Fabrication commercial spun silk products
Background : Cut and pierced cocoons are generated in large quantities in the state every year. Even though cut and pierced cocoons are having shell with silk filaments, these cannot be reeled. A good quality hand spun yarn better than dupion can be produced using such cocoons. By using cut cocoon spinning machine a good hand spun yarn can be produced by soaking these cocoons in cold water and soda.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Polyester Yarn Manufacturing Process
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Material Guide: Is Silk Sustainable?
Background : Cut and pierced cocoons are generated in large quantities in the state every year. Even though cut and pierced cocoons are having shell with silk filaments, these cannot be reeled. A good quality hand spun yarn better than dupion can be produced using such cocoons. By using cut cocoon spinning machine a good hand spun yarn can be produced by soaking these cocoons in cold water and soda.
The machine is very simple and can be easily operated by women, which helps in generating gainful employment. The raw material needed for this activity is easily available in different parts of the State. Spinning of yarn with cut cocoons can be done at their respective houses without involving hard manual labour and travel outside the village.
A spindle with flyer fixed on the spindle and rotated along with the flyer. Spun yarn is twisted and wound onto the bobbin automatically with the help of a yarn guide fixed on the flyer. The count of the yarn and amount of twist to be given can be controlled easily.
The machine has been developed by using easily available material. The machine can be used by rural people without and major maintenance. Recommendation : It is possible to produce — gms of hand spun yarn by suing one kilogram of cut cocoons.
The machine is capable of producing count range of 7 to 20 cotton count. Background: The recovery and quality of bisufibre obtained from basin refuse separating method widely practiced in India is poor. The effective utilization forbisu waste would benefit both reelers and spun silk mills. It is in this context an indigenous bisu separating machine has been designed and fabricated. In view of non-availability of suitable machines to local conditions, the bisu separating machine has been designed fabricated and field tested at silk filature.
Technology Details : The machine works on the principle teasing action of sharp metal spikes. The indigenous bisu separating machine fabricated consists of feeding section, teasing section, bisu sheet vibrating arm, delivery system and pupa removal section.
Basin refuse material is loaded manually onto a inclined feeding plate. Material is pushed into the main tank by coarse pointed pronged lever. Material is feed slowly to the main tank at uniform rate to enable efficient separation. The bath consists of tank provided with perforated sheet slanting at an angle towards the delivery end of the machine. The main portion of the machine is arrangement of teasers in series, for separation of basin refuse.
Teasers are arranged on the top of the tank and mechanism is operated to drop the separated pupa in a container. An oscillating arm with two rods in parallel is provided at the delivery end of the bath. Separated bisu sheet is pulled out slowly by metal roller with coarse pins.
Recommendations : Machine is capable of separating the steam stifled cocoon basin refuse without any damage. Bisufibre generated is better compared to the methods followed presently in the industry. Background : In Industry, soap and soda method of degumming is being practiced.
The amount of soap and soda varies from one processor to another. There is no standard method and measurement of duration, quantity of chemicals, temperature etc. This affects the quality if silk. Standardization and scientific approach of degumming process is essential to retain the inherent qualities of luster, strength and elongation properties of silk after degumming. Technology Details : Natural gum, sericin present in the raw silk yarn should be removed before the silk goes for dyeing in case of soft silk or loom state finished fabrics.
But for high twisted yarn fabrics, raw yarn is woven into fabric and later degummed which needs extra care. For bleaching, 1gpl of sodium hydro sulphate is sufficient in degumming bath. Use of soft water is essential. Advantages : Degumming is called the heart of silk processing. Under degumming affects the wash fastness and other fastness properties.
Over degumming affects strength properties. Hence optimum degumming is very essential to ensure the silk quality. This also reduces the over usage of chemicals and in turn load of the effluent is reduced. Preliminary evaluation : A survey was carried out at Bangalore urban and ruralprocessing units.
