, large pieces of metal, wood or stones which could cause extensive damage to machinery can normally be removed on a coarse metal grid fitted over the sack tipping-in point of the feed mill, and permanent magnets will normally remove any tramp ferrous metal which may enter the system, particularly before entering the grinder, mixer or pelleter.
Storage areas must be waterproof and well-ventilated, and provide protection against infestation by insects and vermin which can quickly cause substantial losses in weight. If materials are to be stored in bags they should be kept in a building having a concrete floor.
The roof and walls need only to be lightly constructed provided that they are pest and waterproof. The bags should be stacked a few inches above floor level, for example, on wooden pallets see Figure 1 , and away from walls. Raw materials may also be stored in bulk either in silos constructed from concrete or steel or in bins formed with partitions in conventional stores.
Bulk storage normally entails a greater investment in capital equipment but lower operating costs. If raw materials are to be stored in this way it is essential that the bin manufacturers are informed of the raw materials to be handled, since some raw materials which have poor flow characteristics tend to form bridges of material in the bin base thus preventing their discharge. In general, raw materials of low bulk density have poor flow characteristics and those of high bulk density have good flow characteristics.
Raw materials which have poor flow properties normally require large diameter augers for their transfer. Raw materials will vary from country to country and from region to region and will have widely ranging bulk densities weight for a given volume. These differences in bulk density must be taken into account when determining the space required for the storage of raw materials and finished products.
Appendix 4, Table XVIII lists typical bulk density values for common feed raw materials and indicates the areas required for their storage. The proper storage of raw materials and of finished feeds is not only essential to prevent physical losses, but is also an important aspect of quality control which will be discussed in more detail later.
Where the construction of stores is to be undertaken, it is recommended that advice be obtained either from relevant publications or from other appropriate sources such as the Storage Department of ODNRI. Figure 1 - Sketches of feed milling equipment.
The accurate weighing of raw materials according to the formulation for a given ration is perhaps the most important unit operation involved in feed manufacture, since no amount of mechanical processing can make up for any deficiencies in nutrients which have been omitted from the mixture. The point at which weighing occurs in the feed milling process will depend upon the design of the mill.
Raw materials may be selected from store, weighed and then subjected to grinding and mixing, or materials may be pre-ground, then weighed and mixed. There are advantages and disadvantages in both approaches and their choice will depend upon the raw materials to be processed and the design considerations of machinery manufacturers. In small units, raw materials in sacks can be weighed individually on a platform scale with either a dial or lever-arm movement see Figure 1 , or if bags are known to be of accurate weight they can be counted and any excess needed for the formulation weighed on the scales.
Lever-arm scales are cheaper to purchase than dial scales, tend to be more robust, but are less convenient in use. Where possible, it is advisable that all scales be fitted with an adjustable tare, so that operators do not need to make calculations when allowing for the weights of containers into which raw materials may be tipped for weighing.
Large bin-type weighers see Figure 1 are often used for raw materials which have been pre-ground or are free flowing and discharge readily from storage bins or silos. Bin-type weighers may be mobile or stationary. Inline weighers which measure the quantity of material flowing over a small electronic sensor and volumetric dischargers are also available.
Units which quantify raw material by volume tend to be more applicable to small feed units handling cereals of constant bulk density, and do not often find application in tropical countries where ingredients have diverse bulk-density characteristics. Designs of weighers are many and various but the above have been given to illustrate typical machines in use in feed mills.
The weighing of raw materials requires great care and inaccuracies must be kept to a minimum. It should be noted that errors in the weighing of small quantities of raw materials often have far greater influence on the growth performance of animals than errors in the weighing of large quantities of material, for example, the omission of say, 25 kg of bran from a mixture requiring kg of bran is of much less significance nutritionally than the omission of 1.
In the sequence of unit operations involved in feed milling, raw material grinding may occur before or after weighing. It is a process with high power requirements which is often noisy and dusty. The design of machine most commonly found in the feed. Inside the grinding chamber, hammers, which may be fixed rigidly to the central shaft, or more often swinging on steel pins, rotate at high speed. The impact of the raw material on the hammers and the continual high-velocity impact of particle on particle results in material breakdown until it is small enough in size to pass through a perforated screen.
It is obvious that the smaller the screen size the more work will be required to reduce the particles to the desired size and the larger the grinder motor required. Raw materials also have different grinding properties somewhat related to their bulk density and flow characteristics. In general those of high bulk density grind more easily than fluffy, fibrous low-bulk density materials.
Grinders are most efficient when they are running at maximum capacity for a given raw material and screen size. Because of difficulties experienced in feeding certain raw materials for example, brans, cottonseed cake through a grinder, many feed manufacturers pre-blend ingredients before grinding in order that the more easily ground materials will act as carriers or flow aids to those offering resistance to grinding. For these reasons the process may be a fire- or even an explosion risk particularly if the grinder is not protected against the entry of metal, stones, glass and other objects which can cause sparking.
