Factory finished cotton fabrics and piece goods
Chapter IV. Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section 1 of section 21 in regard to the fencing of machines, the further precautions specified in the schedules annexed hereto shall apply to the machines noted in each schedule. Textile Machinery except Machinery used in Jute Mills :. The requirements of this schedule shall apply to machinery in factories engaged in the manufacture or processing of textiles other than jute textiles.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Cotton is Processed in Factories - How It’s Made
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Textile Finishing Information
The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products.
While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers.
Goods and services. The establishments in these industries produce a variety of goods, some of which are sold to the consumer, while others are sold as inputs to the manufacture of other products.
Natural and synthetic fibers are used to produce threads and yarns—which may be woven, knitted, or pressed or otherwise bonded into fabrics—as well as rope, cordage, and twine. Coatings and finishes are applied to the fabrics to enhance the decorative patterns woven into the fabric, or to make the fabric more durable, stain-resistant, or have other properties.
Fabrics are used to make many products, including awnings, tents, carpets and rugs, as well as a variety of linens—curtains, tablecloths, towels, and sheets. However, the principal use of fabrics is to make apparel. Establishments in the apparel manufacturing industry produce many knitted clothing products, such as hosiery and socks, shirts, sweaters, and underwear. They also produce many cut-and-sew clothing items like dresses, suits, shirts, and trousers.
Industry organization. There are three individual industries covered—textile mills, textile product mills, and apparel manufacturing. Textile mills provide the raw material to make apparel and textile products. They take natural and synthetic materials, such as cotton and polyester, and transform them into fiber, yarn, and thread. Yarns are strands of fibers in a form ready for weaving, knitting, or otherwise intertwining to form a textile fabric. They form the basis for most textile production and commonly are made of cotton, wool, or a synthetic fiber such as polyester.
Yarns also can be made of thin strips of plastic, paper, or metal. To produce spun yarn, natural fibers such as cotton and wool must first be processed to remove impurities and give products the desired texture and durability, as well as other characteristics. After this initial cleaning stage, the fibers are spun into yarn. Textile mills then go on to produce fabric by means of weaving and knitting. Workers in weaving mills use complex, automated looms to transform yarns into cloth.
Looms weave or interlace two yarns, so they cross each other at right angles to form fabric. Knitting mills use automated machines to produce fabric of interlocking loops of one or more yarns. At any time during the production process, a number of processes, called finishing, may be performed on the fabric. These processes—which include dyeing, bleaching, and stonewashing, among others—may be performed by the textile mill or at a separate finishing mill. Finishing encompasses chemical or mechanical treatments performed on fiber, yarn, or fabric to improve appearance, texture, or performance.
Textile product mills convert raw textiles into finished products other than apparel. Some of the items made in this sector include household items, such as carpets and rugs, towels, curtains and sheets, cord and twine, furniture and automotive upholstery, and industrial belts and fire hoses. Because the process of converting raw fibers into finished textile products is complex, most textile mills specialize. The apparel manufacturing industry transforms fabrics produced by textile manufacturers into clothing and accessories.
The apparel industry traditionally has consisted mostly of production workers who performed the cutting and sewing functions in an assembly line. This industry remains labor-intensive, despite advances in technology and workplace practices. Although many workers still perform this work in the United States, the industry increasingly contracts out its production work to foreign suppliers to take advantage of lower labor costs in other countries.
Many of the remaining production workers work in teams. For example, sewing machine operators are organized into production "modules. Each module is responsible for its own performance, and individuals usually receive compensation based on the team's performance. Recent developments. The textile and apparel manufacturing industries are among the most labor-intensive manufacturing industries, and therefore an increasing amount of textile products is produced by foreign suppliers.
Nonetheless, some textile manufacturing still takes place in the United States. To remain competitive, however, domestic manufacturers rely on being extremely labor-efficient. Advanced machinery is boosting productivity levels in textiles and fundamentally changing the nature of work for employees. New technology also has led to increasingly technical training for workers throughout the industry. Computers and computer-controlled equipment aid in many functions, such as design, patternmaking, and cutting.