It was found that there was no standard method of quantity of chemicals, temp, duration for degumming among processors. Duration and various percentage of chemicals were tried in lab, and optimum process parameters were calculated after testing the strength and fastness properties of degummed silk.
Field evaluation : Through the members of Bangalore silk printers Association and dyers Association. Article was published in journals for the benefit of dyers. Students of B. Tech wereinducted to take up project work onthis subject. In training programmes of the institute, trainees were taught about the technology.
Reduces environmental pollution. Background: Water plays significant role in silk processing. Silk processing is a cottage industry with majority of sources available being hard water. Most of the silk processing houses utilize hard water which adversely affects the quality of silk such as improper degumming and dyeing, less color yield etc. It also leads to higher chemical consumption, causing environmental pollution due to high load effluents.
Technology Details: Hardness less than or equal to 50 ppm is ideal for silk processing. It is necessary to treat water used in the processing units with water softeners. Advantages: Improves silk quality and colouryield. It was found to be more than ppm. Effluent load was also found to be more. Keeping in view the hardness of water with respect to degumming , bleaching, dyeing and printing, various chemicals and dye stuffs, requisite guideline have been evolved.
Field evaluation: Water softeners were installed at processing centers to show the advantages of using treated water. Training programmes were conducted. Articles were published in textile journals to educate the processors. Cost benefit: Reduces environmental pollution.
Background: It was found that dyeing and printing chemicals are sensitive to atmospheric conditions and lose their strength. This has an influence in quality of degumming, bleaching, dyeing, and printing.
Most of the silk processing units are cottage sectors and follow age old practice of family business. They are not aware of the importance to maintain a good inventory system. Technology Details: In order to increase the life of chemicals, they have to be stored in polythene bags and kept in air tight containers. Longer period of storage to be avoided.
Advantages: Proper storage helps in optimum utilization of chemicals. Quality of silk is improved. Reduction in process cost. Reduction in environmental pollution. Preliminary evaluation: Survey was carried out at various processing centers. Chemical storage conditions and inventory was studied.
Trials were carried out with these chemicals. They were stored in open, semi open, open conditions for the period from 15 days to 45 days. These chemicals were used in silk processing to assess the quality of silk and the strength of chemicals were evaluated. Field evaluation: Cottage sector processors were educated that longer the period of storage, chemicals lose its strength. Also chemicals which are not properly stored will be ineffective for the purpose.
Demonstration and training programmes were conducted. Technology was made available through publications. Tech students and Msc home science students were inducted for project work on the subject.
Consumers are benefited in terms of improvement in serviceability of the fabric. Background: Technically, degumming of silk should be carried out in alkali media and dyeing should be carried out in acidic media. Silk, being a protein fiber, gets affected by alkali. But in practice, in cottage sectors, degumming and dyeing is carried out in a same bath. This is a age old practice.
Single bath dyeing leads to wastage of chemicals, dyestuffs. It also affects the quality of silk. The effluent load is also high, causing environmental pollution. Advantages: Dyed material feels soft and supple. Colour yield is better as the turbidity of dying bath reduces to almost zero. Quantity of dye stuff used is substantially less and hence reduction in cost of production.
Less load on effluent.
Spider silk, the newest fabric for military uniforms
Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.
Silk is a natural protein fiber , some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism -like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles , thus producing different colors. Silk is produced by several insects; but, generally, only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing.
China CN: Import: Yarn Spun From Silk Waste, Not for Retail Sale: Other
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. More than million years of natural selection acting throughout the arthropoda has resulted in highly specialized and energetically efficient processes to produce protein-based fibers with properties that are a source of inspiration for all.
Silk-based biomaterials in biomedical textiles and fiber-based implants
Boy meets spider. Spider bites boy. Boy designs uber-cool spider suit. Now, scientists are moving from the realm of comics to reality to develop real-life uses for spider silk. The U.
Yarn consists of several strands of material twisted together. Each strand is, in turn, made of fibers, all shorter than the piece of yarn that they form. These short fibers are spun into longer filaments to make the yarn.
