Manufactory factory software and hardware systems for automated systems
Industrial robot Autonomous research robot Domestic robot. Home automation Banking automation Laboratory automation Integrated library system Broadcast automation Console automation Building automation. Automated attendant Automated guided vehicle Automated highway system Automated pool cleaner Automated reasoning Automated teller machine Automatic painting robotic Pop music automation Robotic lawn mower Telephone switchboard Vending machine. Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed with minimal human assistance. Automation covers applications ranging from a household thermostat controlling a boiler, to a large industrial control system with tens of thousands of input measurements and output control signals. In control complexity, it can range from simple on-off control to multi-variable high-level algorithms.
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- Computer-integrated manufacturing
- Manufacturing Software
- Human + machine: A new era of automation in manufacturing
- Top 50 Automation Companies of 2017: Digitalization takes over
- Manufacturing ERP Software Comparison
- Automation, robotics, and the factory of the future
- What Are Automated Manufacturing Systems?
- Hardware vs. software: which wins in manufacturing?
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Mosta Mostafa. DEMO : Purchase from www. The integrated equipment Human resources are The position of the manufacturing systems in the larger production system is shown in Figure As the They accomplish the value-added work on the part The distinction between the two Our coverage includes both categories and is organized into two chapters: Chapter 38 on automation technologies and Chapter 39 on integrated manufacturing systems.
We also discuss two important automation technologies used in manufacturing: numerical control and industrial robotics. In Chapter 39, we examine how these automation technologies are integrated into more sophisticated manufacturing systems. Topics include production lines, cellular manufacturing, flexible manufacturing systems, and computer integrated manufacturing.
A more detailed discussion of the topics in these two chapters can be found in . Humans may be present as observers or even participants, but the process itself operates under its own self-direction. Automation is implemented by means of a control system that executes a program of instructions. To automate a process, power is required to operate the control system and to drive the process itself.
The relationship among these components is shown in Figure The form of power used in most automated systems is electrical. The advantages of electrical power include 1 it is widely available, 2 it can be readily converted to other forms of power such as mechanical, thermal, or hydraulic, 3 it can be used at very low power levels for functions such as signal processing, communication, data storage, and data processing, and 4 it can be stored in long-life batteries .
Examples of these activities include 1 melting a metal in a casting operation, 2 driving the motions of a cutting tool relative to a workpiece in a machining operation, and 3 pressing and sintering parts in a powder metallurgy process. Power is also used to accomplish any material handling activities needed in the process, such as loading and unloading parts, if these activities are not performed manually. Finally, power is used to operate the control system. The activities in an automated process are determined by a program of instructions.
In the simplest automated processes, the only instruction may be to maintain a certain controlled variable at a specified level, such as regulating the temperature in a heat treatment furnace. In more complex processes, a sequence of activities is required during the work cycle, and the order and details of each activity are defined by the program of instructions.
Each activity involves changes in one or more process parameters, such as changing the x- coordinate position of a machine tool worktable, opening or closing a valve in a fluid flow system, or turning a motor on or off.
Process parameters are inputs to the process. They may be continuous continuously variable over a given range, such as the x-position of a worktable or discrete On or Off. Their values affect the outputs of the process, which are called process variables. Like process parameters, process variables can be continuous or discrete.
Examples include the actual position of the machine worktable, the rotational speed of a motor shaft, or whether a warning light is on or off. The program of instructions specifies the changes in process parameters and when they should occur during the work cycle, and these changes determine the resulting values of the process variables. For example, in computer numerical control, the program of instructions is called a part program.
The numerical control NC part program specifies the individual sequence of steps required to machine a given part, including worktable and cutter positions, cutting speeds, feeds, and other details of the operation. In some automated processes, the work cycle program must contain instructions for making decisions or reacting to unexpected events during the work cycle.
Examples of situations requiring this kind of capability include 1 variations in raw materials that require adjusting certain process parameters to compensate, 2 interactions and com- munications with human such as responding to requests for system status information, 3 safety monitoring requirements, and 4 equipment malfunctions.
The program of instructions is executed by a control system, the third basic component of an automated system. Two types of control system can be distinguished: closed loop and open loop. A closed loop system, also known as a feedback control system, is one in which the process variable of interest output of the process is compared with the corresponding process parameter input to the process , and any difference between them is used to drive the output value into agreement with the input.
Figure The input parameter represents the desired value of the output variable. The process is the operation or activity being controlled; more specifically, the output variable is being controlled by the system. A sensor is used to measure the output variable and feed back its value to the controller, which compares output with input and makes the required adjustment to reduce any difference.
