Production spun silk products
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CN104862844A - Method for producing spun silk and yakwool blended yarn - Google Patents
Silk is a natural protein fiber , some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism -like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles , thus producing different colors.
Silk is produced by several insects; but, generally, only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing. There has been some research into other types of silk, which differ at the molecular level. Several kinds of wild silk , produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm, have been known and spun in China , South Asia , and Europe since ancient times.
However, the scale of production was always far smaller than for cultivated silks. There are several reasons for this: first, they differ from the domesticated varieties in colour and texture and are therefore less uniform; second, cocoons gathered in the wild have usually had the pupa emerge from them before being discovered so the silk thread that makes up the cocoon has been torn into shorter lengths; and third, many wild cocoons are covered in a mineral layer that prevents attempts to reel from them long strands of silk.
Some natural silk structures have been used without being unwound or spun. Spider webs were used as a wound dressing in ancient Greece and Rome,  and as a base for painting from the 16th century. Commercial silks originate from reared silkworm pupae, which are bred to produce a white-colored silk thread with no mineral on the surface. The pupae are killed by either dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge or by piercing them with a needle.
These factors all contribute to the ability of the whole cocoon to be unravelled as one continuous thread, permitting a much stronger cloth to be woven from the silk. Wild silks also tend to be more difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm. Silk was first developed in ancient China. Silks were originally reserved for the Emperors of China for their own use and gifts to others, but spread gradually through Chinese culture and trade both geographically and socially, and then to many regions of Asia.
Because of its texture and lustre, silk rapidly became a popular luxury fabric in the many areas accessible to Chinese merchants. Silk was in great demand, and became a staple of pre- industrial international trade. In July , archaeologists discovered intricately woven and dyed silk textiles in a tomb in Jiangxi province, dated to the Eastern Zhou dynasty roughly 2, years ago.
There is a surviving calendar for silk production in an Eastern Han 25— AD document. The two other known works on silk from the Han period are lost. This trade was so extensive that the major set of trade routes between Europe and Asia came to be known as the Silk Road.
The Emperors of China strove to keep knowledge of sericulture secret to maintain the Chinese monopoly. In the ancient era, silk from China was the most lucrative and sought-after luxury item traded across the Eurasian continent,  and many civilizations, such as the ancient Persians, benefited economically from trade.
Silk has a long history in India. It is known as Resham in eastern and north India, and Pattu in southern parts of India.
Recent archaeological discoveries in Harappa and Chanhu-daro suggest that sericulture , employing wild silk threads from native silkworm species, existed in South Asia during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization now in Pakistan dating between BC and BC, while "hard and fast evidence" for silk production in China dates back to around BC.
India is the second largest producer of silk in the world after China. Hyderabad , Andhra Pradesh , and Gobichettipalayam , Tamil Nadu , were the first locations to have automated silk reeling units in India.
India is also the largest consumer of silk in the world. The tradition of wearing silk sarees for marriages and other auspicious ceremonies is a custom in Assam and southern parts of India. Silk is considered to be a symbol of royalty, and, historically, silk was used primarily by the upper classes.
Silk garments and sarees produced in Kanchipuram , Pochampally , Dharmavaram , Mysore , Arani in the south, Banaras in the north, Bhagalpur and Murshidabad in the east are well recognized. In the northeastern state of Assam , three different types of silk are produced, collectively called Assam silk : Muga, Eri and Pat silk. Muga, the golden silk, and Eri are produced by silkworms that are native only to Assam.
Silk is produced year-round in Thailand by two types of silkworms, the cultured Bombycidae and wild Saturniidae. Most production is after the rice harvest in the southern and northeastern parts of the country. Women traditionally weave silk on hand looms and pass the skill on to their daughters, as weaving is considered to be a sign of maturity and eligibility for marriage.