This records a decrease from the previous number of The data reached an all-time high of 1, Try Now Explore our Data. Last
Biomedical textiles and fiber-based implants BTFIs have been in routine clinical use to facilitate healing for nearly five decades. Amongst the variety of biomaterials used, silk-based biomaterials SBBs have been widely used clinically viz. The present review focuses on BTFIs from the perspective of types and physical and biological properties, and this discussion is followed with an examination of the advantages and limitations of BTFIs from SBBs. Biomedical textiles and fiber-based implants BTFIs manufactured using textile-forming technologies have been in routine clinical use to facilitate healing for nearly five decades [ 1 , 2 ]. Biomedical textiles are defined as fibrous textile structures prepared from synthetic or natural materials that are used either in an internal or external inside or outside the body biological environment as a medical device to improve the health and medical condition of the patient [ 1 , 3 ].
By Martin W. The use of tissue engineering to regenerate viable tissue relies on selecting the appropriate cell line, developing a resorbable scaffold and optimizing the culture conditions including the use of biomolecular cues and sometimes mechanical stimulation. This review of the literature focuses on the required scaffold properties, including the polymer material, the structural design, the total porosity, pore size distribution, mechanical performance, physical integrity in multiphase structures as well as surface morphology, rate of resorption and biocompatibility. The chapter will explain the unique advantages of using textile technologies for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication, and will delineate the differences in design, fabrication and performance of woven, warp and weft knitted, braided, nonwoven and electrospun scaffolds. In addition, it will explain how different types of tissues can be regenerated by each textile technology for a particular clinical application. The use of different synthetic and natural resorbable polymer fibers will be discussed, as well as the need for specialized finishing techniques such as heat setting, cross linking, coating and impregnation, depending on the tissue engineering application. Biotechnology and Bioengineering.
Silk — the material so soft it became an adjective. Not only is silk timelessly elegant, it also has flame retardant and antibacterial properties. So we want to know — just how ethical and sustainable is the fabric of royalty? It was Chinese Empress Xi Lingshi who is credited with discovering this illustrious fabric. One fine day in 27th century BCE, the Empress was enjoying a cup of tea beneath the mulberry trees when a cocoon fell into her cup.
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Thread is a tightly twisted strand of two or more plys of yarn that are circular when cut in cross section. It is used for hand sewing and in home sewing machines. Ninety-five percent of all sewing thread that is manufactured is used in commercial and industrial sewing.
Он понимал: выбраться из шифровалки ему удастся, только если он пустит в ход все навыки поведения в конфликтных ситуациях, которые приобрел на военной службе. Стратмор придвинулся ближе, держа беретту в вытянутой руке прямо перед .
Стратмор нажал несколько кнопок и, прочитав полученное сообщение, тихо застонал. Из Испании опять пришли плохие новости - не от Дэвида Беккера, а от других, которых он послал в Севилью.
В трех тысячах миль от Вашингтона мини-автобус мобильного наблюдения мчался по пустым улицам Севильи. Он был позаимствован АНБ на военной базе Рота в обстановке чрезвычайной секретности. Двое сидевших в нем людей были напряжены до предела: они не в первый раз получали чрезвычайный приказ из Форт-Мида, но обычно эти приказы не приходили с самого верха.
Estas ya muerto, - тихо прошептал он, двигаясь по центральному проходу. Ты уже мертвец. Времени на какие-либо уловки уже не. Два выстрела в спину, схватить кольцо и исчезнуть. Самая большая стоянка такси в Севилье находилась всего в одном квартале от Матеус-Гаго.
Рука Халохота потянулась к пистолету. Adios, Senor Becker… La sangre de Cristo, la сора de la salvacion.
Мне было нужно… Но тигрица уже изготовилась к прыжку. - В вашем распоряжении двадцать тысяч сотрудников. С какой стати вы решили послать туда моего будущего мужа.