Manufacturing industrial products from porcelain, faience, semi-porcelain and majolica
For the convenience of bidders, the material is structured in chronological order: "Russian porcelain and faience XIX century — ", "Early Soviet porcelain and faience. The Russian Emperor is depicted in two forms: as a tireless and humble worker, and at the same time — the Great helmsman, saving from certain death he entrusted the ship, personifying the state. Most of the early vases, created at the factory Kornilov, in its forms and murals done in the style of the products of the St. It is manufactured at the plant Batenin and decorated with the image by the engraving K. Steiben "Peter on lake Ladoga".VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: RAK Porcelain
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Historicism and Art Nouveau in nineteenth-century decorative arts were the result of a fellowship that developed soon after between science, industry, art, and education, in part to supply the rapidly growing industrial society with contemporary-style home furnishings.
The decoration of these objects was based on the intellectual foundations of historicism: reverence and adaptation of past historical forms and designs combined with innovation and the expansion of available technologies.
In the case of ceramics, nineteenth-century scientific research at European factories promoted experimentation by ceramic craftsmen to revive forgotten historical forms, production techniques, and firing processes, which ultimately made possible the development of a modern style. Toward the end of the century, chemists and technicians with decades of experience were at work in the applied arts industries, and artists, by then weary of historicism, began to translate new aesthetic visions into Art Nouveau.
With the steady advance and technical modernization of European factories, fueled by financial competition among applied arts manufactories, came an expectation for these factories to create lasting innovations in form and design. From to , when decorative arts were often characterized by historicism, the development of new materials, production methods, and technological refinements, coupled with a broad aesthetic and decorative vocabulary, exceeded similar developments from previous centuries and remains unsurpassed today.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, advancing industrialization, explosive population growth in the cities, and an economic upswing despite competition between manufactories supported the visions of applied art entrepreneurs such as those who founded the Zsolnay factory in During the eighteenth century in Europe, the discovery and widespread dissemination of the formula to create high-fired hard-paste porcelain like that produced in China had lessened the importance and popularity of other types of ceramic materials.
For use in royal ceremonial rooms and for the courtly table, porcelain was the preferred ceramic body. Faience, or tin-glazed earthenware, consequently fell out of favor, and ceramic bodies fired at lower temperatures than porcelain, popular since the late seventeenth century, were steadily replaced by the new material. However, during the third quarter of the nineteenth century, interest in historical design, as well as a growing search for novelty among competing manufactories, raised the artistic status of earthenware bodies like faience, or majolica, which embraced revival designs based on historicism.
As technology was refined, these readily available and diverse ceramic materials played a central role in the ornamentation of palaces and public buildings built for the European monarchy and citizenry.
The stylistic development of ceramics in the second half of the nineteenth century was strongly shaped by applied arts schools and pedagogically active museums that were connected to them. Professionals at these museums exercised great influence on the selection of museum collections and materials for educational instruction while serving as jurors at international exhibitions and writing on ceramic styles.
Even the traditional firm sent ceramic pieces that followed the latest stylistic trends to the large international exhibitions.
The moment could hardly have been more favorable. During the second half of the nineteenth century, which largely focused on technological progress, every ceramic factory owner could expect maximum attention and publicity when he revolutionized his production and responded to the contemporary demand for improved production technologies and formulas for industrial and architectural ceramics. However, while there were more connoisseurs of old art and culture among the middle class than ever before, there were also a growing number of highly cultivated collectors who furnished their houses with artistic, technologically progressive objects in accordance with the notion of interior design as a Gesamtkunstwerk total work of art.
The Zsolnay factory became one of the successful hybrid ceramic factories producing wares for both a traditional and a progressive clientele. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, in which the small Zsolnay firm expanded into a large enterprise, Vilmos Zsolnay had to deal with modern competition from Western European ceramic factories. They produced traditional faience and porcelain, which had acquired a large circle of customers, as well as more reasonably priced, modern earthenware.
This new generation of courageous entrepreneurs did not cater to the taste of royalty as had eighteenth-century ceramicists, but rather bet their money and future economic success on the production of functional ceramic products for architectural and building needs, road construction, technical use, and ordinary tableware.
The growing industrialization and changing society encouraged the steady growth of firms like Zsolnay that included among their products the building blocks needed for the new urbanization, such mundane products as pipes, bricks, and wall and floor tiles. In the realm of artistic ceramics, it was the English firms, such as Doulton and Minton, that spearheaded technological developments in European ceramics. It flourished economically as a manufacturer of industrial stoneware products such as water filters and ceramics for the construction industry until the s when it began to cooperate with the nearby Lambeth School of Art use student designs to produce more decorative wares based on earlier styles and forms.
Their first stoneware vessels, salt-glazed in the manner of Rhenish models of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and decorated with cobalt blue, were well received at the influential Paris Universal Exposition. By the factory employed art potters at the Lambeth factory in London and at its new premises in Burselm, Staffordshire. Doulton had already stopped producing the traditional, simple stoneware vessels designed by company artists with incised sgraffito decoration and had started to experiment with a range of factory styles.
