Manufacture industry finished cotton fabrics and piece goods
The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products. While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers. Goods and services. The establishments in these industries produce a variety of goods, some of which are sold to the consumer, while others are sold as inputs to the manufacture of other products.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Production process
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Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn.
Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products.
Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year , the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. There are six stages: . Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity.
Indian cotton, Gossypium arboreum , is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing. American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , produces the longer staple needed for machine production.
The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers that remove the entire boll from the plant. The cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton plant; attached to each of the thousands of seeds are fibres about 2. Scutching refers to the process of cleaning cotton of its seeds and other impurities. The first scutching machine was invented in , but did not come into further mainstream use until after or , when it was introduced and used in Manchester, England.
By , it had become generally adopted. The scutching machine worked by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, and then striking it with iron or steel bars called beater bars or beaters.
The beaters, which turn very quickly, strike the cotton hard and knock the seeds out. This process is done over a series of parallel bars so as to allow the seeds to fall through. At the same time, air is blown across the bars, which carries the cotton into a cotton chamber. The weaving process uses a loom. The lengthway threads are known as the warp , and the cross way threads are known as the weft. The warp, which must be strong, needs to be presented to loom on a warp beam.
The weft passes across the loom in a shuttle , that carries the yarn on a pirn. These pirns are automatically changed by the loom. Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto pirns before weaving can commence. When a hand loom was located in the home, children helped with the weaving process from an early age. Piecing needs dexterity, and a child can be as productive as an adult. When weaving moves from the home to the mill, children are often allowed to help their older sisters, and laws have to be made to prevent child labour becoming established.
Knitting by machine is done in two different ways; warp and weft. Weft knitting as seen in the pictures is similar in method to hand knitting with stitches all connected to each other horizontally. Various weft machines can be configured to produce textiles from a single spool of yarn or multiple spools depending on the size of the machine cylinder where the needles are bedded.
In a warp knit there are many pieces of yarn and there are vertical chains, zigzagged together by crossing the cotton yarn. Warp knits do not stretch as much as a weft knit, and it is run-resistant. A weft knit is not run-resistant, but stretches more.
This is especially true if spools of spandex are processed from separate spool containers and interwoven through the cylinder with cotton yarn, giving the finished product more flexibility and making it less prone to having a 'baggy' appearance. The average t-shirt is a weft knit. The woven cotton fabric in its loom-state not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential.
Furthermore, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes. Production of cotton requires arable land. Native Indian varieties of cotton were rainwater fed, but modern hybrids used for the mills need irrigation, which spreads pests. The consumption of energy in form of water and electricity is relatively high, especially in processes like washing, de-sizing, bleaching, rinsing, dyeing, printing, coating and finishing.
Processing is time consuming. The major portion of water in textile industry is used for wet processing of textile 70 per cent. Approximately 25 per cent of energy in the total textile production like fibre production, spinning, twisting, weaving, knitting, clothing manufacturing etc.
About 34 per cent of energy is consumed in spinning, 23 per cent in weaving, 38 per cent in chemical wet processing and five per cent in miscellaneous processes. Power dominates consumption pattern in spinning and weaving, while thermal energy is the major factor for chemical wet processing.
However, due to carbon emissions from fertiliser application, use of mechanized tools to harvest the cotton, The growth of cotton is divided into two segments i. Genetically modified products aim to increase disease resistance and reduce the water required. Before mechanisation, cotton was harvested manually by farmers in India and by African slaves in America. In Uzbekistan was a major exporter of cotton and uses manual labour during the harvest. Human rights groups claim that health care professionals and children are forced to pick cotton.
Flax is a bast fibre , which means it comes in bundles under the bark of the Linum usitatissimum plant. The plant flowers and is harvested. It is now treated like cotton. Jute is a bast fibre , which comes from the inner bark of the plants of the Corchorus genus. It is retted like flax, sundried and baled. When spinning a small amount of oil must be added to the fibre. It can be bleached and dyed.
It was used for sacks and bags but is now used for the backing for carpets. In the s, jute-cotton composite fabrics were known as jutton fabrics. Hemp is a bast fibre from the inner bark of Cannabis sativa. It is difficult to bleach, it is used for making cord and rope. These bast fibres can also be used: kenaf , urena , ramie , nettle. Wool comes from domesticated sheep. It forms two products, woolens and worsteds. The sheep has two sorts of wool and it is the inner coat that is used.
This can be mixed with wool that has been recovered from rags. Shoddy is the term for recovered wool that is not matted, while mungo comes from felted wool. The fleece is cut in one piece from the sheep. This is then skirted to remove the soiled wool, and baled. It is graded into long wool where the fibres can be up to 15 in, but anything over 2. Fibres less than that form short wool and are described as clothing or carding wool. At the mill the wool is scoured in a detergent to remove grease the yolk and impurities.
This is done mechanically in the opening machine. Vegetable matter can be removed chemically using sulphuric acid carbonising. Washing uses a solution of soap and sodium carbonate. The wool is oiled before carding or combing. The processes in silk production are similar to those of cotton but take account that reeled silk is a continuous fibre. The terms used are different.