For safety reasons large grinders are often sited in separate brick-built stores on the outside walls of feed mills. If ground material is to be stored in bins or sacks before further processing it is essential that the heat generated during grinding be dissipated.
Cooling normally occurs as air is drawn into the grinding chamber, and during the pneumatic conveying of ground material from the grinding screen to its point of discharge, which may be through a cyclone into a bin or mixer. Many small grinders have suction fans fitted to the grinder shaft which bring about cooling and conveying of ground material in one operation. Other grinders discharge directly into conveyors and the air drawn in during grinding is released through filter bags.
Grinders may operate in a horizontal or vertical direction according to design. If ground material is conveyed pneumatically, the air and material are separated in a cyclone see Figure 2. This simple device, which is similar to an inverted cone, causes air to swirl around its walls depositing the ground material at the base of the cone while the air exits at the top of the cyclone through a filter.
It should also be noted that the desired fineness of grind will be influenced by the livestock to which the feed must be fed, or by other processes following grinding. Raw materials for poultry should be more finely ground than for cattle or pigs and raw materials to be pelleted are usually more finely ground than the equivalent feed as meal. Figure 2 - Action of hammer grinder.
High-moisture feeds are plastic or malleable in character with few planes of impact weakness and may clog a conventional hammer mill designed for handling dry ingredients.
Hammer mills and other designs of grinders may be obtained for handling moist or wet commodities, but these would not normally be used in a conventional feed mill.
General purpose hammer mills for small-scale feed mills are not designed to crush large chunks of raw materials to fine particles in a single pass operation. Large, lumpy, hard materials such as dried cassava roots and expeller oil cakes should be pre-crushed in a cake breaker to a particle size suitable for the dimensions of the hammer mill intake throat. It is important therefore that when requesting information on grinding machinery from suppliers, full details of raw materials be provided.
It is advisable to provide samples of the largest, hardest and most fibrous materials likely to be encountered. It is the job of the mixer to produce a homogenous blend of all the raw materials desired in a formulation, such that at each feeding period each animal receives a balanced mixture of nutrients.
The smaller and younger the animals to be fed, the greater is the need for good mixing. Not only are their requirements more demanding, but the daily nutrient intakes of those eating small amounts of feed will be subject to much greater variation as a result of poor mixing. Mixing often improves feed palatability if one or more of the raw materials is unpalatable to livestock.
Limited quantities of animal feed can be very adequately mixed assuming the raw materials have been ground appropriately on a concrete pad with a shovel, in a manner similar to the dry mixing of cement and sand. Raw materials should be layered one above each other and then mixed and turned to form an adjacent heap.
An efficient shovelling and mixing of the heap at least three times should produce an acceptable product with the even distribution of small quantities of vitamins and minerals. Such a mix should be similar to a mixture obtained from a vertical mixer described later. The evenness of colour of the mixture will often give a fair indication as to the homogeneity of the mixed feed.
Small concrete mixers with electric or petrol engine drives are mobile lowcost machines suitable for the manufacture of mixtures of dry ingredients or mixtures of wet feeds, for example for pigs. Pre-ground raw materials should be mixed for a minimum of five minutes to achieve a satisfactory blend. For larger-scale feed mixing however it is advisable and probably cheaper to use one of the conventional feed mixers described below. Two designs of mixers are most commonly found in the feed industry: the vertical or fountain mixer and the horizontal or U-trough mixer.
A third less common type is the conveyor mixer.
1-2ton/h Small Animal Feed Manufacturing Process Design
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Animal Feed Making Machine
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Animal feed processing
Offer turnkey feed milling project plan for making feed pellets, mash feed and crumble feed with size varying from 1. Before run your own animal feed production plant, view the factory layout of this small feed processing plant for reference. It is designed for ton per hour animal feed production for one of our clients. This kind of feed mill design is suitable for producing both poultry feed and cattle feed, while some equipment choices may vary.
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Feed Pellet Line
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Do not change the body text. We do not have permission to modify this work. Treat it as open access , which is an exception to the Appropedia license. If you have more information about the permissions, please leave a note on the talk page. The process of manufacturing animal feed is a means whereby raw materials of widely ranging physical, chemical and nutritional composition can be converted into a homogenous mixture suitable for producing a desired nutritional response in the animal to which the mixture is fed. The process is basically a physical one and chemical changes are few. It should be remembered however that some raw materials will have undergone extensive processing prior to inclusion into a mixed feed, for example, extraction of oil from oilseeds by solvent or mechanical extraction, heat treatment of soya beans or other beans to denature anti-nutritive factors, or the production of fishmeal and meat meal.
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