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Manufactory commercial materials and products electrical insulating, carbon and electrometallic

Manufactory commercial materials and products electrical insulating, carbon and electrometallic

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VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Electrical Insulation Materials Manufacturer, Supplier in Bengaluru

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Electric blue vinyl wrap

This is a continuation-in-part of application U. In many applications, it is desirable to detect the presence of one or more molecular structures in a sample. The molecular structures typically comprise ligands, such as, cells, antibodies and anti-antibodies. Ligands are molecules which are recognized by a particular receptor.

Ligands may include, without limitation, agonists and antagonists for cell membrane receptors, toxins, venoms, oligo-saccharides, proteins, bacteria, and monoclonal antibodies. For example, a DNA or RNA sequence analysis is very useful in genetic and disease diagnosis, toxicology testing, genetic research, agriculture and pharmaceutical development.

Likewise, cell and antibody detection is important in disease diagnosis. A number of techniques have been developed for molecular structure detection. Autoradiography is performed using 32 P or 35 S. For DNA sequence analysis applications, nucleic acid fragments are end labeled with 32 P. These end labeled fragments are separated by size, then exposed to x-ray film for a specified amount of time. The amount of film exposure is directly related to the amount of radioactivity adjacent to a region of film.

The use of any radioactive label is associated with several disadvantages. First, prolonged exposure to radioactive elements increases the risk of acquiring genetic diseases, such as cancer.

As such, precautions must be implemented when using radioactive markers or labels to reduce the exposure to radioactivity. Typically, workers must wear a device to continually monitor radioactive exposure.

In addition, pregnant females should take additional precautions to prevent the occurrence of genetic mutations in the unborn. The conventional radioactive detection scheme has sensitivity limitations in both the temporal and spatial domains. The use of radioactive labelling currently has a spatial resolution of one millimeter.

Additional hardware and software are required to reduce the spatial resolution below one millimeter. The sensitivity of detection utilizing autoradiographic film is directly related to the amount of time during which the radioactive labelled fragments are exposed to the film. Thus, the exposure time of the film may range from hours to days, depending upon the level of radioactivity within each detection test site. Optical detection of fluorescent labelled receptors has also been utilized to detect molecular binding.

Briefly, for DNA sequence analysis applications, a base specific fluorescent dye is attached covalently to the oligonucleotide primers or to the chain terminating dideoxynucleotides used in conjunction with DNA polymerase.

The appropriate absorption wavelength for each dye is chosen and used to excite the dye. If the absorption spectra of the dyes are close to each other, a specific wavelength can be chosen to excite the entire set of dyes. A particular optical detection technique involves the use of a dye, for example, ethidium bromide, which stains duplexed nucleic acids.

The fluorescence of these dyes exhibits an approximate fold increase when it is bound to duplexed DNA or RNA, when compared to the fluorescence exhibited by unbound dye, or dye bound to single-stranded DNA.

Although the use of conventional optical detection methods increases the throughput of the sequencing experiments, the disadvantages are serious. Therefore, a need has arisen in the industry for a safe, low-cost, fast and accurate method and apparatus for detecting molecular structures at reduced complexity.

In accordance with the present invention, a method and apparatus for detecting the presence of molecular structures in predetermined test sites is provided which substantially eliminates or prevents the disadvantages and problems associated with prior devices. In an electrical embodiment of the present invention, a substance having a molecular structure is applied to a plurality of test sites, each test site having a probe formed therein capable of binding to a known molecular structure.

Electrical signals are applied to the test sites, and electrical properties of the test sites are detected to determine whether the probe has bonded hybridized to, or with, an associated molecular structure. The test sites are monolithic structures formed on, or in, semiconductor chips or wafers using very large scale integrated VSLI circuit methods.

This results in a low-cost, small-size, testing device which may be inexpensive enough to be disposable after use. Hybridized molecules can be detected, in accordance with one embodiment of the invention, by sensing the change in dissipation of a capacitor formed at the test site, or by sensing the change in AC conductance of a test site when hybridized molecules are present. Alternatively, by forming a transmission line between two electrodes at each test site, the presence of hybridized molecules can be detected by measuring the RF loss associated with the formation of hybridized molecules at the test site.

In another embodiment, micro-machined resonators are formed in each test site and the change in resonant frequency, or the change in the Quality Factor Q of the resonator, caused by formation of hybridized molecules may be measured to determine which sites contain hybridized molecules.

In an alternate optical embodiment of the invention, a charge-coupled-device CCD array is provided, with each electrode of the CCD array aligned with a respective adjacent test site. Light attenuation, caused by greater absorption of illuminating light in test sites with hybridized molecules is used to determine the sites with the hybridized molecules. The CCD array can be integrated with a corresponding test site array. Alternatively the test site array may be a separate disposable plate.

