Manufactory products of the microbiological and milling industry
This guide is divided into four Sections. Section I is applicable to inspections of grain elevators; Section II applies to mill inspections; Section III is applicable to bakery inspections; and Section IV is applicable to inspections of macaroni and noodle products. Prior to conducting inspections involving any grain product manufacturer, review the general inspectional instructions in IOM Chapter 5 Establishment Inspections and particularly those in IOM Food Inspections. They consist of a pair of grooved, steel rolls rotating in opposite directions.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Amul Food Factory - Butter
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Pulp and paper industry
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Expansion of biobased industrial production in the United States will require an overall scale-up of manufacturing capabilities, di versification of processing technologies, and reduction of costs.
The development of efficient ''biorefineries" that integrate production of numerous biobased products would help reduce costs and allow biobased products to compete more effectively with petroleum-based products. The development of new or improved low-cost processing technologies will largely determine which biobased products become available. Currently, certain processing technologies are well established while others show promise but will require additional refinement or research before they come into practical use.
The market prices of large-scale commodity biobased industrial products will depend on two primary factors: 1 the cost of the biobased raw material from which a product is made and 2 the cost of processing technology to convert the raw material into the desired biobased product. The industries for producing chemicals and fuels from petroleum are characterized by high raw material costs relative to processing costs, while in the analogous biobased industries processing costs dominate.
Reducing the costs of producing commodity biobased industrial products such as chemical intermediates derived from fermentation will depend most strongly on reducing the costs of processing technology, the focus of this chapter.
Today's petroleum refineries generate numerous products efficiently and at a very large scale from crude oil, an inexpensive raw material. The development of comparable biorefineries will be essential to make many biobased products competitive with their fossil-based equivalents. Each biorefinery would process essentially all of its biobased feedstock into multiple value-added products. The product types would include not only those manufactured by petroleum refineries but also many others that petroleum refineries cannot produce.
Some examples of known and potential biorefinery products are:. Prototypes of highly integrated biorefineries already exist in the United States. Plants that currently process agricultural and forestry materials into value-added products include corn wet and dry milling plants, soybean processing plants, wheat mills, and paper mills.
The wheat, soybean, and corn operations are highly efficient and process over 95 percent of incoming feedstocks into value-added products. In some places, industrial complexes centered around corn wet milling use a single feedstock, corn, to produce a variety of products. Similar refinery complexes could be developed around corn dry mills or fermentation ethanol plants. Today's paper mills, wood products plants, and sugar beet refineries are partially integrated systems.
They have the potential to become more fully integrated by further processing, thereby enhancing the value to consumers of all their outputs. Waste paper and municipal sludge are examples of feedstocks around which biorefineries might one day be built, although this development has not yet occurred. Corn wet mills used 11 percent of the U. Wet milling of corn yields corn oil, corn fiber, and corn starch Figure The starch products of the U. Although a greater volume of the starch goes to non-food uses, food uses excluding syrups are more significant in terms of dollars per pound.
Most corn fed into a wet mill goes to the primary products starch and oil , and the balance goes to other products; the relative proportion depends on the corn's initial moisture content Figure High-quality No. North American corn gives the best yields in comparison to European, African, and Asian corn varieties. Latin America could produce corn of equal quality to North American corn.
Wastes generated by corn wet milling are relatively benign and readily treated onsite. However, these wastes also represent potential fermentation feedstocks for generating additional value-added products. Corn wet mills could comprise the front end of an industrial complex that produces food, specialty chemicals, industrial products, fuels, and pharmaceuticals.
Such an expanded biorefinery would provide cleaner and more economical processes for producing existing products, new intermediates for manufacturing new products, an expanded stable market for wet millers, and an expanded market for corn farmers.
There, a large corn wet-milling plant and a steam and electric cogeneration station form the nucleus for several other plants. The wet mill is the source of materials for plants that produce industrial enzymes, lactic and citric acids, amino acids, and ethanol.
The enzymes are then used to convert starch to lower-molecular-weight products, principally various maltodextrins and syrups i. The lactic and citric acids are used in processed foods, detergents, and polymers. The amino acids are used as feed and food supplements and, in the case of phenylalanine, to make aspartame. The ethanol is used as a fuel or an industrial solvent.
The United States is well positioned to develop biobased industries according to the above model of a biorefinery complex having corn wet milling as its nucleus. The current U. In addition, certain corn hybrids under development may yield higher levels of starch. This could lower feedstock costs and decrease byproduct production if these hybrids were more widely planted and used for industrial purposes.
In the to marketing year, about 7 percent of U. The United States is the largest grower and processor of soybeans in the world. Soy processing yields 80 percent products i. Most of this defatted meal.
Food uses include grain processed for edible applications including high-fructose corn syrup, glucose and dextrose, cereals, food starch, and beverage alcohol. The U. Moreover, all of the wastes from soy processing plants are relatively benign biological materials that can be readily degraded in conventional waste treatment plants and are usually processed onsite.
