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6 Pipe Hanger

The invention relates to the field of electrometallurgy, chemical ore thermal mining and other industries where electric furnaces are used for melting high-silicon, carbide and other refractory and various materials.

Known Keller electric furnace with a "hot" conductive hearth, which was used for melting steel and ferroalloys [1 and 2]. The furnace consists of a metal casing lined from the inside with heat-insulating and refractory materials, on the bottom of which there is a cast-iron or iron plate with water cooling. On the surface of the plate facing the inside of the furnace bath, iron rods mm in diameter are soldered or cast iron at the base at a distance from one another, equal to the diameter of the rod.

Their length is such that the ends through the magnesite heel made in the space between the rods go inside the bath. This rod structure with a water-cooled plate and magnesite packing represents both the bottom bottom and the bottom electrode. The furnace bath is covered from above by a refractory vault enclosed in a metal frame, through which a carbon or graphite electrode vertically enters the working space through the seal and moved through the reversible drive through the central opening through the seal.

In a single-phase system, the electrical contact terminals of the electrode are connected by a current lead - copper busbars and flexible copper tapes or a cable to one of the poles LV terminals of the transformer, and the aforementioned hearth electrode is connected by a current lead to the other pole of the transformer LV leads. The current passes from the terminals of the LV transformer through the current lead and the upper electrode, the molten charge, melt, bottom hearth electrode to the inputs of the LV transformer.

The design of the hearth of the Keller furnace, as part of the energy supply, has significant disadvantages:. As a consequence of these shortcomings, a breakthrough and metal escape through the bottom.

This furnace eliminated the drawback of the Keller furnace associated with the presence of hearth electrodes protruding into the metal bath. As one of the poles in the hearth of the furnace, graphite or carbon electrodes in the form of plates are embedded, to which current is supplied through the tire tips and a small layer of coal packing on the bottom of the metal casing of the furnace.

On top of the coal plates is a thick dolomite or magnesite heel heel. In the most successful version, with two upper carbon electrodes passing through the holes in the dinas vault inside a rectangular bath with refractory walls and a hearth described above, electric current passes from the transformer through current leads, upper electrodes, electric arcs, charge thickness, molten metal and through the lining hearths. Having a significant ohmic resistance, the lining is heated and gives its heat to the molten material and liquid metal, i.

When heated from below from the hot hearth , heat, in addition to thermal conductivity, quickly spreads by convection currents in the molten metal, in addition, convection currents create conditions for good mixing of the bath, which speeds up the process and improves the quality of the product being smelted.

The furnace, as a melting unit with a hot hearth, generally worked well, but the most refractory material for it was soft iron charge. In the process of operation, a drawback organically inherent in all such furnaces was revealed - the low durability of the hearth. This is explained by the fact that to implement the main idea of a hot-hearth furnace - to create a hearth that, due to the ohmic resistance to the passing current, would be hotter than the metal and continuously give it a significant amount of heat, was unrealistic, because thermal energy is released in a layer of considerable thickness, low thermal conductivity, and this invariably leads to a significant increase in temperature - before the softening of technical magnesite begins.

The closest technical solution to the proposed invention is the Mige furnace Mige - Perron [1 and 3]. All Mige furnaces are single-phase units with a round bath with one vertical hanging and one baking electrode. The basis of the layout of the furnace, and thereby the supply of electricity, is the location of the transformer under the furnace.

The power of these furnaces with such transformers of special design of insignificant height reached 20, kVA. A single-phase transformer has a significant number of low voltage LV leads and bushings on the cover, arranged so that the end and beginning of the LV windings are close by. Due to this, the bus connection is almost bifilar and has a low reactance.

The bus from the transformer diverges in the form of horizontal bus packets that connect the terminals and inputs of the LV transformer with vertical bus packets or bronze current-carrying furnace casings. Half of all current-carrying tires or, accordingly, the inner bronze casing are connected to a conductive coal hearth; the second half of the tires or the external current-carrying casing, rising above the shaft bath of the furnace, are connected to the hanging electrode, lowered into the shaft of the furnace.