Thai silk textiles often use complicated patterns in various colours and styles. Most regions of Thailand have their own typical silks. A single thread filament is too thin to use on its own so women combine many threads to produce a thicker, usable fiber. They do this by hand-reeling the threads onto a wooden spindle to produce a uniform strand of raw silk.
The process takes around 40 hours to produce a half kilogram of silk. Many local operations use a reeling machine for this task, but some silk threads are still hand-reeled. The difference is that hand-reeled threads produce three grades of silk: two fine grades that are ideal for lightweight fabrics, and a thick grade for heavier material.
The silk fabric is soaked in extremely cold water and bleached before dyeing to remove the natural yellow coloring of Thai silk yarn. To do this, skeins of silk thread are immersed in large tubs of hydrogen peroxide. Once washed and dried, the silk is woven on a traditional hand-operated loom. The Rajshahi Division of northern Bangladesh is the hub of the country's silk industry.
There are three types of silk produced in the region: mulberry, endi and tassar. Bengali silk was a major item of international trade for centuries. It was known as Ganges silk in medieval Europe. Bengal was the leading exporter of silk between the 16th and 19th centuries. In the Odyssey , Aristotle wrote of Coa vestis , a wild silk textile from Kos. Sea silk from certain large sea shells was also valued. The Roman Empire knew of and traded in silk, and Chinese silk was the most highly priced luxury good imported by them.
Legend has it that monks working for the emperor Justinian I smuggled silkworm eggs to Constantinople in hollow canes from China. All top-quality looms and weavers were located inside the Great Palace complex in Constantinople, and the cloth produced was used in imperial robes or in diplomacy, as gifts to foreign dignitaries.
The remainder was sold at very high prices. In Islamic teachings, Muslim men are forbidden to wear silk. Many religious jurists believe the reasoning behind the prohibition lies in avoiding clothing for men that can be considered feminine or extravagant.
Modern attire has raised a number of issues, including, for instance, the permissibility of wearing silk neckties , which are masculine articles of clothing. Italy was the most important producer of silk during the Medieval age. The first center to introduce silk production to Italy was the city of Catanzaro during the 11th century in the region of Calabria.
The silk of Catanzaro supplied almost all of Europe and was sold in a large market fair in the port of Reggio Calabria , to Spanish, Venetian, Genovese and Dutch merchants.
Catanzaro became the lace capital of the world with a large silkworm breeding facility that produced all the laces and linens used in the Vatican. The city was world-famous for its fine fabrication of silks, velvets, damasks and brocades. Another notable center was the Italian city-state of Lucca which largely financed itself through silk-production and silk-trading, beginning in the 12th century. Other Italian cities involved in silk production were Genoa , Venice and Florence.
The Silk Exchange in Valencia from the 15th century—where previously in also perxal percale was traded as some kind of silk—illustrates the power and wealth of one of the great Mediterranean mercantile cities. Silk was produced in and exported from the province of Granada , Spain, especially the Alpujarras region, until the Moriscos , whose industry it was, were expelled from Granada in Since the 15th century, silk production in France has been centered around the city of Lyon where many mechanic tools for mass production were first introduced in the 17th century.
James I attempted to establish silk production in England, purchasing and planting , mulberry trees, some on land adjacent to Hampton Court Palace , but they were of a species unsuited to the silk worms, and the attempt failed. In John Guardivaglio set up a silk throwing enterprise at Logwood mill in Stockport ; in , Burton Mill was erected in Macclesfield ; and in Old Mill was built in Congleton. British enterprise also established silk filature in Cyprus in In England in the midth century, raw silk was produced at Lullingstone Castle in Kent.
The necktie originates from the cravat , a neckband made from silk   . Wild silk taken from the nests of native caterpillars was used by the Aztecs to make containers and as paper.
Silk production for local consumption has continued until the present day, sometimes spinning wild silk. King James I introduced silk-growing to the British colonies in America around , ostensibly to discourage tobacco planting.