As with corn wet milling, soy processing plants could serve as the front end of an industrial complex that produces food, specialty chemicals, fuels, and pharmaceuticals. North American soybean growers are highly efficient and outperform international competitors, except where the competition is supported by local tariffs. American and Canadian soybean production and processing technologies are modern and very advanced. As with corn, such characteristics position the United States well for developing industrial biorefineries centered on soy processing.
Such expansion would, however, require new uses for soy protein, since existing protein markets in animal feeds are saturated and could not absorb additional production without depressing prices.
In the future, genetic engineering techniques may be used to alter the soy proteins, leading to expanded uses and increased value of industrial processed soybeans. The comparison of biorefineries to petroleum refineries in Table suggests that biorefineries offer a number of potential advantages because they rely on sustainable, domestically produced raw materials. The development and expansion of biorefineries could yield great benefits to the public at large see also Chapter 1.
Such biorefineries could produce significant amounts of valuable products from domestic renewable resources and consequently reduce national dependence on fossil feedstocks. This change could also reduce the level of pollutants generated by industrial production while still providing goods at prices and qualities comparable to those derived from nonrenewable resources.
Further research is necessary to examine environmental and energy impacts at all phases of manufacturing. Switching industries to the efficient use of renewable feedstocks through biorefineries will take time and require considerable technical and financial effort. The quickest pathway would be to build on the existing corn wet mills. Cargill and ADM already have several corn wet-milling facilities that approach being integrated biorefineries.
Lessons learned from these operations and from refining fossil feedstocks could help in upgrading other large grain mills and soybean processors to biorefinery status. With additional effort, paper, sugar, and wood products manufacturers could be brought online. In the future, biorefineries could use other feedstocks such as municipal sludge and mixed waste paper, crop residues, or dedicated lignocellulosic crops such as poplar or switchgrass.
Gives fuels, food, pharmaceuticals, specialty and commodity chemicals producers more options at potentially lower costs. Several lessons from fossil feedstock refineries might prove helpful in the future development of biorefineries and should be incorporated into strategic planning for the industry. These lessons include the following:.
Developers and analysts of biorefineries can use the above criteria to measure progress toward fully developed biorefinery systems. The eco-. Biorefineries of the future will use technologies based on thermal, mechanical, chemical, and biological processes to derive industrial products from renewable resources. This section identifies the technologies that might be used by future biobased industries. A distinction is made here between "proven" and "potential" technologies.
The former covers technologies that have been evaluated at a large enough scale to ensure the process is technically practicable in a commercial plant. Biological conversion of carbohydrates by fermentation and enzymatic processes is perhaps the most flexible method of converting renewable resources into industrial products.
The carbohydrates for most fermentation-derived products currently come from corn starch. Without new carbohydrate sources, the cost and availability of starch ultimately would determine the scale of biobased industries based on carbohydrates. Lignocellulosic materials could potentially provide a new, much larger by at least two orders of magnitude , and less expensive carbohydrate source for biobased industries.
Realization of this potential will depend on the development of inexpensive and effective processing technology to fractionate and convert lignocellulosics to fermentable sugars Lynd, Despite past investigations of many processes, none has yet enabled growth of a large-scale bioconversion industry based on lignocellulosics McMillan, The necessary technical advances present a formidable problem but one that is appropriately a high research and development priority for the nascent biobased products industry.
Thus, pro-. Removing the lignin from lignocellulose is one possible step toward obtaining carbohydrate for further bioconversion. Lignin makes up about 15 to 30 percent by weight of lignocellulosics such as wood and the woody parts of annual plants.
Because paper production from this raw material requires removal of most lignin, the pulp and paper industries have well-developed processes for this purpose. Chemical wood pulping produces as a byproduct more than 50 million metric tons of lignin a year in the United States.
The most common process in the United States for removing lignin is kraft pulping, which involves cooking wood chips with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide to partially depolymerize and solubilize the lignin.
The resulting kraft pulp has a value six to eight times that of the original wood raw material. Most of the byproduct kraft lignin is burned to provide fuel for pulp and paper mills and to recover and regenerate the inorganic pulping reagents.
The most modern mills actually produce more energy than they consume, reducing the need for fossil fuels. About 0. The other major chemical pulping process, used more in Europe and elsewhere outside the United States, involves cooking wood with sulfite salts to convert the lignin to water-soluble ligninsulfonate. Although some such mills still operate in the United States, mills must absorb high costs to recover waste materials that were previously disposed of in streams and waterways.
Unlike the kraft process that degrades carbohydrates that are inadvertently solubilized during pulping, sulfite pulping produces spent liquor that contains nondegraded fermentable monomeric and oligomeric sugars. Some mills in the United States and Europe ferment sugars in the spent liquor to produce ethanol. Acid hydrolysis of wood is an old technology developed extensively during and following World War II.