The Mige electric furnace electrode has a significant diameter up to 4 m on furnaces with a capacity of about 11, kVA , consists of several carbon sections — self-sintering and extruded, has a large mass and is complex and expensive, requiring a suspension and drive drive - a complex two-wheel drive winch, which is one of the serious design flaws of Mige.

The essence of the Mige furnace design is also the device of the furnace hearth bottom electrode and the supply of current to it.

The hearth of the furnace rests on a complex reinforced concrete beam, which is the overlap of the furnace transformer chamber. This beam has a number of openings for the passage of live parts, through which air can leak to the hearth, so it is necessary to carefully seal it to protect the coal part from burning out.

Sealing is achieved by lining the bottom of the furnace bath with a lead sheet of 6 mm thickness, on which a cylinder of the same sheet is placed, equal in height to the lining of the hearth. All seams of the formed lead vessel are carefully soldered, which guarantees the tightness of the system. A cast-iron water-cooled stove is placed at the bottom of the lead vessel, on which the lining of the hearth is laid, consisting of fireclay lining and two rows of coal blocks.

In the coal sector, having a cutout, a copper cast plate pyramidal shape with a base expanding upward is laid with a pipe for cooling water poured into it. The machined surface of the plate is the contact point to which tires are applied, supplying current to the sector. The cut in all measurements is mm larger than the plate, therefore, after installing the plate in the cut, the gap formed on all sides is tightly clogged by the hot electrode mass, which is also a mechanical bond and provides reliable electrical contact between the plate and the coal sector.

Such water-cooled contacts, each of which carries a current of 2 to 4 thousand amperes, and the number of which reaches several dozen pieces for example, 80 pieces on an electric furnace with a capacity of kVA , work quite reliably, primarily due to the complex system water cooling.

Intensive cooling of the hearth presents a constant danger of explosions when the hearth is consumed and a significant amount of heat is carried away with the waste water. Used for the production of: calcium carbide, ferroalloys, barium aluminate, alumina cement and other refractory materials of the Mige furnace for these industries are the best of the known technological devices, but the original and complex construction is much more expensive than other electric furnaces of a similar purpose and more expensive to operate.

This invention is directed to the creation of an ore-thermal electric furnace, with a hot hearth and inextricably linked with it, the corresponding special design of a high-current current lead of increased reliability and operational safety. In this case, the hearth electrode built into the bottom of the furnace bathtub is non-water-cooled, and the durability and operational safety of its operation with stable electrical conductivity is ensured by the fact that along the entire contact surface with the carbon part of the bottom located on top, it is equipped with an electrically conductive heat-insulating layer ETIS.

In addition, the maximum approximation of the bathtub of the closed electric furnace to the transformer supplying it, within the limits allowed by the safety conditions provided by the PUE, allows the main parts of the high current supply of the furnace to be made extremely short, and the possibility of using flexible cables as conductors makes the current leads compact, which , in general, determines the reduction of ohmic and reactive energy losses.

An important feature of the proposed hot-hearth electric furnace, especially when the quality of raw materials is deteriorated or traditional raw materials are replaced by non-traditional ones, for example, in the production of calcium carbide of limestone and lime with chalk, is its ability to operate stably, with operational reliability, and to economically produce products of the required quality with increased productivity.

Substantiation of significant novelty, distinctive design features and achieved technical and economic results of the proposed ore-thermal electric furnace with a hot bottom and a high-current current supply. The technical, economic and production results of the proposed electric furnace are ensured by its combination of significant novelty, distinctive design features with their experimentally tested execution of technical solutions that create effective advantages over known electric furnaces of a similar industrial purpose.

A distinctive feature of the proposed design of an ore-thermal electric furnace is that the hearth electrode is made in the form of a horizontal, one-piece, non-water-cooled metal plate, for example, of rolled steel, equal in area of the furnace bath, and over the entire contact surface with the carbon part of the hearth located on top of the hearth electrode, it is electrically conductive - thermal insulation layer ETIS , consisting, for example, of uniformly spaced concentric rows or staggered, electrically conductive x current-carrying and at the same time supporting columns, for example of graphite or siliconized graphite: cylindrical, square, lamellar or other form and filled with space between them with an inert material with respect to the columns, for example, soot, fine powder graphite or boron carbonitride.