The Shakers in Kentucky adopted the practice. The history of industrial silk in the United States is largely tied to several smaller urban centers in the Northeast region. Beginning in the s, Manchester, Connecticut emerged as the early center of the silk industry in America, when the Cheney Brothers became the first in the United States to properly raise silkworms on an industrial scale; today the Cheney Brothers Historic District showcases their former mills.
This economy particularly gained traction in the vicinity of Northampton, Massachusetts and its neighboring Williamsburg , where a number of small firms and cooperatives emerged. Among the most prominent of these was the cooperative utopian Northampton Association for Education and Industry, of which Sojourner Truth was a member.
Over the next 50 years he and his sons would maintain relations between the American silk industry and its counterparts in Japan,  and expanded their business to the point that by , the Skinner Mill complex contained the largest silk mill under one roof in the world, and the brand Skinner Fabrics had become the largest manufacturer of silk satins internationally. World War II interrupted the silk trade from Asia, and silk prices increased dramatically.
Synthetic silks have also been made from lyocell , a type of cellulose fiber, and are often difficult to distinguish from real silk see spider silk for more on synthetic silks.
In Terengganu , which is now part of Malaysia , a second generation of silkworm was being imported as early as for the country's silk textile industry, especially songket. The process of silk production is known as sericulture. Extracting raw silk starts by cultivating the silkworms on mulberry leaves. Once the worms start pupating in their cocoons, these are dissolved in boiling water in order for individual long fibres to be extracted and fed into the spinning reel.
It takes about silkworms to make a pure silk kimono. The environmental impact of silk production is potentially large when compared with other natural fibers.
A life cycle assessment of Indian silk production shows that the production process has a large carbon and water footprint, mainly due to the fact that it is an animal-derived fiber and more inputs such as fertilizer and water are needed per unit of fiber produced. The fibroin-heavy chain is composed mostly of beta-sheets , due to a mer amino acid repeat sequence with some variations.
The cross-section from other silkworms can vary in shape and diameter: crescent-like for Anaphe and elongated wedge for tussah. Silkworm fibers are naturally extruded from two silkworm glands as a pair of primary filaments brin , which are stuck together, with sericin proteins that act like glue , to form a bave.
Pink Letter Print Woven Shanghai Spun Silk Fabric
Otex, yarn twist factor in the control , the area draw ratio of 1. The invention relates to a method for producing spun silk and yakwool blended yarn. The spun silk and yakwool blended yarn comprises 50 percent to 60 percent of spun silk fibers and 40 percent to 50 percent of yakwool fibers. In the production process, the yakwool fibers and silk fibers are slivered through a wool spinning system and a silk spinning system respectively, then the two kinds of fibers are mixed in a cotton spinning system in a single fiber state, the cotton spinning system is used for spinning, and needed blended spun yarn is obtained.
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In addition to our sustainable and eco-friendly raw material acquisition, our production process is waste-free as all by-products and waste-water are fully recycled. To comply with our extreme user-concern policy, we carefully extract silk fibre and fabricate them to form smooth, lightweight but durable, and lustrous texture that surpasses any other spun silk. Unlike traditional reeled silk, our spun silk provides a softer hand-feeling, better temperature adjusting, excellent draping, and easier handling, all of which are the features that make our spun silk a perfect choice for all types of clothing and many other applications. With the anti-bacterial and allergen-free nature of silk, our spun silk is, without a doubt, the most comfortable apparel to wear next to the skin. Our main products include: Spun Silk Yarn: natural coloured spun silk yarn with custom sizes ranging from 0. The versatile nature of our products makes them suitable for both knitting and weaving. Their extensive applications include first class fabrics, especially for light-weight blouses, neckties, scarves, handkerchiefs, underwear, Japanese kimonos and Indian saris. Silk Blended Yarn: spun silk fibre mixes very well with almost everything natural and synthetic fibre and can blend with any materials of your choice to achieve the characteristics you desire.
