Manufacture building cotton Yarn
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Yarn Manufacturing Process -- Rotor Spinning -- Spinning Machine -- wayfarer bd
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Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products.
Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year , the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. There are six stages: . Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity. Indian cotton, Gossypium arboreum , is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing.
American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , produces the longer staple needed for machine production. The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers that remove the entire boll from the plant. The cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton plant; attached to each of the thousands of seeds are fibres about 2.
Scutching refers to the process of cleaning cotton of its seeds and other impurities. The first scutching machine was invented in , but did not come into further mainstream use until after or , when it was introduced and used in Manchester, England.
By , it had become generally adopted. The scutching machine worked by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, and then striking it with iron or steel bars called beater bars or beaters. The beaters, which turn very quickly, strike the cotton hard and knock the seeds out. This process is done over a series of parallel bars so as to allow the seeds to fall through. At the same time, air is blown across the bars, which carries the cotton into a cotton chamber.
The weaving process uses a loom. The lengthway threads are known as the warp , and the cross way threads are known as the weft.
The warp, which must be strong, needs to be presented to loom on a warp beam. The weft passes across the loom in a shuttle , that carries the yarn on a pirn. These pirns are automatically changed by the loom. Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto pirns before weaving can commence. When a hand loom was located in the home, children helped with the weaving process from an early age. Piecing needs dexterity, and a child can be as productive as an adult.
When weaving moves from the home to the mill, children are often allowed to help their older sisters, and laws have to be made to prevent child labour becoming established. Knitting by machine is done in two different ways; warp and weft. Weft knitting as seen in the pictures is similar in method to hand knitting with stitches all connected to each other horizontally. Various weft machines can be configured to produce textiles from a single spool of yarn or multiple spools depending on the size of the machine cylinder where the needles are bedded.
In a warp knit there are many pieces of yarn and there are vertical chains, zigzagged together by crossing the cotton yarn. Warp knits do not stretch as much as a weft knit, and it is run-resistant.
A weft knit is not run-resistant, but stretches more. This is especially true if spools of spandex are processed from separate spool containers and interwoven through the cylinder with cotton yarn, giving the finished product more flexibility and making it less prone to having a 'baggy' appearance.
The average t-shirt is a weft knit. The woven cotton fabric in its loom-state not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential. Furthermore, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes.
Production of cotton requires arable land. Native Indian varieties of cotton were rainwater fed, but modern hybrids used for the mills need irrigation, which spreads pests. The consumption of energy in form of water and electricity is relatively high, especially in processes like washing, de-sizing, bleaching, rinsing, dyeing, printing, coating and finishing.
Processing is time consuming. The major portion of water in textile industry is used for wet processing of textile 70 per cent. Approximately 25 per cent of energy in the total textile production like fibre production, spinning, twisting, weaving, knitting, clothing manufacturing etc. About 34 per cent of energy is consumed in spinning, 23 per cent in weaving, 38 per cent in chemical wet processing and five per cent in miscellaneous processes. Power dominates consumption pattern in spinning and weaving, while thermal energy is the major factor for chemical wet processing.
However, due to carbon emissions from fertiliser application, use of mechanized tools to harvest the cotton, The growth of cotton is divided into two segments i. Genetically modified products aim to increase disease resistance and reduce the water required. Before mechanisation, cotton was harvested manually by farmers in India and by African slaves in America.
In Uzbekistan was a major exporter of cotton and uses manual labour during the harvest. Human rights groups claim that health care professionals and children are forced to pick cotton. Flax is a bast fibre , which means it comes in bundles under the bark of the Linum usitatissimum plant. The plant flowers and is harvested. It is now treated like cotton.
Jute is a bast fibre , which comes from the inner bark of the plants of the Corchorus genus. It is retted like flax, sundried and baled. When spinning a small amount of oil must be added to the fibre. It can be bleached and dyed. It was used for sacks and bags but is now used for the backing for carpets. In the s, jute-cotton composite fabrics were known as jutton fabrics. Hemp is a bast fibre from the inner bark of Cannabis sativa. It is difficult to bleach, it is used for making cord and rope.
These bast fibres can also be used: kenaf , urena , ramie , nettle. Wool comes from domesticated sheep. It forms two products, woolens and worsteds.
The sheep has two sorts of wool and it is the inner coat that is used. This can be mixed with wool that has been recovered from rags. Shoddy is the term for recovered wool that is not matted, while mungo comes from felted wool.
The fleece is cut in one piece from the sheep. This is then skirted to remove the soiled wool, and baled. It is graded into long wool where the fibres can be up to 15 in, but anything over 2. Fibres less than that form short wool and are described as clothing or carding wool.
At the mill the wool is scoured in a detergent to remove grease the yolk and impurities. This is done mechanically in the opening machine. Vegetable matter can be removed chemically using sulphuric acid carbonising. Washing uses a solution of soap and sodium carbonate. The wool is oiled before carding or combing. The processes in silk production are similar to those of cotton but take account that reeled silk is a continuous fibre.