The adjustment is made by means of one or more actuators, which are hardware devices that physically accomplish the control actions. The other type of control system is an open loop system, presented in Figure As shown in the diagram, an open loop system executes the program of instructions without a feedback loop. No measurement of the output variable is made, so there is no comparison between output and input in an open loop system. In effect, the controller relies on the expectation that the actuator will have the intended effect on the output variable.
Thus, there is always a risk in an open loop system that the actuator will not function properly or that its actuation will not have the expected effect on the output. Fixed Automation In fixed automation, the processing or assembly steps and their sequence are fixed by the equipment configuration.
The program of instructions is deter- mined by the equipment design and cannot be easily changed. Each step in the sequence usually involves a simple action, such as feeding a rotating spindle along a linear trajectory.
Although the work cycle consists of simple operations, integrating and coordinating the actions can result in the need for a rather sophisticated control system, and computer control is often required. Typical features of fixed automation include 1 high initial investment for specialized equipment, 2 high production rates, and 3 little or no flexibility to accommodate product variety.
Automated systems with these features can be justified for parts and products that are produced in very large quantities. The high investment cost can be spread over many units, thus making the cost per unit relatively low compared to alternative production methods. The automated production lines discussed in the following chapter are examples of fixed automation.
Programmable Automation As its name suggests, the equipment in programmable automation is designed with the capability to change the program of instructions to allow production of different parts or products.
New programs can be prepared for new parts, and the equipment can read each program and execute the encoded instructions. Thus the features that characterize programmable automation are 1 high investment in general purpose equipment that can be reprogrammed, 2 lower production rates than fixed automation, 3 ability to cope with product variety by reprogramming the equipment, and 4 suitability for batch production of various part or product styles.
Examples of program- mable automation include computer numerical control and industrial robotics, discussed in Sections Flexible Automation Suitability for batch production is mentioned as one of the features of programmable automation. Thus, programmable automation usually suffers from this disadvantage. A flexible system is therefore capable of producing a mixture of different parts or products one right after the other instead of in batches.
Features usually associated with flexible automation include 1 high investment cost for custom- engineered equipment, 2 medium production rates, and 3 continuous production of different part or product styles. Using some terminology developed in Chapter 1, we might say that fixed automa- tion is applicable in situations of hard product variety, programmable automation is applicable to medium product variety, and flexible automation can be used for soft product variety. Sensors are required to measure the process variables.
Actuators are used to drive the process parameters. And various additional devices are needed to interface the sensors and actuators with the process controller, which is usually a digital computer. The conversion allows the variable to be interpreted as a quantitative value.
Sensors of various types are available to collect data for feedback control in manufacturing automation. They are often classified according to type of stimulus; thus, we have mechanical, electrical, thermal, radiation, magnetic, and chemical variables. Within each category, there are multiple variables that can be measured. Within the mechanical category, the physical variables include position, velocity, force, torque, and many others.
Electrical variables include voltage, current, and resistance. And so on for the other major categories. In addition to type of stimulus, sensors are also classified as analog or discrete.
An analog sensor measures a continuous analog variable and converts it into a continuous signal such as electrical voltage. Thermocouples, strain gages, and ammeters are exam- ples of analog sensors. A discrete sensor produces a signal that can have only a limited number of values. Within this category, we have binary sensors and digital sensors. A binary sensor can take on only two possible values, such as Off and On, or 0 and 1. Limit switches operate this way.
A digital sensor produces a digital output signal, either in the form of parallel status bits, such as a photoelectric sensor array or a series of pulses that can be counted, such as an optical encoder. Digital sensors have an advantage that they can be readily interfaced to a digital computer, whereas the signals from analog sensors must be converted to digital in order to be read by the computer. The constant m indicates how much the output S is affected by the input s. This is referred to as the sensitivity of the measuring device.
A binary sensor e. Ease of calibration is one criterion by which a measuring device can be selected. Other criteria include accuracy, precision, operating range, speed of response, reliability and cost. The action is typically mechanical, such as a change in position of a worktable or rotational speed of a motor. The control signal is generally a low level signal, and an amplifier may be required to increase the power of the signal to drive the actuator.
Actuators can be classified according to type of amplifier as 1 electrical, 2 hy- draulic, or 3 pneumatic. Electrical actuators include AC and DC electric motors, stepper motors, and solenoids.
The operations of two types of electric motors servomotors and stepper motors are described in Section
Broad coverage of digital product creation, from design to manufacture and process optimization. It covers, in one source, the entire design-to-manufacture process, reflecting the industry trend to further integrate CAD and CAM into a single, unified process. It also updates the computer aided design theory and methods in modern manufacturing systems and examines the most advanced computer-aided tools used in digital manufacturing.
