Industry factory woolen yarn
See, which brands obtain and sell their products. Imagine you could identify manufacturers based on their proven specialization and their former customers. Learn how to find your most suitable manufacturers for yarn within minutes! This list is based on verified inside information about suppliers worldwide and can not be falsified. The largest one is Yarn, synthetic; filament, monofilament less than 67 decitex , textured, of polyesters, not for retail sale, not sewing thread Hove over the chart to see the other ones:.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Cotton is Processed in Factories - How It’s Made
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Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats , qiviut from muskoxen , from hide and fur clothing from bison , angora from rabbits , and other types of wool from camelids ;  additionally, the Highland and the Mangalica breeds of cattle and swine , respectively, possess woolly coats.
Wool consists of protein together with a small percentage of lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cotton , which is mainly cellulose. Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin. These follicles are located in the upper layer of the skin called the epidermis and push down into the second skin layer called the dermis as the wool fibers grow.
Follicles can be classed as either primary or secondary follicles. Primary follicles produce three types of fiber: kemp , medullated fibers, and true wool fibers. Secondary follicles only produce true wool fibers. Medullated fibers share nearly identical characteristics to hair and are long but lack crimp and elasticity. Kemp fibers are very coarse and shed out. Wool's scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, so they stay together.
Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have greater bulk than other textiles, and they hold air, which causes the fabric to retain heat. Wool has a high specific thermal resistance , so it impedes heat transfer in general.
This effect has benefited desert peoples, as Bedouins and Tuaregs use wool clothes for insulation. Felting of wool occurs upon hammering or other mechanical agitation as the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibers hook together.
The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers. A fine wool like Merino may have up to crimps per inch, while coarser wool like karakul may have as few as one or two.
In contrast, hair has little if any scale and no crimp, and little ability to bind into yarn. On sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp. The relative amounts of kemp to wool vary from breed to breed and make some fleeces more desirable for spinning , felting , or carding into batts for quilts or other insulating products, including the famous tweed cloth of Scotland. Wool fibers readily absorb moisture , but are not hollow.
Wool can absorb almost one-third of its own weight in water. It is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown, silver, and random mixes. Wool ignites at a higher temperature than cotton and some synthetic fibers. It has a lower rate of flame spread , a lower rate of heat release, a lower heat of combustion, and does not melt or drip;  it forms a char that is insulating and self-extinguishing, and it contributes less to toxic gases and smoke than other flooring products when used in carpets.
Wool is usually specified for garments for firefighters, soldiers, and others in occupations where they are exposed to the likelihood of fire. Wool causes an allergic reaction in some people. Sheep shearing is the process by which the woolen fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is separated into four main categories: fleece which makes up the vast bulk , broken, bellies, and locks.
The quality of fleeces is determined by a technique known as wool classing , whereby a qualified person, called a wool classer, groups wools of similar grading together to maximize the return for the farmer or sheep owner. In Australia before being auctioned, all Merino fleece wool is objectively measured for micron , yield including the amount of vegetable matter , staple length, staple strength, and sometimes color and comfort factor.
Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool"  or "wool in the grease", contains a high level of valuable lanolin , as well as the sheep's dead skin and sweat residue, and generally also contains pesticides and vegetable matter from the animal's environment. Before the wool can be used for commercial purposes, it must be scoured, a process of cleaning the greasy wool. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and alkali in specialized equipment.
In commercial wool, vegetable matter is often removed by chemical carbonization. This semigrease wool can be worked into yarn and knitted into particularly water-resistant mittens or sweaters , such as those of the Aran Island fishermen. Lanolin removed from wool is widely used in cosmetic products, such as hand creams.
Raw wool has many impurities; vegetable matter, sand, dirt and yolk which is a mixture of suint sweat , grease, urine stains and dung locks. The sheep's body yields many types of wool with differing strengths, thicknesses, length of staple and impurities.
The raw wool greasy is processed into 'top'. The quality of wool is determined by its fiber diameter, crimp , yield, color, and staple strength. Fiber diameter is the single most important wool characteristic determining quality and price. Wool taken from sheep produced for meat is typically more coarse, and has fibers 1. Damage or breaks in the wool can occur if the sheep is stressed while it is growing its fleece, resulting in a thin spot where the fleece is likely to break.
Wool is also separated into grades based on the measurement of the wool's diameter in microns and also its style. These grades may vary depending on the breed or purpose of the wool. For example:. Any wool finer than 25 microns can be used for garments, while coarser grades are used for outerwear or rugs. The finer the wool, the softer it is, while coarser grades are more durable and less prone to pilling. This style represents the top level of fineness, character, color, and style as determined on the basis of a series of parameters in accordance with the original dictates of British wool as applied by the Australian Wool Exchange AWEX Council.
