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Manufactory ware structures and parts for special purposes Explanation: including special reinforced

Manufactory ware structures and parts for special purposes Explanation: including special reinforced

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Context for World Heritage Bridges

NCBI Bookshelf. Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity. Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment.

This chapter discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories. The most common equipment-related hazards in laboratories come from devices powered by electricity devices for work with compressed gases, and devices for high or low pressures and temperatures. Other physical hazards include electromagnetic radiation from lasers and radio-frequency generating devices.

Seemingly ordinary hazards such as floods from water-cooled equipment, accidents with rotating equipment and machines or tools for cutting and drilling, noise extremes, slips, trips, falls, lifting, and poor ergonomics account for the greatest frequency of laboratory accidents and injuries.

Understandably, injuries to the hands are very common in the laboratory. Care should be taken to use appropriate gloves when handling laboratory equipment to protect against electrical, thermal, and chemical burns, cuts, and punctures.

The use of water as a coolant in laboratory condensers and other equipment is common practice. Although tap water is often used for these purposes, this practice should be discouraged.

In many localities conserving water is essential and makes tap water inappropriate. In addition, the potential for a flood is greatly increased. Refrigerated recirculators can be expensive, but are preferred for cooling laboratory equipment to conserve water and to minimize the impact of floods. To prevent freezing at the refrigeration coils, using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol as the coolant is prudent.

Spills of this mixture are very slippery and must be cleaned thoroughly to prevent slips and falls. Most flooding occurs when the tubing supplying the water to the condenser disconnects. Hoses can pop off when building water pressure fluctuates, causing irregular flows, or can break when the hose material has deteriorated from long-term or improper use.

Floods also result when exit hoses jump out of the sink from a strong flow pulse or sink drains are blocked by an accumulation of extraneous material. Proper use of hose clamps and maintenance of the entire cooling system or alternative use of a portable cooling bath with suction feed can resolve such problems.

Plastic locking disconnects can make it easy to unfasten water lines without having to unclamp and reclamp secured lines. Some quick disconnects also incorporate check valves, which do not allow flow into or out of either half of the connection when disconnected. This feature allows for disconnecting and reconnecting with minimal spillage of water. To reduce the possibility of overpressurization of fittings or glassware, consider installing a vented pressure relief device on the water supply.

Interlocks are also available that shut off electrical power in the event of loss of coolant flow and are recommended for unattended operations.

Electrically powered equipment is used routinely for laboratory operations requiring heating, cooling, agitation or mixing, and pumping. Electrically powered equipment found in the laboratory includes fluid and vacuum pumps, lasers, power supplies, both electrophoresis and electrochemical apparatus, x-ray equipment, stirrers, hot plates, heating mantles, microwave ovens, and ultrasonicators. Attention must be paid to both the mechanical and the electrical hazards inherent in using these devices.

High-voltage and high-power requirements are increasingly prevalent; therefore prudent practices for handling these devices are increasingly necessary. Electric shock is the major electrical hazard. Although relatively low current of 10 mA poses some danger, 80 to mA can be fatal. In addition, if improperly used, electrical equipment can ignite flammable or explosive vapors. Most of the risks can be minimized by regular proper maintenance and a clear understanding of the correct use of the device.

Before beginning any work, all personnel should be shown and trained in the use of all electrical power sources and the location of emergency shutoff switches. Information about emergency procedures can be found in section 7. Particular caution must be exercised during installation, modification, and repair, as well as during use of the equipment.

Trained laboratory personnel should also consult state and local codes and regulations, which may contain special provisions and be more stringent than the NEC rules. All repair and calibration work on electrical equipment must be carried out by properly trained and qualified personnel. Before modification, installation, or even minor repairs of electrical equipment are carried out, the devices must be deenergized and all capacitors discharged safely.

All new electrical equipment should be inspected on receipt for a certification mark. If the device does not bear one of these certification marks, the device should be inspected by an electrician before it is put into service. Each person participating in any experiment involving the use of electrical equipment must be aware of all applicable equipment safety issues and be briefed on any potential problems.