The answer is an automated manufacturing system integrates software and machinery so that manufacturing processes are run autonomously through computer programming. Without automated manufacturing systems, factory output would be vastly reduced, production would be very time consuming, working conditions would be less safe and quality control would be extremely difficult. Employees would need to work twice as hard to achieve in a day what they can now achieve in an hour with automated industrial systems. In short, manufacturing would be much more difficult and dangerous.
The global industrial automation market size was valued at USD Industrial automation is defined as the controlling and processing of heavy industrial machines, equipment, and devices with the help of advanced systems, and software. These systems and software are backed up by advanced technologies such as machine learning, cloud, robotics, and others. Several companies in the manufacturing industry are focused on adopting and implementing industrial automation solutions to increase the overall productivity, educate their employees and reduce high cost while accomplishing precision and flexibility. Automation in industries helps stakeholders and manufacturers to achieve growth in productivity, enhanced quality and minimizes error. Also, usage of automation solutions such as computer software and advanced sensors in the industrial process helps to ensure the collection of reliable data, facts, and figures which can be used to make informed decisions, resulting in significant cost savings. Get comprehensive study about this report by, request a free sample copy. Smart automation will help to power the Industry 4. Further, industries have understood the potential efficiency and productivity that can be accomplished through the applications of Industry 4. These smart factory solutions offer applications such as advanced supply chain management, streamlined human resources, and increased profitability.
All the wells, mines, platforms, refineries, plants, columns, pipelines, sensors, analyzers and instruments are still chugging away as usual. Everything else is changing. Everything, that is, related to data acquisition, monitoring, process control, analytics, modeling, simulation and optimization, which are quickly moving into software, Ethernet-based, Internet protocol IP networking, and server-based data processing. This storm surge of digital transformation, driven by the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT , cloud computing, advanced analytics and the push to managed services, continues to transform how the Top 50 biggest worldwide and North American automation suppliers do business.
Computer-integrated manufacturing CIM is the manufacturing approach of using computers to control entire production process. Although manufacturing can be faster and less error-prone by the integration of computers, the main advantage is the ability to create automated manufacturing processes. Typically CIM relies of closed-loop control processes , based on real-time input from sensors.
Human + machine: A new era of automation in manufacturing
Engineering firm BGB Innovation, based in Grantham, Lincolnshire, recently opened a state-of-the-art testing facility to make its product development process more flexible and responsive. Smart manufacturing and smart factories are expected to have driven a 27 per cent increase in efficiency in the manufacturing industry between and , according to a report by global professional services firm Capgemini. For innovation to occur, investments need to be made in hardware and software. Getting this balance right can be tricky.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Thinmanager a Rockwell Automation Technology - Software and Hardware for Modern Manufacturing
With more competition than ever, manufacturers will have to adopt new strategies and tools to cut costs while still providing excellent products. The ability to track how production decisions impact the overall financial performance of a company is critical to profit and growth. This involves taking the massive amount of data generated daily on the production floor and interpreting it using metrics defined by your team. The ability to track how individual orders are progressing through production is an integral part of a manufacturing software system. The integration of an MES and your master production schedules is what allows users to understand the impact orders have on how you plan your resources. For instance, ERP software for manufacturing can provide insight into how the number of orders and their complexity can affect your resources.
Top 50 Automation Companies of 2017: Digitalization takes over
Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since Over the past two decades, automation in manufacturing has been transforming factory floors, the nature of manufacturing employment, and the economics of many manufacturing sectors. Today, we are on the cusp of a new automation era: rapid advances in robotics, artificial intelligence, and machine learning are enabling machines to match or outperform humans in a range of work activities, including ones requiring cognitive capabilities. Industry executives—those whose companies have already embraced automation, those who are just getting started, and those who have not yet begun fully reckoning with the implications of this new automation age—need to consider the following three fundamental perspectives: what automation is making possible with current technology and is likely to make possible as the technology continues to evolve; what factors besides technical feasibility to consider when making decisions about automation; and how to begin thinking about where—and how much—to automate in order to best capture value from automation over the long term.
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Manufacturing ERP Software Comparison
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Automation, robotics, and the factory of the future
Typically, a manufacturing facility will comprise an array of equipment. Usually, these machines will differ in terms of vendor, age and the communication standard used. These environments mean that, to collect the necessary data for smart manufacturing, the hardware within the facility, like programmable logic controllers PLCs , human machine interface HMIs panels, consumption devices or PCs need to be communicated with at the same time — a difficult task for machinery and facilities designed on varying communication standards.
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What Are Automated Manufacturing Systems?
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Hardware vs. software: which wins in manufacturing?
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