Both wool and silk require farmland. Whereas silkworms require mulberry leaves, sheep eat grass, clover, forbs and other pasture plants. Sheep, like all ruminants emit CO2 via their digestive system. Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive development by scientists to improve upon the naturally occurring animal and plant fibres. In general, synthetic fibres are created by forcing, or extruding , fibre forming materials through holes called spinnerets into the air, thus forming a thread.
Before synthetic fibres were developed, cellulose fibres were made from natural cellulose , which comes from plants. The first artificial fibre, known as art silk from onwards, became known as viscose around , and finally rayon in A similar product known as cellulose acetate was discovered in Rayon and acetate are both artificial fibres, but not truly synthetic, being made from wood.
Although these artificial fibres were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century, successful modern manufacture began much later in the s. Nylon , the first synthetic fibre, made its debut in the United States as a replacement for silk , and was used for parachutes and other military uses. The techniques used to process these fibres in yarn are essentially the same as with natural fibres, modifications have to be made as these fibres are of great length, and have no texture such as the scales in cotton and wool that aid meshing.
Unlike natural fibres, produced by plants, animals or insects, synthetic fibres are made from fossil fuels , and thus require no farmland. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods. Main article: Textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution. Main article: Carding.
Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth.
See, which brands obtain and sell their products. Imagine you could identify manufacturers based on their proven specialization and their former customers. Learn how to find your most suitable manufacturers for cotton fabric within minutes! This list is based on verified inside information about suppliers worldwide and can not be falsified. Find reliable cotton fabric manufacturers based on verified information. Top Products. Top Clients. Share if you like my content!
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn , cloth and clothing. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. It's outputs are- Denim ,cotton cloth etc. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre.
В кромешной тьме вокруг ей виделись чьи-то лица.
Девушка с сумкой была уже на улице. - Меган! - завопил он, грохнувшись на пол. Острые раскаленные иглы впились в глазницы.
Aeropuerto? - повторил человек, внимательно следя за движением губ Двухцветного в зеркале. - Панк кивнул. - Tenia el anillo.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How Old Clothes Can Become New Clothes - Textile Recycling ♻️
Черный ход представлял собой несколько строк хитроумной программы, которые вставил в алгоритм коммандер Стратмор. Они были вмонтированы так хитро, что никто, кроме Грега Хейла, их не заметил, и практически означали, что любой код, созданный с помощью Попрыгунчика, может быть взломан секретным паролем, известным только АНБ.
Стратмору едва не удалось сделать предлагаемый стандарт шифрования величайшим достижением АНБ: если бы он был принят, у агентства появился бы ключ для взлома любого шифра в Америке.
Люди, знающие толк в компьютерах, пришли в неистовство. Фонд электронных границ, воспользовавшись вспыхнувшим скандалом, поносил конгресс за проявленную наивность и назвал АНБ величайшей угрозой свободному миру со времен Гитлера.
Вторжение по всем секторам. Сьюзан двигалась как во сне. Подойдя к компьютеру Джаббы, она подняла глаза и увидела своего любимого человека. Его голос гремел: - Три.
Разница между 238 и 235 - три. Все подняли головы. - Три! - крикнула Сьюзан, перекрывая оглушающую какофонию сирен и чьих-то голосов.
- Посмотрим, что у них. Соши начала просматривать документ. Ей попалось описание нитрата мочевины, в десять раз более мощной взрывчатки, чем динамит. Инструкция по ее изготовлению была проста, как рецепт приготовления жженого сахара.
- Плутоний и уран, - повторял Джабба.
Пройдемте с нами, пожалуйста. Сюда. В этой встрече было что-то нереальное - нечто, заставившее снова напрячься все его нервные клетки. Он поймал себя на том, что непроизвольно пятится от незнакомцев.
Сьюзан высвободилась из рук обмякшего Хейла, не понимая, что произошло. Стратмор подхватил ее и слегка обнял, пытаясь успокоить. - Ш-ш-ш, - утешал он. - Это .
Есть различие, которое мы все время упускаем.
Глаза ее были полны слез. - Прости меня, Дэвид, - прошептала. - Я… я не могу. Дэвид даже вздрогнул. Он смотрел в ее глаза, надеясь увидеть в них насмешливые искорки.
Последний из трех миллионов процессоров размером с почтовую марку занял свое место, все программное обеспечение было установлено, и керамическая оболочка наглухо заделана. ТРАНСТЕКСТ появился на свет. Хотя создававшийся в обстановке повышенной секретности ТРАНСТЕКСТ стал плодом усилий многих умов и принцип его работы не был доступен ни одному человеку в отдельности, он, в сущности, был довольно прост: множество рук делают груз легким. Три миллиона процессоров работали параллельно - считая с неимоверной скоростью, перебирая все мыслимые комбинации символов.
Надежда возлагалась на то, что шифры даже с самыми длинными ключами не устоят перед исключительной настойчивостью ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Этот многомиллиардный шедевр использовал преимущество параллельной обработки данных, а также некоторые секретные достижения в оценке открытого текста для определения возможных ключей и взламывания шифров.
Дэвид, - сказал наконец Стратмор мрачным голосом, - обнаружение этого кольца - вопрос национальной безопасности. Я возлагаю эту задачу на. Не подведите .