In this case, the conductive columns are made of the same height by conventional sawing in a simple fixture, for example, a cylindrical shape made of graphite electrodes of a certain diameter. Moreover, this is not an expensive constructive solution, given that with the correct choice of the size of the columns and reliable sealing of the furnace casing, the service life of the columns is almost unlimited, especially if you use them from silicon graphite.

Columns perform simultaneously two important tasks: transmit electric current between the conductive hearth and the hearth electrode and carry mechanical load from the mass of the carbon hearth, charge and melt. This mechanical load simultaneously performs a useful task, providing high-quality, reliable electrical contact of the electrical contact end planes of the columns with a carbon conductive hearth and a bottom electrode. At the same time, the columns prevent harmful compression, compaction and alteration of the physicotechnical properties under high temperature conditions of bulk heat and electrical insulating materials filling the space between the columns mentioned above soot, etc.

In relation to these materials, we give only one example that is characteristic of their entire specified group. Soot, which is used in this case, and similar material is produced by the enterprise in the republic-object of the Russian Federation.

Soot carbon black , a dispersed product, consists of spherical particles with a size of nm n - one billionth of a meter. The soot consumption in the mentioned production due to its repeated use is not large, and when it is used in the lining of the bathtub of the proposed electric furnace, due to the infrequent replacement of the lining, by the volume of products produced is not significant.

A feature of ETIS, as a component of an ore-thermal furnace with a hot hearth and a high-current current supply, is not only the reliable operation of the hot hearth and the hearth electrode, as a critical part of the current supply, but also the reliable operation of the ETIS itself, both in electrical thermal insulation and warming of the hearth and transmission electricity with the least loss from the carbon part of the hearth to the hearth electrode and vice versa, as well as thermal insulation - protection of the hearth electrode from the carbon hearth from overheating and combustion, those.

Depending on the power supplied to the electric furnace, a distinctive feature of the proposed design is the ratio of the parameters of the hot hearth elements: the ratio between the total contact area of the conductive columns and the area of the heat-insulating part of the ETIS is in the range of 0. A similar optimal dependence of the arrangement of columns can be performed for their other geometric shapes. For each specific case, taking into account the electric furnace power, current strength and voltage value, the indicated optimal dependence of the arrangement of ETIS elements columns, bulk material, layer thickness is selected and determined by the value of the uniformly distributed allowable current load transferred by the columns to the bottom electrode, in the specified range of ratios areas contact and heat-insulating.

It must also be taken into account that all the indicated ratios also depend on the quality and physical and technical characteristics of the materials used to create ETIS, which are guaranteed by their suppliers and, if necessary, can be checked at the installation site of the electric furnace. With an optimal solution, reliability of thermal insulation and the operation of the hearth electrode and rational, efficient heating of the working surface of the carbon part of the hearth are achieved.

The search for optimal solutions was carried out purposefully for the possible use of the results in some of the most probable objects of implementation - different in design single-phase one and two electrode furnaces for industrial purposes with a capacity of to 20, kVA, actually achieved in operation in the production of various, including refractory, materials , as well as three-phase electric furnaces for this purpose, taking into account the specifics of their work, the phases of which consist structurally of three two-electrode nofaznyh groups, each of which is equipped with its single-phase transformer, and the total capacity of the furnace is more than 60 MVA, cm.

The timeliness of the proposed constructive solution of single-phase hot-hearth electric furnaces is due to important factors. Almost everywhere the quality of traditional raw materials is deteriorating, where possible - it becomes necessary to replace it with non-traditional. Where raw materials generally disappear, it is necessary to prepare for waste disposal. For example, such a situation in our country is already developing with the production of carbide and manganese alloys.

A radical improvement of single-phase electric furnaces is the creation of a technically simple and reliable solution for the construction of a hot hearth, which at a new technical level returns to them the ability of unsurpassed technological units that can melt practically any, including low-quality raw materials in an energy-saving mode, as well as use unconventional raw materials and recycled waste, and what is especially important - to receive high-quality products in each case.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, where Fig. An ore-thermal furnace with a hot hearth and a high-current current lead see Fig. A feature of the above-mentioned current lead 4 is that it is mainly created from flexible structural elements and its length is permissible short and is determined by the ratio: described above. In this case, the reversible-movable electrode 6, mounted in the electrical contact clamp 5, is moved by means of an electro-hydraulic or electromechanical drive both known designs are not shown in the drawing , under the influence of an automatic power regulator also of a known design, from the middle position vertically by a distance l 2 - down in the bath 10 in the working position or up from it upon termination of the process.

