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Produce industry wine materials

Produce industry wine materials

Wine making has been around for thousands of years. It is not only an art but also a science. Wine making is a natural process that requires little human intervention, but each wine maker guides the process through different techniques. In general, there are five basic components of the wine making process: harvesting, crushing and pressing, fermentation, clarification, and aging and bottling.

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5 Stages of the Wine Making Process

Making fruit wines can be economically rewarding. A certain segment of the population enjoys these wines. A winemaker can produce high quality fruit wines as a specialty product and benefit from this existing niche in the marketplace. Compared to grape wines most of the fruit wines take less time to process and, therefore; the capital is tied up for a shorter period of time.

This translates into a quicker return on invested capital. Fruit wines can also be made during a less busy time after grape harvest of the year, thus permitting efficient use of winery facilities. Sometimes a decision to make a fruit wine is made because surplus fruit is available at a very attractive price. Often in such cases, the fruit quality is poor and the appeal of low prices can induce a winemaker to produce mediocre wine that he or she would not otherwise make if the price were not so cheap.

Although the price of the raw material is an important consideration, it should not be the sole criteria. Remember that the cost of the raw material is a small portion of the total cost, and devoting valuable resources to produce a poor to mediocre product amounts to underutilization or even misuse of precious resources. The important point is that the choice of making fruit wine should be based on sound business reasons.

There are a variety of fruits suited to making a good quality wine. The fruits commonly used for making wine are: Apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry and blueberry.

The choice of fruit depends upon several factors. These include: market demand, availability of raw material, production facilities, and sound economic reasons. In Missouri, apple, cherry and berry wines are commercially produced and, therefore; these production techniques merit some discussion.

This article deals with apple wine. In the next issue we will discuss wines from other fruit. Raw material-Generally, locally grown apples which are in surplus after meeting fresh market demands are used for making juice and wine. It is important that the fruit be sound, i. Unripe or immature fruit should not be used since it is high in starch, acid, and astringency; and low in sugar and flavor. On the other hand, overly mature fruit can be low in fresh and fruity flavor, difficult to process and also difficult to clarify.

Many apple varieties can be used for making wine. Generally the choice is largely governed by locally available fruit. The amount of fruit constituents such as sugars, acids, phenolic compounds, color and flavor vary considerably among the apple varieties. It can be difficult to obtain a single variety which would contain all of the important constituents in an ideal proportion.

For this reason a combination of varieties should be used to obtain the most desirable composition in the juice and wine. To achieve a good blend it is necessary to know the fruit composition of locally available varieties. Once this information is known, blending can be done to obtain desired results.

For example, Mcintosh and Golden and Red Delicious varieties are considered rich in aroma, crabapples are relatively more astringent, and varieties such as Jonathan, Northern Spy, Winesap and Baldwin usually have good acid levels. Combining aromatic and moderately acidic varieties in a blend is more likely to yield a pleasing wine. Instead of processing apples, one can buy cider to make wine. In such a situation great attention must be paid to obtain only high quality juice.

The cider must not be made of immature, inferior, or decayed fruit. It should have a rich apple flavor, good color and sugar, and astringent compounds in proper proportion.

Sometimes fruit concentrate is used for wine production. The concentrate is easy to store, requires less space, and can be processed when the winery operation is less busy or slow. When using concentrate, only high quality concentrate with good apple flavor should be used. The apple aroma of the juice from concentrate can be enhanced by blending it with fresh apple juice. Production of superior wine requires a proper balance among the various fruit constituents.

A good understanding of these fruit constituents is essential in order to produce a high quality product. Apples consist of water and many soluble constituents such as sugars and other carbohydrates, acids, nitrogenous compounds, minerals, astringent substances, color and flavor constituents.

Water- Water is the largest component of fruit. It affects the soluble solids content of the juice. Many factors influence the amount of water present in fruit at harvest. Carbohydrates -Sugars are the main carbohydrate material in apples. The predominant sugars include fructose, sucrose and glucose. Lott determined the sugar contents in 15 apple varieties in Illinois. The results are shown in Table 1. Table 1. Fructose, glucose and sucrose content of some apple varieties at optimum maturity.

Percent of fresh weight. The balance of the sugar consists of sucrose and glucose. The sugar content of the fruit varies with the variety and is also influenced by other factors, such as location and cultural practices. Starch- The unripe fruit contains starch which is often called storage sugar.

As the fruit matures the starch is hydrolyzed into sugars. During ripening the starch content rapidly declines and at harvest very little, if any, starch may be present in the fruit. The presence of starch can contribute to the problem of clarification and filtration during processing. Pectic substances -Pectic substances are complex colloidal carbohydrate derivatives containing large proportions of anhydrogalacturonic acid units. Protopectin refers to the water insoluble parent pectic material that acts as a cementing agent, holding cells together.