Only a few dozen of the millions of bales auctioned every year can be classified and marked 1PP. There are two categories of recycled wool also called reclaimed or shoddy wool. Wild sheep were more hairy than woolly. The oldest known European wool textile , ca. In Roman times, wool, linen , and leather clothed the European population; cotton from India was a curiosity of which only naturalists had heard, and silks , imported along the Silk Road from China , were extravagant luxury goods.
Pliny the Elder records in his Natural History that the reputation for producing the finest wool was enjoyed by Tarentum , where selective breeding had produced sheep with superior fleeces, but which required special care. In medieval times, as trade connections expanded, the Champagne fairs revolved around the production of wool cloth in small centers such as Provins.
The network developed by the annual fairs meant the woolens of Provins might find their way to Naples , Sicily , Cyprus , Majorca , Spain , and even Constantinople. By the end of the 14th century, Italy predominated, though Italian production turned to silk in the 16th century. The importance of wool to the English economy can be seen in the fact that since the 14th century, the presiding officer of the House of Lords has sat on the " Woolsack ", a chair stuffed with wool. Economies of scale were instituted in the Cistercian houses, which had accumulated great tracts of land during the 12th and early 13th centuries, when land prices were low and labor still scarce.
Raw wool was baled and shipped from North Sea ports to the textile cities of Flanders , notably Ypres and Ghent , where it was dyed and worked up as cloth. The English textile trade grew during the 15th century, to the point where export of wool was discouraged. Over the centuries, various British laws controlled the wool trade or required the use of wool even in burials.
The smuggling of wool out of the country, known as owling , was at one time punishable by the cutting off of a hand. After the Restoration , fine English woolens began to compete with silks in the international market, partly aided by the Navigation Acts ; in , the English crown forbade its American colonies to trade wool with anyone but England herself.
A great deal of the value of woolen textiles was in the dyeing and finishing of the woven product. In each of the centers of the textile trade, the manufacturing process came to be subdivided into a collection of trades, overseen by an entrepreneur in a system called by the English the "putting-out" system, or "cottage industry", and the Verlagssystem by the Germans.
In this system of producing wool cloth, once perpetuated in the production of Harris tweeds , the entrepreneur provides the raw materials and an advance, the remainder being paid upon delivery of the product. Written contracts bound the artisans to specified terms.
Fernand Braudel traces the appearance of the system in the 13th-century economic boom, quoting a document of Before the flowering of the Renaissance , the Medici and other great banking houses of Florence had built their wealth and banking system on their textile industry based on wool, overseen by the Arte della Lana , the wool guild: wool textile interests guided Florentine policies. Francesco Datini , the "merchant of Prato", established in an Arte della Lana for that small Tuscan city.
The sheepwalks of Castile shaped the landscape and the fortunes of the meseta that lies in the heart of the Iberian peninsula; in the 16th century, a unified Spain allowed export of Merino lambs only with royal permission. The German wool market — based on sheep of Spanish origin — did not overtake British wool until comparatively late. The Industrial Revolution introduced mass production technology into wool and wool cloth manufacturing.
Australia's colonial economy was based on sheep raising, and the Australian wool trade eventually overtook that of the Germans by , furnishing wool for Bradford , which developed as the heart of industrialized woolens production. Due to decreasing demand with increased use of synthetic fibers, wool production is much less than what it was in the past. The result has been sharply reduced production and movement of resources into production of other commodities, in the case of sheep growers, to production of meat.
Superwash wool or washable wool technology first appeared in the early s to produce wool that has been specially treated so it is machine washable and may be tumble-dried.
This wool is produced using an acid bath that removes the "scales" from the fiber, or by coating the fiber with a polymer that prevents the scales from attaching to each other and causing shrinkage. This process results in a fiber that holds longevity and durability over synthetic materials, while retaining its shape.
In December , a bale of the then world's finest wool, averaging This fleece wool tested with an average yield of This bale was produced by the Hillcreston Pinehill Partnership and measured In , a new wool suit was developed and sold in Japan that can be washed in the shower, and which dries off ready to wear within hours with no ironing required.
The suit was developed using Australian Merino wool, and it enables woven products made from wool, such as suits, trousers, and skirts, to be cleaned using a domestic shower at home. In December , the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed to be the International Year of Natural Fibres , so as to raise the profile of wool and other natural fibers. Breeds such as Lincoln , Romney , Drysdale , and Elliotdale produce coarser fibers, and wool from these sheep is usually used for making carpets.
Also, a thriving home-flock contingent of small-scale farmers raise small hobby flocks of specialty sheep for the hand-spinning market. These small-scale farmers offer a wide selection of fleece.
Organic wool is becoming more and more popular. This wool is very limited in supply and much of it comes from New Zealand and Australia.