Check your messeages on Messeage Center , the supplier willcontacts you soon. Zhejiang Longxin Silk Products Co. Trade Assurance The supplier supports Trade Assurance — A free service that protects your orders from payment to delivery. Gold Supplier Gold Supplier is a premium membership for suppliers on Alibaba. Members are provided with comprehensive ways to promote their products, maximizing product exposure and increasing return-on-investment.
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Spun Silk Factory
Silk waste includes all kinds of raw silk which may be unwindable, and therefore unsuited to the throwing process. Before the introduction of machinery applicable to the spinning of silk waste, the refuse from cocoon reeling, and also from silk winding, which is now used in producing spun silk fabrics, was nearly all destroyed as being useless, with the exception of that which could be hand-combed and spun by means of the distaff and spinning wheel , a method which is still practised by some of the peasantry in India and other countries in Asia. A silk " throwster " receives the silk in skein form, the thread of which consists of a number of silk fibres wound together to make a certain diameter or size, the separate fibre having actually been spun by the worm. The silk-waste spinner receives the silk in quite a different form: merely the raw material, packed in bales of various sizes and weights, the contents being a much-tangled mass of all lengths of fibre mixed with much foreign matter, such as ends of straws, twigs, leaves, worms and chrysalis.
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China spun silk fiber
На его лекциях по этимологии яблоку негде было упасть, и он всегда надолго задерживался в аудитории, отвечая на нескончаемые вопросы. Он говорил авторитетно и увлеченно, не обращая внимания на восторженные взгляды студенток. Беккер был смуглым моложавым мужчиной тридцати пяти лет, крепкого сложения, с проницательным взглядом зеленых глаз и потрясающим чувством юмором.
Волевой подбородок и правильные черты его лица казались Сьюзан высеченными из мрамора. При росте более ста восьмидесяти сантиметров он передвигался по корту куда быстрее университетских коллег.
Разгромив очередного партнера, он шел охладиться к фонтанчику с питьевой водой и опускал в него голову. Затем, с еще мокрыми волосами, угощал поверженного соперника орешками и соком. Как у всех молодых профессоров, университетское жалованье Дэвида было довольно скромным.
Беккер последовал в указанном направлении. Он очутился в огромной комнате - бывшем гимнастическом зале. Бледно-зеленый пол мерцал в сиянии ламп дневного света, то попадая в фокус, то как бы проваливаясь. Лампы зловеще гудели. На стене криво висело баскетбольное кольцо.
Spun Silk World
Я должен добраться до ангара. Интересно, увидит ли пилот лирджета, что он подъезжает. Есть ли у него оружие. Откроет ли он вовремя дверцу кабины.
Пуля ударила в закрывающуюся дверь. Пустое пространство зала аэропорта открылось перед Беккером подобно бескрайней пустыне. Ноги несли его с такой быстротой, на какую, казалось ему, он не был способен.
Элементы, ответственные за Хиросиму и Нагасаки, - оба являются ураном. Никакого различия.
- Если служба безопасности обнаружит затянувшуюся надолго работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА, перед нами возникнет целый ряд новых проблем. Я хочу уничтожить все следы Цифровой крепости до того, как мы откроем двери. Сьюзан неохотно кивнула. План неплохой. Когда служба безопасности извлечет Хейла из подсобного помещения и обвинит в убийстве Чатрукьяна, он скорее всего попытается шантажировать их обнародованием информации о Цифровой крепости.
Я умер. Но я слышу какие-то звуки. Далекий голос… - Дэвид. Он почувствовал болезненное жжение в боку. Мое тело мне больше не принадлежит. И все же он слышал чей-то голос, зовущий. Тихий, едва различимый.
За Цифровую крепость, волнения из-за Дэвида, зато, что не поехала в Смоуки-Маунтинс, - хотя он был ко всему этому не причастен. Единственная его вина заключалась в том, что она испытывала к нему неприязнь. Сьюзан важно было ощущать свое старшинство.