The probes within each test site are all identical, but differ from test site to test site. In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, an optical direct patterning system is used to perform localized sensitization of the microarray or localized synthesis of oligonucleotide strands at each test site to customize or differentiate each of the probe strands.

A further understanding of the nature and advantages of the invention herein may be realized with respect to the detailed description which follows and the drawings described below. A preferred embodiment of the present invention and its advantages may be understood by referring to FIGS.

As described hereinbelow, the present invention may also be used for cell detection and antibody detection or detection of any hybridized molecule. The sequencer 10 comprises an X-Y array of test sites 12 electronically addressable by conductive leads X1, X2, X3. YN on the Y-axis. X-logic circuitry 36 for sequentially addressing each X-line is coupled to detection and recognition circuitry Similar circuits 56 are coupled to the Y-lines Y1. The array 10 and X and Y logic circuitry 36 and 56 and circuitry 40 may all be implemented on a single semiconductor chip depending upon cost trade-offs.

The test sites 12, described in greater detail hereinbelow, are formed in a semiconductor wafer using semiconductor photolithographic processing techniques. Each test site contains a plurality of probes 22 See FIG. The targets could comprise, for example, biopolymers such as polynucleotides, DNA, RNA, cells, antibodies or anti-antibodies.

All the probes 22 in a given test site are identical. But, the probes in respective test sites 12 differ in a known sequence for simultaneous detection of a plurality of different targets or subsequences within a target molecule within a single array When a sample substance containing the targets in an electrolyte solution 18 is poured onto the array 10, the targets bind with associated probes 22 within a plurality of wells 42 formed in each test site After sufficient time for binding, the surface of the array 10 is rinsed to remove excess targets or other unbound molecular structures.

The remaining target structures will be, for the most part, bound to the probes attached to the microfabricated array 10 at specific test sites Each test site 12 is then interrogated electronically by the logic circuitry 36 and 56 to determine whether targets have bound in that test site. Test sites having bound targets, i. For the example of DNA sequencing, recognition circuit 40 performs a sequence analysis described in connection with FIG. Note: Circuit 40 is preferably coupled to the test sites by transistor switches not shown using row and column addressing techniques employed, for example, in addressing dynamic random access memory DRAM or active matrix liquid crystal display AMLCD devices.

The test sites 12 are preferably formed as monolithic structures on a wafer or substrate 34 preferably of single crystal Si or equivalent, such as glass, quartz, alumina etc. The leads are coupled at one end to resistors 32 formed of resistive material, such as nichrome, tungsten or platinum, located beneath each test site and at another end to X-resistor-logic circuit 38 and Y-resistor-logic circuit 58 for probe synthesis purposes to be described later. Alternatively, resistors 32 may be formed of deposited doped polysilicon, tungsten or tantalum or platinum silicides, nitrides or oxynitrides, by well-known techniques, such as chemical vapor deposition CVD , molecular beam epitaxy MBE , metal organic CVD MOCVD or similar semiconductor process.

Referring to FIGS. It should be understood that many more, i. The precursor structure shown in the sectional view of FIG. First, openings 54, about 2 microns wide, are formed in Si 3 N 4 layer 28 by photolithography and reactive ion etching FIG. Note that the lateral edges of the remaining Si 3 N 4 film 28 serve as a precise self-aligning mask for defining the width of the fingers of lower electrode 20, thereby enabling close spacing between the upper and lower electrodes without shorting.

Hence, the well sites can be tested at low applied voltages. Most importantly, the spacing between the upper and lower electrodes is of the order of the length or diameter in solution of the target DNA molecule. Therefore, the ratio of the target DNA to solvent in the interelectrode space is high, thereby giving greatest sensitivity to the presence or absence of the target DNA during an electrical measurement.

The length of the electrode fingers, as shown in FIG. The interdigitated design packs a lot of electrode periphery and sample volume in a small area on the wafer. Its ratio of "sample" capacitance to parasitic capacitance caused by leads coming to the site is high. Referring now to the schematic sectioned sequence views of FIGS. The SiO 2 film is etched to form an array of 2 micron wide wells 54 periodically spaced from one another by 2 microns FIG. Photolithography and reactive ion etching to a depth of about 0.

The regions of film 51 at the bottom of the well and on the top surfaces is etched away by reactive ion etching FIG. In FIG. This texturing increases the surface area of a given site, allowing more probes to be attached for greater sensitivity. The sensor array 10 described in FIGS. In a decoding test, a large number of relatively short oligonucleotide strands probes 22 are grown or placed in each test site 12, such that one end of the strand is attached to one or more surfaces of the site.

The coding sequence of all the strands in a given site 12 is known and is identical, and the coding sequence of each site is different and unique in the array. A solution 18 containing long strands of unknown target DNA is then washed across the chip.