The flexible parts of the current supply 4 are compact small sections occupying it copper, having contact surfaces, transition elements of a generally accepted design not shown in the drawing , used to attach the tips of the flexible cable or contact plates of copper flexible tapes to the terminals of the transformer 1 and to the corresponding mating elements of the furnace design.

The current lead 7, as indicated above, is fixed to the locally water-cooled outer terminal 8 of the bottom electrode 9. These details, which are clear from the description, are not shown in the drawing. In addition to the descriptions given in the text of the drawing, the following are indicated: 16 — cover — shelter of the furnace, of a known frame structure, protected on the fire side by refractory material.

Built in the cover 16, along its central axis, a loading funnel - 17, of known design, for loading charge materials 18 into the annular space around the electrode 6. This is a domestic constructive solution for loading charge materials around each electrode buried in the charge, directly above the around its lower and lateral surface - melting mining 19, it has fully justified itself both technologically and environmentally.

Since the intensity of the melting of the charge fed and directed directly into the zone of its melting increases markedly, which contributes to the rapid formation of the melt 20 of the resulting product and the normal course of the process.

The drawing also shows: taphole 21 for the release of the finished product and 22 - room or fence for transformer 1. Depending on the raw materials used, indicated above, it is necessary to ensure three or more single-phase furnaces with a capacity of kVA immediately or sequentially, one after the other, to take into account the possible load on the supply network.

The indicated must be taken into account during the further operation of the carbide workshop, since electric furnaces require periodic shutdowns for routine preventive maintenance, and it is necessary to plan the sequence of their short-term shutdowns. As the development of carbide production, its profitability, as a rule, increases. There is a material possibility and the need for a more substantial increase in its productivity with minimal investment.

For this purpose, it is possible to sequentially equip each furnace with the same power and electrical parameters as an additional transformer. Moreover, the productivity of each furnace and production as a whole will increase by at least two times, i.

Structurally, this is performed as follows. Transformers 1 are installed side by side. Conclusions 2 and inputs 3 of both transformers by means of flexible current leads 4 and current lead 7 are grouped and connected to the electrical terminal 5 of the electrode 6 and terminal 8 of the bottom electrode 9. All ratios of the structural dimensions and parameters of the energy supply elements in this case correspond to the ratios and parameters given in the description and the claims for use in the device of a single phase transformer.

Experience has shown that the fulfillment of such a condition does not cause difficulties and the resulting equalizing currents from the parallel switching on of transformers are so small that they allow them to work continuously for almost unlimited time.

In the same way, and with the fulfillment of similar conditions, it is possible to connect three single-phase transformers to each furnace with an increase in the productivity of electric furnaces and the entire production by at least three times, i.

Experience has shown that the described carbide production can be organized on the basis of stopped engineering workshops if the supplied electric power and their structural structure meets the requirements inherent in the electrochemical production of calcium cabide. For example, the columns of the workshop should be reinforced concrete, and one of its sides along the front of the furnaces must be glazed, etc.

An electric furnace with a hot hearth and a high-current current supply will make it possible to start the creation of carbide production, starting all work with only one electric furnace, taking into account the described features of its requirements for raw materials and increased productivity with reduced energy consumption: electricity, cooling water, and the use of cheaper electrodes , followed by increasing its power and productivity, as described above.

And the last thing mentioned above is the real possible use of the proposed constructive solution of hot hearth on single-phase single-electrode furnaces of not only low power up to kVA, and average power up to 20, kVA, and two-electrode for smelting refractory alloys, but also multi-electrode three-phase furnaces high power to st. The feature of ETIS operation in this case will be determined by the fact that a non-water-cooled hearth electrode will act as an electrical link not only in phases but also between phase groups, which will further increase the stable operation of the electric furnace and the stable process flow with a high level of energy saving, with less dependence of the furnace on the quality of raw materials with high productivity of the required product quality.