Trained laboratory personnel can significantly reduce hazards and dangerous behavior by following some basic principles and techniques: checking and rechecking outlet receptacles section 7. All V outlet receptacles in laboratories should be of the standard design that accepts a three-prong plug and provides a ground connection. Replace two-prong receptacles as soon as feasible, and add a separate ground wire so that each receptacle is wired as shown in Figure 7. Representative design for a three-wire grounded outlet.

The design shown is for A, V service. The specific design will vary with amperage and voltage. It is also possible to fit a receptacle with a ground-fault circuit interrupter GFCI , which disconnects the current if a ground fault is detected. GFCI devices are required by local electrical codes for outdoor receptacles and for selected laboratory receptacles located less than 6 ft 1.

These devices differ in operation and purpose from fuses and circuit breakers, which are designed primarily to protect equipment and prevent electrical fires due to short circuits or other abnormally high current draw situations. Certain types of GFCIs cause equipment shutdowns at unexpected and inappropriate times; hence, their selection and use need careful planning. Be aware that GFCIs are not fail-safe devices. They significantly reduce the possibility of fatal shock but do not entirely eliminate it.

Locate receptacles that provide electric power for operations in laboratory chemical hoods outside the hood. This location prevents the production of electrical sparks inside the chemical hood when a device is plugged in or disconnected, and it also allows trained laboratory personnel to disconnect electrical devices from outside the hood in case of an accident.

Cords should not be routed in such a way that they can accidentally be pulled out of their receptacles or tripped over. Simple inexpensive plastic retaining strips and ties can be used to route cords safely. For laboratory chemical hoods with airfoils, route the electrical cords under the bottom airfoil so that the sash can be closed completely. Most airfoils are easily removed and replaced with a screwdriver.

Fit laboratory equipment plugged into a V or higher receptacle with a standard three-conductor line cord that provides an independent ground connection to the chassis of the apparatus see Figure 7. Ground all electrical equipment unless it is double-insulated.

This type of equipment has a two-conductor line cord that meets national codes and standards. The use of two-pronged cheaters to connect equipment with three-prong grounded plugs to old-fashioned two-wire outlets is hazardous and should be prohibited.

Standard wiring convention for V electric power to equipment. Use a standard three-conductor extension cord of sufficient rating for the connected equipment with an independent ground connection. In addition, good practice uses only extension cords equipped with a GFCI. Install electrical cables properly, even if only for temporary use, and keep them out of aisles and other traffic areas.

Install overhead racks and floor channel covers if wires must pass over or under walking areas. Do not intermingle signal and power cables in cable trays or panels. Special care is needed when installing and placing water lines used, for example, to cool equipment such as flash lamps for lasers so that they do not leak or produce condensation, which can dampen power cables nearby. Equipment plugged into an electrical receptacle should include a fuse or other overload protection device to disconnect the circuit if the apparatus fails or is overloaded.

This overload protection is particularly useful for equipment likely to be left on and unattended for a long time, such as variable autotransformers e. If equipment does not contain its own built-in overload protection, modify it to provide such protection or replace it with equipment that does. Overload protection does not protect the trained laboratory personnel from electrocution but does reduce the risk of fire.

Laboratory personnel should be certain that all electrical equipment is well maintained, properly located, and safely used. To do this, review the following precautions and make the necessary adjustments prior to working in the laboratory:. All laboratories should have access to a qualified technician who can make routine repairs to existing equipment and modifications to new or existing equipment so that it will meet acceptable standards for electrical safety.

When operating or servicing electrical equipment, be sure to follow basic safety precautions as summarized below. Unless laboratory personnel are specially trained to install or repair high-current or high-voltage equipment, reserve such tasks for trained electrical workers. The following reminders are included for qualified personnel:. The use of water aspirators is discouraged. Their use in filtration or solvent-removal operations involving volatile organic solvents presents a hazard that volatile chemicals will contaminate the wastewater and the sewer, even if traps are in place.

Water and sewer contamination may result in violation of local, state, or federal law. These devices also consume large volumes of water, present a flooding hazard, and can compromise local conservation measures. Distillation or similar operations requiring a vacuum must use a trapping device to protect the vacuum source, personnel, and the environment.