Ideally, the unknown DNA bonds tightly to the oligonucleotide strands 22 in any site that contains the complement to a portion of its own code sequence, but in no other well. Practically, some weakly bound target mismatches may occur, but these can be alleviated by rinsing the well with an appropriate solution at an appropriate ion concentration and temperature. Consequently, after a rinse, a number of the wells in the array will contain a significant amount of this bonded or hybridized DNA, and the rest will contain only the original oligonucleotide strands in an aqueous solution.

The wells are then interrogated electrically in sequence using the electrodes 16 and 20 in each site. The sites that contain hybridized DNA are recorded. For example, sites without hybridized DNA will have different electrical properties than those with hybridized DNA and will not be recorded. From this data base, a computer "overlapping" or "neural network" algorithm in circuit 40 reconstructs the entire coding sequence of the unknown DNA. Note: Depending upon the particular samples measured, the curves of FIG.

The dissipation factor at each test site is measured by well-known instrumentation such as an LCR meter in circuit The meter is successively coupled to each site 12 via logic circuits 36 and At the relaxation frequency of a given DNA molecule, the AC conductance should be as much as times or more larger than the conductance when no DNA is present.

Emerging nanotechnologies for manufacturing

This is a continuation-in-part of application U. In many applications, it is desirable to detect the presence of one or more molecular structures in a sample. The molecular structures typically comprise ligands, such as, cells, antibodies and anti-antibodies. Ligands are molecules which are recognized by a particular receptor.

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Electroslag Technology

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6 Pipe Hanger

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Sino Group Co.

- В этом все и. - Мидж… - Доброй ночи, Чед.  - Она направилась к двери.

ELECTROMETAL TRADING COMPANY SRL

Поссорились. На мгновение Беккер задумался. Потом изобразил смущенную улыбку. - Неужели это так заметно.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Electrical Conductivity - #aumsum

Я ищу одного человека. - Знать ничего не знаю. - Не знаю, о ком вы говорите, - поправил его Беккер, подзывая проходившую мимо официантку. Он купил две бутылки пива и протянул одну Двухцветному. Панк изумленно взглянул на бутылку, потом отпил изрядный глоток и тупо уставился на Беккера.

Emerging nanotechnologies for manufacturing

Криптографы редко запирали свои компьютеры, разве что покидая Третий узел на ночь. Обычно они лишь уменьшали их яркость; кодекс чести гарантировал, что никто в их отсутствие к терминалу не прикоснется. К черту кодекс чести, - сказала она.  - Посмотрим, чем ты тут занимаешься. Окинув быстрым взглядом находящееся за стеклом помещение шифровалки, Сьюзан включила кнопку яркости.

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ГЛАВА 97 Фонтейн стремительно вбежал в комнату для заседаний. Бринкерхофф и Мидж последовали за. - Смотрите! - сдавленным голосом сказала Мидж, махнув рукой в сторону окна. Фонтейн посмотрел на вспышки огней в куполе шифровалки.

Глаза его расширились.

Кругом стояла тишина, и эту тишину вдруг нарушил чей-то голос. Кто-то звал. Он попытался оторвать голову от пола.

Он молился не об избавлении от смерти - в чудеса он не верил; он молился о том, чтобы женщина, от которой был так далеко, нашла в себе силы, чтобы ни на мгновение не усомнилась в его любви. Он закрыл глаза, и воспоминания хлынули бурным потоком.

Он вспомнил факультетские заседания, лекции - все то, что заполняло девяносто процентов его жизни. Вспомнил о Сьюзан.

Он понимал, что пуля лишь слегка оцарапала жертву, не причинив существенного ущерба, тем не менее она сделала свое .

Живший в ее сознании герой умер, превратился в убийцу. Его руки внезапно снова потянулись к ней в отчаянном порыве. Он целовал ее щеки. - Прости меня, - умолял .

Правильно ли она поняла. Все сказанное было вполне в духе Грега Хейла. Но это невозможно. Если бы Хейлу был известен план Стратмора выпустить модифицированную версию Цифровой крепости, он дождался бы, когда ею начнет пользоваться весь мир, и только тогда взорвал бы свою бомбу, пока все доказательства были бы в его руках.

Сьюзан представила себе газетный заголовок: КРИПТОГРАФ ГРЕГ ХЕЙЛ РАСКРЫВАЕТ СЕКРЕТНЫЙ ПЛАН ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВА ВЗЯТЬ ПОД КОНТРОЛЬ ГЛОБАЛЬНУЮ ИНФОРМАЦИЮ.

Хорошо бы помедленнее. Беккеру не хотелось так быстро уходить от алтаря, но когда две тысячи людей ждут причастия, а обслуживают их всего восемь священнослужителей, было бы неприличным медлить с этим священным глотком. Чаша была уже совсем близко, когда Халохот заметил человека в пиджаке и брюках разного цвета. - Estas ya muerto, - тихо прошептал он, двигаясь по центральному проходу.

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  1. Faegrel

    Very useful question