Other emerging technologies which improve plant efficiency include wider looms, computerized equipment, and increased use of robotics to move material within the plant. The domestic apparel industry also benefits from laws requiring that clothing worn by the Armed Services be produced in the United States—a law that was recently extended to cover uniforms worn by Transportation Security Administration officers.
Although demand for these uniforms is greatly outweighed by a much larger consumer goods market, it nonetheless will continue to employ some textile workers in more labor-intensive segments, such as cut-and-sew apparel manufacturing. Other domestically produced items tend to be custom or high-end items. One advantage the domestic industry has is its closeness to the market and its ability to react to changes in fashion more quickly than its foreign competitors.
Also, as retailers consolidate and become more cost conscious, they require more apparel manufacturers to move toward just-in-time delivery systems, in which purchased apparel items are quickly replaced by new items directly from the manufacturer, rather than from a large inventory kept by the retailer. Through electronic data interchange—mainly using barcodes—information is quickly communicated to the manufacturers, providing information not only on inventory, but also about the desires of the public for particular fashions.
Some apparel firms have responded to growing competition by merging with other apparel firms and by moving into the retail market. In addition to the production of garments they also are contracting out functions—for example, warehousing and order fulfillment—to concentrate on their strengths: design and marketing.
Computer-aided design systems have led to the development of "product life cycle management," under which potential new fashions can now be transmitted around the planet over the Internet. Such changes may help the apparel manufacturing industry meet the growing competition and continue to supply the Nation's consumers with garments at an acceptable cost. Most factories run 24 hours a day, causing production workers to work evenings and weekends.
Many operators work on rotating schedules, which can cause sleep disorders and other stress from constant changes in work hours. Overtime is common for these workers during periods of peak production. Managerial and administrative support personnel typically work 5-day, hour weeks in office settings, although some of these employees also may work longer hours.
Travel is an important part of the job for many managers and designers, who oversee the design and production of apparel. As more production moves abroad, foreign travel is becoming increasingly common. Work environment. Working conditions vary greatly. Production workers, including frontline managers and supervisors, spend most of their shifts on or near the production floor.
Some factories are noisy and can have airborne fibers and odors, but most modern facilities are relatively clean, well lit, and ventilated.
When appropriate, the use of protective shoes, clothing, facemasks, and earplugs is required. Also, new machinery is designed with additional protection, such as noise shields.
Still, many workers in textile production occupations must stand for long periods while bending over machinery, and noise and dust still are a problem in some plants. Apparel manufacturing operators often sit for long periods and lean over machines. New ergonomically designed chairs and machines that allow workers to stand during their operation are some of the means that firms use to minimize discomfort for production workers. Another concern for workers is injury caused by repetitive motions.
The implementation of modular units and specially designed equipment reduces such potential health problems by lessening the stress of repetitive motions. Workers sometimes are exposed to hazardous situations that could produce cuts or minor burns if proper safety practices are not observed. The movement away from traditional piecework systems in apparel manufacturing often results in a significant change in working conditions. Modular manufacturing involves teamwork, increased responsibility, and greater interaction among coworkers than on traditional assembly lines.
In , there were , wage and salary workers in the textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries. The apparel manufacturing segment, particularly cut and sew apparel manufacturing, was the largest of the three employing , workers. Most of the wage and salary workers employed in the textile mills, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries in were found in California and in the southeastern States.
California, Georgia, and North Carolina, together accounted for about 44 percent of all workers. While most apparel and textile establishments are small, employment is concentrated in mills employing 50 or more persons. The textile and apparel industries offer employment opportunities in a variety of occupations, but production occupations accounted for 66 percent of all jobs; many of which are unique to the industry table 2. Additional jobs found at the headquarters of some of these textile and apparel companies are generally classified in a separate industry.
Production occupations. As in most manufacturing industries, the process of creating finished products is broken into a number of steps. Workers in these industries usually repeat a small part of the manufacturing process, using tools and machines where needed.
This allows manufacturers to create textile products from raw materials quickly and efficiently. They use computers to lay out the parts and draw in details to indicate the position of pleats, buttonholes, and other features, making adjustments as needed for different sizes.