This requirement also applies to oil-free Teflon-lined diaphragm pumps. Normally the vacuum source is a cold trap cooled with dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Even with the use of a trap, the oil in a mechanical vacuum trap can become contaminated and the waste oil must be treated as a hazardous waste. Vent the output of each pump to a proper air exhaust system.

This procedure is essential when the pump is being used to evacuate a system containing a volatile toxic or corrosive substance. Failure to observe this precaution results in pumping the untrapped substances into the laboratory atmosphere. Scrubbing or absorbing the gases exiting the pump is also recommended. Even with these precautions, volatile toxic or corrosive substances may accumulate in the pump oil and thus be discharged into the laboratory atmosphere during future pump use.

Avoid this hazard by draining and replacing the pump oil when it becomes contaminated. Follow procedures recommended by the institution's environmental health and safety office for the safe disposal of pump oil contaminated with toxic or corrosive substances. General-purpose laboratory vacuum pumps should have a record of use to prevent cross-contamination or reactive chemical incompatibility problems.

Belt-driven mechanical pumps must have protective guards.

The Competitive Advantage of Nations

You need JavaScript enabled to view it. This document presents uniform standards for the design, construction and alteration of buildings so that physically handicapped persons will have ready access to and use of them in accordance with the Architectural Barriers Act, 42 U. The document embodies an agreement to minimize the differences between the standards previously used by four agencies the General Services Administration, the departments of Housing and Urban Development and Defense, and the United States Postal Service that are authorized to issue standards under the Architectural Barriers Act, and between those standards and the access standards recommended for facilities that are not federally funded or constructed. The four standard-setting agencies establish and enforce standards for design, construction, and alteration of particular types of buildings and facilities.

National prosperity is created, not inherited. They benefit from having strong domestic rivals, aggressive home-based suppliers, and demanding local customers. In a world of increasingly global competition, nations have become more, not less, important.

NCBI Bookshelf. Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity. Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment.

Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Print version

This document presents uniform standards for the design, construction and alteration of buildings so that physically handicapped persons will have ready access to and use of them in accordance with the Architectural Barriers Act, 42 U. The document embodies an agreement to minimize the differences between the standards previously used by four agencies the General Services Administration, the departments of Housing and Urban Development and Defense, and the United States Postal Service that are authorized to issue standards under the Architectural Barriers Act, and between those standards and the access standards recommended for facilities that are not federally funded or constructed. The four standard-setting agencies establish and enforce standards for design, construction, and alteration of particular types of buildings and facilities. Each of the four agencies issues standards in accordance with its statutory authority. The ATBCB is composed of members representing eleven Federal agencies the four standard-setting agencies; the departments of Education, Health and Human Services, Interior, Justice, Labor, and Transportation; and the Veterans Administration and eleven members appointed by the President from the general public. A amendment to Section of the Rehabilitation Act added to the ATBCB's functions the responsibility to issue minimum guidelines Guidelines and requirements for the standards established by the four standard-setting agencies. The four standard-setting agencies determined that the uniform standards adopted by them would, as much as possible, not only comply with the Guidelines adopted by the ATBCB but also be consistent with the standards published by the American National Standards Institute ANSI for general use.

United States Access Board

Bridging rivers, gorges, narrows, straits, and valleys always has played an important role in the history of human settlement. Since ancient times, bridges have been the most visible testimony of the noble craft of engineers. A bridge can be defined in many ways, but Andrea Palladio, the great 16th century Italian architect and engineer, hit on the essence of bridge building when he said " Since the beginning of time, the goal of bridge builders has been to create as wide a span as possible which is commodious, firm, and occasionally delightful.

Disclaimer: The above is not a complete or exhaustive list of items under exemptions or attracting concessional rates under GST.

Today's world runs on computers. Nearly every aspect of modern life involves computers in some form or fashion. As technology is advancing, the scale of computer use is increasing.

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The mechanical structure of an aircraft is known as the airframe. This structure is typically considered to include the fuselage , undercarriage , empennage and wings , and exclude the propulsion system. Airframe design is a field of aerospace engineering that combines aerodynamics , materials technology and manufacturing methods with a focus on weight, strength and aerodynamic drag , as well as reliability and cost.