Flour food safety: FAQs and answers
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It is a fact that one of the basic conditions of ensuring the food safety at high levels is supplying low-risk raw materials. Producing the flour and flour products in accordance with food safety begins with obtaining safe wheat. It is stated in the notification that the flour should be produced in accordance with food safety. Thus, as well as flour industrialist has the main responsibility for providing flour safety; the farmers producing the wheat, the persons carrying out the harvest and transportation operations and traders should also apply hygiene and sanitation rules in their operations. As the absolute right of the consumers, food safety is a concept expressed as set of measures that should be taken at each stage from production to consumption for making the food products not constituting health problems for humans.
Millers await advancements in controlling pathogens in flour
Although recognized as important sources of functional compounds, milling by-products are often removed from the cereal kernel prior milling process. Indeed, the high presence of fiber in bran and the co-presence of lipids and lipase in germ are often considered as downsides for breadmaking. In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Weissella confusa BAN8 were used as selected starters to ferment maize milling by-products mixtures made with heat-treated or raw germ and bran. The effects on the biochemical and nutritional features as well as the stability of the milling by-products were investigated. Lactic acid bacteria metabolisms improved the free amino acids and peptides concentrations and the antioxidant activity and caused a relevant phytic acid degradation. Moreover, fermentation allowed a marked decrease of the lipase activity, stabilizing the matrix by preventing oxidative processes. The use of fermented by-products as ingredients improved the nutritional, textural and sensory properties of wheat bread. According to the results, this study demonstrates the potential of fermentation to convert maize bran and germ, commonly considered food wastes, into nutritive improvers, meeting nutritional and sensory requests of modern consumers. The average daily intake of fiber in many populations is still lower than those recommended Stephen et al. Indeed, numerous physiological effects have been highlighted, i.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Expansion of biobased industrial production in the United States will require an overall scale-up of manufacturing capabilities, di versification of processing technologies, and reduction of costs. The development of efficient ''biorefineries" that integrate production of numerous biobased products would help reduce costs and allow biobased products to compete more effectively with petroleum-based products.
The range of topics covered by the more than articles is Bolero Ozon. Poultry Processing Tory Ashdown 67
A food production wiki for public health professionals
Cost, impact on flour functionality and consumer acceptance are major factors limiting microbe reduction on a broader scale. Further, the need for preventative microbial control and testing has been heightened by new rules under the Food Safety Modernization Act FSMA , part of which went into effect in September. The matter is complicated by the fact that some consumers continue to put themselves at risk by eating uncooked flour, usually in cookie dough or cake batter, despite label directions to the contrary. To those ends, both private companies and public institutions are seeking new, better and cost-effective ways to ensure the safety of flour even if they cannot control actions at the consumer level.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Microbial and Yeast Fermentation CMO manufacturing
Biologics are bacterial and viral vaccines, antigens, antitoxins and analogous products, serums, plasmas and other blood derivatives for therapeutically protecting or treating humans and animals. Bulks are active drug substances used to manufacture dosage- form products, process medicated animal feeds or compound prescription medications. Diagnostic agents assist the diagnosis of diseases and disorders in humans and animals. Diagnostic agents may be inorganic chemicals for examining the gastrointestinal tract, organic chemicals for visualizing the circulatory system and liver and radioactive compounds for measuring the function of organ system. Drugs are substances with active pharmacological properties in humans and animals.
Flour mill contamination
Wheat is a raw agricultural product and is grown outdoors, where it may be exposed to pathogens in the soil and water or directly from birds and animals. Once a pathogen is on the wheat kernel, it is possible for pathogens to survive being transported to the elevator where wheat is stored, as well as through delivery to the flour mill where it is milled into flour. After wheat arrives at the mill, it is mechanically separated to remove foreign materials—such as other grains—after which it is tempered and sent through the milling process. In general, flour produced using traditional milling methods does not go through a validated lethality step to remove any potential pathogens. Because of this, it is possible for pathogens such as E. Coli and Salmonella to survive all the way to the finished flour. However, thoroughly baking, cooking, frying, boiling flour products will provide the lethality step to remove any potential pathogens. The wheat kernel is composed of three essential parts: bran, germ and endosperm.
Microbial and bacterial contamination of wheat flour has seldom been a concern due to the fact that it has low water activity level. Water activity Aw refers to the availability of water in a food or beverage and represents the amount of water that is available to microorganisms. Pure water has an Aw of 1. A water activity level of greater than 0. Wheat flour generally has an Aw level of 0.
Corn and wheat are among the most important cereals worldwide, representing many of the calories and proteins consumed. Tortillas and tortilla-related products are among the fastest-growing segments of the food industry and represent a sizeable portion of those calories. This book will guide food scientists, product developers, and nutritionists through the fascinating science and technology behind the production of corn and wheat flour tortillas. This title is the most comprehensive English-language book of its kind.
Written by the world's leading scientists and spanning over articles in three volumes, the Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, Second Edition is a complete, highly structured guide to current knowledge in the field. Fully revised and updated, this encyclopedia reflects the key advances in the field since the first edition was published in The articles in this key work, heavily illustrated and fully revised since the first edition in , highlight advances in areas such as genomics and food safety to bring users up-to-date on microorganisms in foods. Topics such as DNA sequencing and E.
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