Extruding or forming machine operators set up and operate machines that extrude or force liquid synthetic material, such as rayon, fiberglass, or liquid polymers through small holes and draw out filaments. Other operators put natural fibers, such as cotton or wool, through carding and combing machines that clean and align them into short lengths. Textile winding, twisting, and drawing-out machine operators make yarn from this material, taking care to repair any breaks.
Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators control machines that wash, bleach, and dye yarn or finished fabrics. Textile knitting and weaving machine operators place the yarn on machines that weave, knit, loop, or tuft it.
Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders use patterns to prepare the pieces from which finished apparel will be made.
Sewing machine operators join these pieces together, reinforce seams, and attach buttons, hooks, zippers, and accessories. In some cases, hand sewers may be employed to do specialty work and make adjustments. Shoe machine operators and tenders tend machines used in making footwear. They perform a variety of functions, such as cutting, joining, and finishing. Shoe and leather workers and repairers may finish work that cannot be performed by a machine.
Others are employed in cobbler shops, where they repair shoes and other leather products, such as luggage.
Dyeing and printing are processes employed in the conversion of raw textile fibres into finished goods that add much to the appearance of textile fabrics. Most forms of textile materials can be dyed at almost any stage. Quality woollen goods are frequently dyed in the form of loose fibre , but top dyeing or cheese dyeing is favoured in treating worsteds.
The finishing department in a textile factory is in part equal in size or larger than the dye house. Most consumers of textiles know little or nothing about the textile finishing process, yet it is integral to the life of the fabric. Textile finishing is the process in treating the cloth to impart or to enhance at least one property of the fabric by introducing specialty and auxiliary chemicals. This is done by creating a finishing bath, which is similar to a dye bath by which an aqueous based formula is created for the textiles to pass through. Once the fabric passes through the finishing bath, it is then passed between two pressure rolls to extract excess liquids from the fabrics.
Dyeing and printing
The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres. Silk was introduced in China around BC, and in the middle of the 18th century AD, the first synthetic fibres were created. Silk is the only natural fibre formed in filaments which can be twisted together to make yarn. The other natural fibres must first be straightened, made parallel by combing and then drawn into a continuous yarn by spinning. The spindle is the earliest spinning tool; it was first mechanized in Europe around AD by the invention of the spinning wheel. The late 17th century saw the invention of the spinning jenny, which could operate a number of spindles simultaneously. The making of fabric had a similar history. Ever since its origins in antiquity, the hand loom has been the basic weaving machine.
From Raw Cotton to Cotton Fabrics
The Industrial Revolution played a major role in transforming the production and consumption of textiles in nineteenth-century Europe. The importance of the textile industries to the development of the factory system cannot be overestimated. Many of the major inventions of this period applied directly or indirectly to the textile industries, from the spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves in , which automated the preparation of weft threads for the loom, to the steam engine perfected by James Watt in , which was applied to the power loom. The end result was that both plain and patterned textiles could be produced more quickly and cheaply, making mass-produced fabrics for dress and furnishings available to a large portion of society. While consumers benefited from a greater variety of goods at lower costs, textile workers often suffered as the factories replaced many skilled weavers with unskilled workers at lower wages.
The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products. While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers. Goods and services.
What is Garment Dye? What It Means to Your T-Shirt
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Cotton fibre surrounds the seeds of the cotton plant. The natural properties of the cotton fibre make it easy to spin into a strong thread. Each seed is surrounded by many single cotton fibres, which look like very fine hairs. Beneath these lies a second layer of short, fuzzy fibres. These are known as linters.
Dyeing and printing
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In textile manufacturing , finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth into a usable material and more specifically to any process performed after dyeing the yarn or fabric to improve the look, performance, or "hand" feel of the finish textile or clothing. Some finishing techniques such as bleaching and dyeing are applied to yarn before it is woven while others are applied to the grey cloth directly after it is woven or knitted. In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber or fabric, it is customary to subject the material to different types of physical and chemical treatments.
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