In this case, intense and uniform heating of the charge simultaneously by electrodes and bottom plays a decisive role.

Electric Smelting at Bureau of Mines Seeks Utilization of Northwest Ores

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The invention relates to the field of electrometallurgy, chemical ore thermal mining and other industries where electric furnaces are used for melting high-silicon, carbide and other refractory and various materials. Known Keller electric furnace with a "hot" conductive hearth, which was used for melting steel and ferroalloys [1 and 2]. The furnace consists of a metal casing lined from the inside with heat-insulating and refractory materials, on the bottom of which there is a cast-iron or iron plate with water cooling.

This application claims benefit pursua U. Espe invention relates to an activated carbon havi stocking property, and high adsorption quant such as hydrocarbon gas having low molecular if BET specific surface area is low. Also th relates to an activated carbon useful as m Background Art. Natural gas mainly contains methane Generally speaking, an activated carbon bein BET specific surface area and being larger i micro pore having pore diameter of lnm or le more adsorption of gas having small molecula as methane, ethane, or other hydrocarbon gas molecular weight, or hydrogen. In JP-A is described an acti obtained by activating with alkali metallic co activated carbon has volume of micro pore, wh diameter of approximately 0.

RU2550983C1 - Ore-thermal furnace with hot hearth and high-current lead - Google Patents

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От раздавшегося взрыва содрогнулся весь комплекс Агентства национальной безопасности. Лиланд Фонтейн, Чед Бринкерхофф и Мидж Милкен в безмолвном ужасе смотрели на открывшуюся их глазам картину. Тридцатью метрами ниже горел купол шифровалки. Поликарбонатная крыша еще была цела, но под ее прозрачной оболочкой бушевало пламя.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Elixir's Molded Carbon Aircraft

Ты уверен, что его никто не купил. - Да вы все спятили. Это за четыреста-то баксов. Я сказал ей, что даю пятьдесят, но она хотела. Ей надо было выкупить билет на самолет - если найдется свободное место перед вылетом.

WO2007037508A1 - Activated carbon and process of making the same - Google Patents

Танкадо не посмеет этого сделать! - воскликнула.  - Уничтожить всю нашу секретную информацию? - Сьюзан не могла поверить, что Танкадо совершит нападение на главный банк данных АНБ. Она перечитала его послание. СЕЙЧАС ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА - Правда? - спросила.  - Какая правда. Стратмор тяжело дышал. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

tural materials on the competitiveness of the U.S. manufacturing sector, and offers policy options for advanced materials products after the manufac- turing problems have ample is the construction of the composite air- strength carbon fiber used to cost $, but now quire an insulating ceramic, probably zirconia or.

Он был установлен на задней стороне компьютерного кольца и обращен в сторону шифровалки. Со своего места Сьюзан могла видеть всю комнату, а также сквозь стекло одностороннего обзора ТРАНСТЕКСТ, возвышавшийся в самом центре шифровалки.

Сьюзан посмотрела на часы. Она ждет уже целый час.

Хейл улыбнулся: - Ну конечно… Принцип Бергофского. - А также здравый смысл! - отрезала. - Кто знает… - Хейл театрально вздохнул.

Беккер здесь… Я чувствую, что. Он двигался методично, обходя один ряд за другим. Наверху лениво раскачивалась курильница, описывая широкую дугу. Прекрасное место для смерти, - подумал Халохот.

Почему Стратмор отмел такую возможность.

Нет, - сконфуженно ответила. - Ты нашла ключ. Сьюзан покачала головой. Стратмор наморщил лоб и прикусил губу.

Сьюзан плюхнулась обратно в ванну. - Ох! - Она не могла скрыть разочарование.  - Здравствуйте, шеф. - Думала, кое-кто помоложе? - засмеялся Стратмор. - Да нет, сэр, - попыталась она сгладить неловкость.

Туда и обратно, - повторил он мысленно. ГЛАВА 31 Сьюзан вернулась в Третий узел. После разговора со Стратмором она начала беспокоиться о безопасности Дэвида, а ее воображение рисовало страшные картины. - Ну, - послышался голос Хейла, склонившегося над своим компьютером, - и чего же хотел Стратмор.

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  1. Vulkree

    I congratulate, an excellent idea