An explanation of some terms used in structural engineering, architecture and construction in the UK. Definitions of structural engineering terms. Peters Rome Do you need an engineer, an architect or a surveyor? Glossary of Structural Engineering Terms. Acrow: A telescopic prop much used as a temporary support in construction. Named after the American manufacturer who first introduced them to the UK.

Jonathan P. Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Interestingly, not only do most of these sectors have roots in antiquity, but they also share a number of common general processes. For example, all are fundamentally based on the use of naturally occurring raw materials in powder or fine particulate form which are transformed by heat into the desired products.

Nov 2, - International Code Council at that time, including: Building Officials and Code Statement of Special Inspections. intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does rangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building service.

The Scheme aims at facilitating technology upgradation by providing upfront capital subsidy to SSI units, including tiny, khadi, village and coir industrial units, on institutional finance credit availed of by them for modernisation of their production equipment plant and machinery and techniques. The eligible amount of subsidy calculated under the pre-revised scheme was based on the actual loan amount not exceeding Rs. It is in this background that the Finance Minister made an announcement in the Budget Speech of to raise the ceiling for loans under the Scheme from Rs. Further, in the light of the experience gathered in implementing the Scheme, certain other modifications were also required to make it more useful to the SSI units, including tiny, khadi, village and coir industrial units, in taking up technology upgradation on a larger scale. The revised scheme aims at facilitating technology upgradation by providing 15 per cent upfront capital subsidy with effect from the 29 th September, 12 per cent prior to

Plastic , polymeric material that has the capability of being molded or shaped, usually by the application of heat and pressure. This property of plasticity , often found in combination with other special properties such as low density , low electrical conductivity, transparency, and toughness, allows plastics to be made into a great variety of products. These include tough and lightweight beverage bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate PET , flexible garden hoses made of polyvinyl chloride PVC , insulating food containers made of foamed polystyrene , and shatterproof windows made of polymethyl methacrylate. In this article a brief review of the essential properties of plastics is provided, followed by a more detailed description of their processing into useful products and subsequent recycling.

Last updated: September 1, Y ou started your morning with ceramics—and they'll dominate your day. Inside your brick, cement, and glass home, you woke to the quartz clock, washed in the tiled bathroom, breakfasted on pottery cups and bowls. Maybe you worked all day at a computer packed with ceramic-based electronic components, like microchips , capacitors , or resistors , before heading back home for a glass of wine, gobbled down dinner from those same pottery plates, and sat in front of the liquid-crystal TV or Gorilla glass smartphone , before heading for bed and setting the quartz clock, ready to repeat again tomorrow.

Metal Shoring Trench Pro one of the best places to rent trench and excavation safety equipment, provides shoring solutions to the underground construction industry, including utility contractors, excavating companies, and general contractors.

In cases where these groupings correspond with major groups, the major group heading is also in italics. The assembly of products from component parts is considered to be Manufacturing, except in cases where the activity is appropriately classified under Construction. The assembly and installation of machinery and equipment in mining, manufacturing, commercial and other business establishments is classified under the same group of Manufacturing as the manufacture of the item installed. Excluded is the assembly on site of prefabricated, integral parts of bridges, water tanks, storage and warehouse facilities, railway and elevated pedestrian bridges, and lift, escalator, plumbing, sprinkler, central heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, lighting and electrical wiring systems for buildings and mines and all kinds of structures which are construction activities if undertaken as a specialised activity.

- Раз у человека в паспорте был наш номер, то скорее всего он наш клиент. Поэтому я мог бы избавить вас от хлопот с полицией. - Не знаю… - В голосе слышалась нерешительность.  - Я бы только… - Не надо спешить, друг. Мне стыдно это говорить, но полиция у нас в Севилье далеко не так эффективна, как на севере.

Послышались гудки. Беккер разглядывал зал. Один гудок… два… три… Внезапно он увидел нечто, заставившее его бросить трубку. Беккер повернулся и еще раз оглядел больничную палату.

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