The terms used are different. Both wool and silk require farmland. Whereas silkworms require mulberry leaves, sheep eat grass, clover, forbs and other pasture plants.
Sheep, like all ruminants emit CO2 via their digestive system. Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive development by scientists to improve upon the naturally occurring animal and plant fibres. In general, synthetic fibres are created by forcing, or extruding , fibre forming materials through holes called spinnerets into the air, thus forming a thread. Before synthetic fibres were developed, cellulose fibres were made from natural cellulose , which comes from plants.
The first artificial fibre, known as art silk from onwards, became known as viscose around , and finally rayon in A similar product known as cellulose acetate was discovered in Rayon and acetate are both artificial fibres, but not truly synthetic, being made from wood.
Although these artificial fibres were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century, successful modern manufacture began much later in the s. Nylon , the first synthetic fibre, made its debut in the United States as a replacement for silk , and was used for parachutes and other military uses. The techniques used to process these fibres in yarn are essentially the same as with natural fibres, modifications have to be made as these fibres are of great length, and have no texture such as the scales in cotton and wool that aid meshing.
Unlike natural fibres, produced by plants, animals or insects, synthetic fibres are made from fossil fuels , and thus require no farmland. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods. Main article: Textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution.
Main article: Carding.
Printer-Friendly Version. Error in element see logs Yarn Production. Modernization efforts have brought major changes to the U. Equipment has been streamlined and many operations have been fully automated with computers. Machine speeds have greatly increased.
How is fabric created?
Cotton is a shrubby plant that is a member of the Mallow family. Its name refers to the cream-colored fluffy fibers surrounding small cottonseeds called a boll. The small, sticky seeds must be separated from the wool in order to process the cotton for spinning and weaving. De-seeded cotton is cleaned, carded fibers aligned , spun, and woven into a fabric that is also referred to as cotton. Cotton is easily spun into yarn as the cotton fibers flatten, twist, and naturally interlock for spinning. Cotton fabric alone accounts for fully half of the fiber worn in the world. It is a comfortable choice for warm climates in that it easily absorbs skin moisture. Most of the cotton cultivated in the United States is a short-staple cotton that grows in the American South. Cotton is planted annually by using the seeds found within the downy wool. Together, these states produce approximately 16 million bales a year, second only to China.
Jyoti Nagar, Jaipur No. Jaipur, Rajasthan. Panipat, Haryana. Ludhiana, Punjab.
Провал. Мысль о том, что придется отстоять в очереди несколько часов, была невыносима. Время идет, старик канадец может куда-нибудь исчезнуть.
Неужели все это происходит со мной? - подумал. - Я же терпеть не могу мотоциклы. Он крикнул парню: - Десять тысяч, если отвезете меня в аэропорт.
Нет, коммандер! - вскрикнула Сьюзан. - Нет. Хейл сжал ее горло. - Если вы вызовете службу безопасности, она умрет. Стратмор вытащил из-под ремня мобильник и набрал номер.
- Ничего себе чрезвычайная ситуация. Хотя большинство отделов АНБ работали в полном составе семь дней в неделю, по субботам в шифровалке было тихо. По своей природе математики-криптографы - неисправимые трудоголики, поэтому существовало неписаное правило, что по субботам они отдыхают, если только не случается нечто непредвиденное. Взломщики шифров были самым ценным достоянием АНБ, и никто не хотел, чтобы они сгорали на работе. Сьюзан посмотрела на корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА, видневшийся справа.
Шум генераторов, расположенных восемью этажами ниже, звучал сегодня в ее ушах необычайно зловеще.
Что-то шевельнулось в углу. Сьюзан подняла. На плюшевом диване, закутавшись в махровый халат, грелся на солнце Дэвид и внимательно за ней наблюдал. Она протянула руку, поманив его к .
При этом дерево иногда приходится потрясти, чтобы собрать подгнившие плоды. И я уверена, что большинство наших граждан готовы поступиться некоторыми правами, но знать, что негодяи не разгуливают на свободе. Хейл промолчал.
Маломощный двигатель отчаянно выл, стараясь одолеть подъем. Беккер выжал из него все, что мог, и отчаянно боялся, что мотоцикл заглохнет в любую минуту. Нельзя было даже оглянуться: такси остановится в любой момент и снова начнется стрельба.
Она судорожно ловила ртом воздух, извиваясь в руках Хейла.
Угадать ключи к ним невозможно. Если вы думаете, что можно ввести шестьсот миллионов ключей за сорок пять минут, то пожалуйста. - Ключ находится в Испании, - еле слышно произнесла Сьюзан, и все повернулись к.
Это были ее первые слова за очень долгое время. Сьюзан подняла голову.
Она побледнела. - Что с тобой? - удивленно спросил Хейл. Сьюзан встретилась с ним взглядом и прикусила губу. - Ничего, - выдавила. Но это было не. Терминал Хейла ярко светился.
Хейл вскипел: - Послушайте меня, старина. Вы отпускаете меня и Сьюзан на вашем лифте, мы уезжаем, и через несколько часов я ее отпускаю. Стратмор понял, что ставки повышаются.