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Ware units electronic vehicle equipment

Ware units electronic vehicle equipment

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Voith retarders – for greater safety, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability

Electric Traction Control. All you wanted to know about how railway rolling stock is designed, manufactured, assembled, tested and shipped but were afraid to ask. The late Paul Berkley supplied the original text and it was then edited by me with additional material from Nick Cory. Photo: Author.

Railway rolling stock manufacturing consists of a series of stages which begin with the signing of an order and culminate in the entry into service of a new train. These stages consist of signing the contract, doing the design, ordering materials and parts, manufacturing and assembly, testing and delivery. Train manufacture is a costly and time consuming business and there is a lot of risk in the process because a lot can go wrong.

Apart from the technical difficulties of designing and building a complex, multi-million dollar project, everyone wants to play trains and interfere with the design, especially politicians and newspaper editors, both of whom have one thing in common - they know nothing about railways. So you want to buy a new train or locomotive?

How long will it be before it is carrying passengers or hauling cars? Well, give yourself four years from the date you decide to buy. It can be done more quickly - a new locomotive order in the UK was once famous for having its first loco delivered 18 months after contract signing - but 3 or 4 years is more usual.

Here, I am assuming that it is a new design, not a run-on order and that there will be over 80 new vehicles.

I am also assuming that you know how many trains or locomotives you need and what the general basic design will need to be. The procurement process will occupy at least a year - add another if you need finance from the commercial market. The design process will have already begun, since the supplier will have prepared a concept design as part of the bidding process. By the time he gets NTP, he will have got to a stage with his customer where he knows he is the preferred bidder and he will have started more detailed basic design work.

Six months after NTP, parts manufacture should start and, six months after that the first body might be ready for installation of its equipment and interior finishes. Give it another year for completion of equipping and a lot of testing before it is ready for shipping.

By now, three years have gone already and the first car has still only just rolled out of the factory door. Acceptance testing on site and bureaucratic approvals may last months at least a year in most European countries before the train finally enters service. There is some slack in this broad outline because I am sure there will be technical problems on the way but we have used up our four years. Locomotives may take less as each one can operate as a unit and isn't dependent on other vehicles like an EMU Electric Multiple Unit.

Figure 2: End elevations of London Underground tube and surface stock. Drawing: Author. This is where it all begins. Design work starts during the bidding process. The customer will issue an "invitation to tender" ITT and then wait for the rush. Well, not quite. It starts with the supplier producing an outline design, which is prepared against the ITT and then costed.

These days, most manufacturers have created their own catalogue of vehicles that they would like to sell because they can build to pre-existing designs and offer them at a more competitive price. The designs are offered in modular form so they can be customised to suit the buyer's needs.

Unfortunately, a contract particularly one procured by a publicly-funded administration is rarely as simple as this and, usually, the potential customer will have produced a specification that he wants his vehicle designed to.

Invariably, this will not fit conveniently into the little niche of standard designs that the supplier hoped it would. Of course, this puts the price up. Many customers are now trying to procure through performance specifications, where the dimensions, capacity, speed, power requirements and reliability are specified rather than details like the make of door engines or colour of the upholstery for the driver's seat.

This gives the supplier the chance to adopt standardisation in many areas, but many customers still fall into the trap of asking for a bespoke train and then coming to wonder why it is so expensive. Now, let us assume that the preliminary design was accepted, a price agreed and a contract awarded. The engineering design office henceforth referred to as the DO - originally short for drawing office will now swing into action and start developing a plan for the design work of the vehicle, which will include producing a Bill of Materials BoM that will identify all the details necessary to manufacture the vehicle.

A preliminary list of drawings will be tied in with the BoM and there will probably be in excess of drawings needed. Meetings will be held with the purchasing and production departments to determine priorities for preparation of designs. Design will be carried out using one or more computer aided design CAD packages. Much depends on good design management and on accurate software management.

A good CAD system will allow the bill of quantities to be generated and will produce machine tool programmes to be used in the manufacturing processes. During the bidding phase, the DO will contact various sub-suppliers of brakes, lighting, seats, propulsion, traction motors etc. Many of these sub-suppliers will have framework contract with the main contractor and will know the levels of quality and production requirements.

If you look at a piece of rolling stock, it is easy to see that the supplier is really just an assembler of many parts that are purchased from other suppliers. Perhaps all he has is a specialist shop for manufacture of the car bodyshell and one for the wiring looms, and the rest of the vehicle is bought from others.

Some car builders, like Brush Traction in the UK, even buy complete locomotive body shells and bogies from external suppliers. However it is done, the vehicle design and assembly concept will eventually come together and some preliminary design drawings will be produced for presentation to the customer. It is at this point that some long lead items will be ordered. Steel, some types at least, can have a three-month lead time, especially if you want a special finish for an unpainted vehicle.

Cables can require a six month lead time, particularly if they are of special fire proof or low toxicity specification.