During ripening the protopectin is hydrolyzedto soluble pectinic acid and pectin which in part contributes to the softening of the fruit. The pectic substances are capable of forming gels. They contribute to the viscosity or body of the juice and often cause cloudiness, thus making the juice difficult to clarify.

Pectin splitting enzymes are used to help with juice clarification. Organic Acids- Many organic acids are found in apples. These include: malic, citric, quinic glycolic, succinic, lactic, galacturonic and citramalic. Malic acid is the principal acid and citric and other acids are present in trace amounts.

Table 2 lists the malic acid content of several apple varieties. Table 2. Acid content of apples. Source: Joslyn The acids are present as free or combined forms. The acidity is often expressed in terms of percent malic acid. The amount of acid varies with variety, maturity, location, and other conditions. Acidity is related to pH and high acidity is often associated with low pH and vice versa. During ripening the titratable acidity declines and the pH rises.

Several studies have reported the malic acid content and the pH of the juice in apples. Table 3 shows the results of fruit composition reported by Clague and Feller Table 3. Composition of some New England varieties used for apple juice. Source: Claque and Fellers The acid composition and pH of the juice are important considerations in winemaking. The acid content has an important bearing on taste, pH, fermentation, color, and stability of the wine.

Volatile aroma compounds-Rich and complex apple aroma is crucial to the quality of apple wine. The aroma bearing constituents are present in small amounts about 50 ppm and can be easily lost during processing. To preserve the apple flavor the fruit must be processed with great care. Many constituents contribute to typical apple aroma. They belong to several classes of chemical compounds such as alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds, and others.

White reported the important constituents of apple flavor which are listed in Table 4. Table 4. Constituents of apple flavor. Source: White In recent years many other aroma constituents have been isolated from several apple varieties. For example in Delicious apples the ripe aroma has been attributed to the presences of ethylmethyl butyrate.

The green and unripe odor is considered to be due to hexenal and 2-hexenal. It is important to note that certain aroma compounds can be present in small amounts and yet can exert great influence on the flavor. Astringent compounds- The astringent compounds in apples include phenolic substances and tannin. These constituents are responsible for astringency of flavor and darkening of color when sliced fruit or juice is exposed to air. The amount of phenolic substances in fruit varies with variety, maturity, location, and season.

Generally they are present in the range of 0. The kinds of phenolic compounds present have been investigated by several workers. Hulme reported the following phenolic compounds in apple: leucoanthocyans, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid, quinic acid, shikimic acid, P coumaryl quinic acid, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin and quercetinxyloside.

Red Wine Production

NCBI Bookshelf. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. Fermentation occurs in nature in any sugar-containing mash from fruit, berries, honey, or sap tapped from palms. If left exposed in a warm atmosphere, airborne yeasts act on the sugar to convert it into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

The basic procedure of red wine production is outlined in the diagram. An important point in making red wine is that the fermenting must consists of juice skins and seeds.

Wine is produced in areas where grape, tree fruit or berries grow. The alcohol in wine creates demand for the product. Wine production began about 8, year ago. Today 60 countries produce over billion gallons of wine a year. The United States produced over million gallons of wine in

Apple Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced through the partial or total fermentation of grapes. Other fruits and plants, such as berries, apples, cherries, dandelions, elder-berries, palm, and rice can also be fermented. Grapes belong to the botanical family vitaceae, of which there are many species. The species that are most widely used in wine production are Vitis labrusca and, especially, Vitis vinifera, which has long been the most widely used wine grape throughout the world. The theory that wine was discovered by accident is most likely correct because wine grapes contain all the necessary ingredients for wine, including pulp, juice, and seeds that possess all the acids, sugars, tannins, minerals, and vitamins that are found in wine. As a natural process, the frosty-looking skin of the grape, called "bloom," catches the airborne yeast and enzymes that ferment the juice of the grape into wine. The cultivation of wine grapes for the production of wine is called "viticulture. Wine can be made in the home and in small-, medium- or large-sized wineries by using similar methods. Wine is made in a variety of flavors, with varying degrees of sweetness or dryness as well as alcoholic strength and quality.


Making fruit wines can be economically rewarding. A certain segment of the population enjoys these wines. A winemaker can produce high quality fruit wines as a specialty product and benefit from this existing niche in the marketplace. Compared to grape wines most of the fruit wines take less time to process and, therefore; the capital is tied up for a shorter period of time.

Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine , starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol , and the bottling of the finished liquid. The history of wine -making stretches over millennia.

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Nov 14, - Harvesting is the first step in the wine making process and an important part of ensuring delicious wine. Grapes are the only fruit that have the.

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