Wool is environmentally preferable as compared to petroleum-based nylon or polypropylene as a material for carpets , as well, in particular when combined with a natural binding and the use of formaldehyde -free glues. Animal rights groups have noted issues with the production of wool, such as mulesing.
About 80 brokers and agents work throughout Australia. This option gives wool growers benefit from reduced transport, warehousing, and selling costs. This method is preferred for small lots or mixed butts to make savings on reclassing and testing. This method works well for tested lots, as buyers use these results to make a purchase.
Machines Used In Textile Industry
As with many discoveries of early man, anthropologists believe the use of wool came out of the challenge to survive. In seeking means of protection and warmth, humans in the Neolithic Age wore animal pelts as clothing. Finding the pelts not only warm and comfortable but also durable, they soon began to develop the basic processes and primitive tools for making wool. By B. People soon began to develop and maintain herds of wool-bearing animals.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth.
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Textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution
The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres. Silk was introduced in China around BC, and in the middle of the 18th century AD, the first synthetic fibres were created.
It is a long way from the first idea a new garments to the final product and many people are involved in this creative process. We want you to see how a collaboration with our producers is and what people are behind it. We are very proud of our producer in Lithuania: Among other things, due to the demand for fashion labels such as LANIUS, the company founded in has converted its conventional production method and continually develops it sustainably.
Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centred in south Lancashire and the towns on both sides of the Pennines. The main key drivers of the Industrial Revolution were textile manufacturing , iron founding , steam power , oil drilling, the discovery of electricity and its many industrial applications, the telegraph and many others. Railroads, steam boats, the telegraph and other innovations massively increased worker productivity and raised standards of living by greatly reducing time spent during travel, transportation and communications.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How Yarn is Prepared & Packaged
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats , qiviut from muskoxen , from hide and fur clothing from bison , angora from rabbits , and other types of wool from camelids ;  additionally, the Highland and the Mangalica breeds of cattle and swine , respectively, possess woolly coats. Wool consists of protein together with a small percentage of lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cotton , which is mainly cellulose. Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin. These follicles are located in the upper layer of the skin called the epidermis and push down into the second skin layer called the dermis as the wool fibers grow.
Вы сможете его найти? - спросил Стратмор. - Конечно. Почему вы не позвонили мне раньше. - Честно говоря, - нахмурился Стратмор, - я вообще не собирался этого делать. Мне не хотелось никого в это впутывать. Я сам попытался отправить твой маячок, но ты использовала для него один из новейших гибридных языков, и мне не удалось привести его в действие.
Он посылал какую-то тарабарщину. В конце концов пришлось смирить гордыню и вызвать тебя .
На ней была черная ночная рубашка; загорелая, орехового оттенка кожа светилась в мягком свете ночника, соски призывно выделялись под тонкой прозрачной тканью. - Komm doch hierher, - сказал немец сдавленным голосом, сбрасывая с себя пижаму и поворачиваясь на спину. Росио через силу улыбнулась и подошла к постели.
- Уберите ногу. Взгляд Беккера упал на пухлые пальцы мужчины. Никакого кольца. Я так близок к цели, - подумал .
Судя по той увлеченности, с которой молодой профессор говорил о преподавательской работе, из университета он не уйдет. Сьюзан решила не заводить деловых разговоров, чтобы не портить настроение ни ему ни. Она снова почувствовала себя школьницей. Это чувство было очень приятно, ничто не должно было его омрачить.
Мысли его то и дело возвращались к Сьюзан: он надеялся, что она уже прослушала его голос на автоответчике. Чуть впереди, у остановки, притормозил городской автобус.
Она принялась нажимать кнопки безжизненной панели, затем, опустившись на колени, в отчаянии заколотила в дверь и тут же замерла. За дверью послышалось какое-то жужжание, словно кабина была на месте. Она снова начала нажимать кнопки и снова услышала за дверью этот же звук.
И вдруг Сьюзан увидела, что кнопка вызова вовсе не мертва, а просто покрыта слоем черной сажи. Она вдруг начала светиться под кончиком пальца.
Три пальца. Дело было вовсе не и кольце, a в человеческой плоти. Танкадо не говорил, он показывал. Он открывал секрет, открывал ключ к шифру-убийце - умоляя, чтобы люди его поняли… моля Бога, чтобы его секрет вовремя достиг агентства. - Три, - прошептала она, словно оглушенная. - Три! - раздался крик Дэвида из Испании.
Неужели все это был сон. Сьюзан повернулась к тумбочке. На ней стояли пустая бутылка из-под шампанского, два бокала… и лежала записка. Протерев глаза, она натянула на плечи одеяло и прочла: Моя драгоценная Сьюзан.