Car interior panels may also require specialist materials with long manufacturing periods. Of course, once you order these things, you are locked into the design, so you'd better be sure you get it right. There is very little room for error as profit margins in the railway industry are very low. Another area which needs to be sorted out early is jigs and tools.

The car body parts will have to be assembled in jigs to ensure that they are held rigidly and in the correct position during welding. The body shell itself will also require a large jig to assist in the assembly. Jigs cannot be designed until the body form is known and the construction methods agreed. A jig is basically either a steel bed, shaped to carry the section to be welded, or it a series of specially formed steel frames, upon which parts will be fixed while they are welded.

The jigs will be fitted with adjustable clamps which will hold each piece in its correct position for welding. Jigs come in all shapes and sizes, depending on the part or parts to be assembled and the welding system to be used.

Jig design is an art in itself and many a project has been a success or a failure because of the quality, or lack of it, of the jigs. Figure 3: A curved roofing jig, to which the steel parts are clamped to provide stability during welding. The roof is one of the more difficult parts of the car to weld as it is thin and tends to distort easily. Photo: P Berkeley. Some manufacturers have been known to try to cut back on the time or materials allowed for jig design and manufacture.

This is always an expensive mistake. If the jigs are not right, the car body won't be right either. It is a sobering thought that, in the last 30 years, every new tube train London Underground has had delivered has not fitted into the tunnels. One fleet had to be rebuilt. Tools are another important item which can be forgotten. If any specialist tools are required - like dies for stamping steel parts, these must be properly designed and manufactured to the highest standards. Specialist tool makers are best for the job.

I have seen shop floors littered with rejected stampings and pressings, thrown out because they were poorly made with bad tools and therefore didn't fit were they were supposed to. The early design meetings will culminate when the scheduling department produces a Work Breakdown Structure WBS , which will map out how the vehicle will go through each stage of manufacture and assembly to reach the final steps where it is commissioned and delivered to the eagerly awaiting customer.

The WBS will have to match a time plan, the submission of which is invariably part of a contract these days, and which will contain milestones in the design and manufacturing process which the supplier must adhere to.

It will also provide convenient packages for the design staff to work within so that drawings for the production process can be issued quickly for the first parts needed for assembly. If the DO has been lucky, they will find that they are able to get away with only modifying and updating some existing drawing files and perhaps, if they are really lucky, only the drawing number will need to be changed.

Of course, life is never that simple and there will be panics and much heart searching as new designs have to be developed within the time frame agreed with the customer and with the production control people in the factory.

Once the DO finishes a design package a complete set of drawings for a specific item of manufacture , it is forwarded by a Configuration Control section to the manufacturing engineering department. Configuration Control is responsible for ensuring that all the drawings and documents connected with the contract are registered, submitted to the customer for approval, returned from the customer in time they are often not , questions from the customer are answered, that the latest updates to drawings and instructions are passed to the production control people and all correspondence is noted and archived.

It may sound bureaucratic but it is essential that all the paperwork is kept up to date and is retrievable in case there is any sort of dispute and yes, there always is. Configuration Control is also about monitoring the putting together of the vehicle as it gets built - ensuring not just that there are no parts missing but that all the parts fitted are at the correct modification state, both hardware and software.

Now the challenge comes: the DO has completed a design package and it is Manufacturing Engineering's turn to look at what has been produced to see if it can be made. Manufacturing Engineering is usually part of a team under the Project Manager who will be ensuring the vehicle is 'coming together', so to speak, and will also include a couple of engineers and draughters to make any changes that are needed.

Sometimes it is necessary for the manufacturing department to produce additional drawings that will enable the manufacture to continue without delay. These will be produced in conjunction with the production department.

Production Control have the responsibility of bringing all the various procurement and manufacturing areas together and ensuring a completed vehicle comes out of the shop with all the requirements of the customer to the schedule agreed with the customer. To do this, using the BoM we talked about earlier, a schedule will be put together which will show what tasks are to be completed, where, using which machines or tools, when and by whom, in the manufacture of the vehicle.

This will show the various work stations, identifying the tasks that will be performed at each station. Production control will also allocate materials, staff and times for each process. Production orders are then produced and passed to the manufacturing shops together with the drawings. There are all sorts of fancy names for "buying" around nowadays; Purchasing, Procurement, Sourcing, Materials Management and so on, but when it comes down to it, buying is what this department does.

A manufacturer usually has one buying department which may be split into two sections - one to buy raw materials, the other to buy complete items of equipment. The section buying the raw materials will get their orders from the manufacturing department and will be involved in the purchase of bar stock, sheet plate, nuts, bolts, piping, paint and probably such items as welding rods, glues and mastics.

Their responsibility will be to ensure sufficient material is available in the machine shops, the fabricating shop or the paint shop to enable parts to be finished to schedule. They have to do this early in the process.

We Recycle

TidalWave Smart Cities Leadership. The ITS America Board is made up of leaders in the intelligent transportation industry, who set policy and direct strategies for the association. The new officers and board members represents a diverse group of senior-level executives from private companies and public agencies in the mobility, technology and ITS spheres. For full news, visit www.

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To set the stage for this discussion let me propose this scenario: imagine yourself as an astronaut sitting in the crew module of the NASA Orion spacecraft. You are stepping through your final equipment checklist for a voyage to Mars while sitting on top of a rocket, anticipating the final countdown to ignition of the largest rocket ever designed—the NASA Space Launch System. You are sitting feet in the air on a massive, metric ton configuration, the most capable and powerful launch vehicle in history. Now ask yourself, what quality grade of electronic components were selected for the control systems of your spacecraft? High reliability and devices with space heritage are key factors in the selection of components for space level applications.

Building Automation & Control Systems

Copper is a mineral and an element essential to our everyday lives. It is a major industrial metal because of its high ductility, malleability, thermal and electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosion. It is an essential nutrient in our daily diet. And, its antimicrobial property is becoming increasingly important to the prevention of infection. It ranks third after iron and aluminum in terms of quantities consumed in the USA. The U. Geological Survey USGS estimates that every American born in will use 1, pounds of copper during their lifetime for necessities, lifestyles and health. Known land-based resources of copper are estimated to be 1.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

With Voith retarders, up to 90 percent of all braking actions can be performed without wear. This represents a significant increase in safety. Retarders protect the service brakes, thus reducing expenditures on spare parts and maintenance. At the same time, transport capabilities increase due to higher average speeds.

Sales of electric vehicles EVs in the U.

The high speed nail making machine is used to produce common nail for the building industry. There are the most popular five different models from No Contact Points. No Moving Parts to wear out.

Electrical Safety Precautions and Basic Equipment

Note: Part 8 provides requirements for most types of protective clothing and equipment. See Part 7 on Noise for hearing protection requirements. If an evaluation of workplace conditions is required to determine appropriate personal protective equipment, the evaluation, where practicable, must be done in consultation with the joint committee or the worker health and safety representative, as applicable, and with the worker who will use the equipment.

As an employer, you are in charge of a safe and healthy working environment for your employees. You are familiar with the safety risks within your sector, as well as the measures you can take to counteract these risks. Use PPE always and anywhere where necessary. Observe the instructions for use, maintain them well and check regularly if they still offer sufficient protection. But when do you use what type of protection? Wearing a helmet offers protection and can prevent head injuries.

Security Check

In the simplest systems, the current generated by your system is connected directly to the equipment that it is powering load. However, if you want to store power for use when your system isn't producing electricity, you will need to purchase batteries and a charge controller. Depending on your needs, balance-of-system equipment for a stand-alone system could account for half of your total system costs. Your system supplier will be able to tell you exactly what equipment you will need for your situation, but typical balance-of-system equipment for a stand-alone system includes batteries, charge controller, power conditioning equipment, safety equipment, and meters and instrumentation. You will need power conditioning equipment, safety equipment, and meters and instrumentation. Batteries store electricity for use during times that your system is not producing electricity the resource is not available.

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Electric Traction Control. All you wanted to know about how railway rolling stock is designed, manufactured, assembled, tested and shipped but were afraid to ask. The late Paul Berkley supplied the original text and it was then edited by me with additional material from Nick Cory. Photo: Author. Railway rolling stock manufacturing consists of a series of stages which begin with the signing of an order and culminate in the entry into service of a new train.

Consumer Electronics

Material handling equipment MHE is mechanical equipment used for the movement, storage, control and protection of materials, goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal. Transport equipment is used to move material from one location to another e. Material can also be transported manually using no equipment. Conveyors are used when material is to be moved frequently between specific points over a fixed path and when there is a sufficient flow volume to justify the fixed conveyor investment.

Она чувствовала, что здесь что-то не то, но не могла сообразить, что. Она достаточно хорошо знала Танкадо и знала, что он боготворил простоту. Его доказательства, его программы всегда отличали кристальная ясность и законченность.

По вашему приказу, директор, - говорил он, - мы провели в Севилье два дня, выслеживая мистера Энсея Танкадо. - Расскажите, как он погиб, - нетерпеливо сказал Фонтейн.

Боль пройдет, - внушал Стратмор.  - Ты полюбишь. Сьюзан не слышала ни единого слова. - Останься со мной, - увещевал ее голос.

Да, Клаус женат. Но он очень толстый. Жена отказывает ему… ну, вы понимаете.  - Беккер не мог поверить, что это говорит он. Если бы Сьюзан слышала меня сейчас, - подумал.  - Я тоже толстый и одинокий.

Дэвид, вспомнила Сьюзан. Она заставляла себя не думать о. Ей нужно было сосредоточиться на неотложных вещах, требующих срочного решения.

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  1. Kazraran

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