The factory was founded in Staffordshire in the s by Thomas Minton as a manufactory of earthenware, stoneware, bone china, and porcelain. Pugin, produced tiles and other ceramics to his designs. By adding this line Arnoux also influenced rival English ceramic firms featuring designs in neo-Rococo, late neoclassical, and Biedermeier styles.
No other factory in Europe was easily able to match these large English ceramics firms that traced their roots to the eighteenth century.
During the nineteenth century, they used eighteenth-century patterns and directly copied the models from the former Naples royal porcelain manufactory. However, from , under the direction of the young Marquis Lorenzo II, the factory focused on the production of neo-Baroque porcelain in the style of Meissen and Capodimonte, and the creation of faience based on native Renaissance majolica models. The Doccia ceramics laboratories were instrumental in the successful revival of Renaissance majolica using the genuine pottery-making and decorative techniques of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
This too quickly became a popular hallmark of the firm. Beginning in with about workers, the Doccia factories employed about people by , including 65 women in the decoration department. The renewed interest and fashion for the Renaissance style, which increased after the mid-nineteenth century, led to a comprehensive revival of fifteenth- through seventeenth-century Italian majolica that embraced the locally distinctive styles of the Florence, Faenza, Deruta, and Gubbio potteries.
In , the factory, with thirty artistic workers, was already producing technically outstanding imitations of old Italian majolica lusterwares and was adding new designs using grandiose figures and imaginative ornament. Their famous sales catalogue of displayed an impressive array of factory works based on Persian, Japanese, Spanish, and Arabian models.
The manufactory, financed by the monarchy, could afford to hire renowned, highly skilled artists to design and decorate their wares. By C. Pillivuyt and Company, founded in Foecy in , already had 1, workers and several factory branches at different locations. They specialized in the production of porcelain tablewares as well as high-quality luxury wares made in a variety of current styles and intended for display at world exhibitions. The faience factory in Choisy-le-Roi, founded in , was taken over by Hippolyte Boulenger in the early s and joined the ranks of the leading French decorative ceramics firms.
In the factory operated with workers, and by this number had swelled to Among the employed in , only 25 were actively making art ceramics. As in other nineteenth-century ceramic manufactories, the production of architectural and industrial ceramics, and of cheaply printed household tableware predominated.
At the same time the earthenware decorative pieces produced in the Renaissance revival, Baroque, and orientalized styles also enjoyed a good reputation and remained factory standards.
Above all, however, it produced variants of the eighteenth century French faience style from Rouen. The need to manufacture series of decorative objects at reasonable prices for the rising middle classes was solved by using the old process of transfer printing, cutting down on the hand-manufacturing process.
The official report of the Paris Exposition names the firm Villeroy and Boch as the only significant German ceramic enterprise active during the nineteenth century. Villeroy and Boch should actually be called a union of several eighteenth- to nineteenth-century factories whose roots can be traced to the border regions of Germany, Luxembourg, and France.
In the s, Villeroy and Boch consisted of eight factories with four thousand workers in all. The production of architectural and industrial ceramics was distributed among several of the Villeroy and Boch factories. Decorative vessels and plates embellished in historicist styles were manufactured, using carefully devised and tested industrial pottery-making techniques and an extensive range of variations in colors and forms.
Fine stoneware could be colored, glazed, and embellished with transfer-printed, painted, or chromolithographed decoration. In this way, fine art hand-decorations were successfully combined with industrial processes. In the early years of the German empire, around , quite a few private entrepreneurs between the Rhineland and Franconia also attempted to produce ceramics on a large scale. Some of the mid-nineteenth-century German ceramic factories failed. The Royal Bavarian Manufactory was leased in to private operators with little ambition to produce new styles.
In the famous Imperial Royal Porcelain Manufactory in Vienna, which had produced neoclassical wares and was perhaps the best of all the porcelain manufactories in the German-speaking region, was closed because of its inability to make a profit. However, privately owned porcelain factories of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in Bohemia Schlaggenwald, Pirkenhammer, and so on and in Herend, Hungary, continued to flourish because they exported their ornamental porcelain and Vienna-style decorated services, some of which were—like those at Herend—direct copies of eighteenth-century Vienna and Meissen porcelain.
These factories may owe their economic survival to the fact that they avoided working in a progressive manner. No firm could compete with the grandiose development of Zsolnay, although smaller Austro-Hungarian enterprises did try to survive in the international market and remain competitive. The tableware factory of Alois Klammerth, founded in , flourished with faience production in Moravian Znaim, located between Vienna and Prague. Shortly before the death of Klammerth in , his chemical experiments with ceramic compositions and techniques led to a porcelainlike, fired stoneware, which was then decorated with colors fired in a muffle kiln, with a luster glaze and smalt a blue ceramic pigment made of silica, potash, and cobalt oxide.
Besides the large enterprises, only a few of which are mentioned here, interesting smaller ceramics studios were also at work, especially in France. From time to time, these small factories developed prototypes that brought their creators the attention of exhibition jurors and art critics for a short time for example, Pull, Laurin, and Caranza before they fell once more into obscurity.
In fact it was studio potters, including those at Zsolnay, who made the most interesting contributions to Japonisme, and to whom we owe the developmental shift from historicism to Art Nouveau. An unusual type of ceramic known as Hafnerware attracted the greatest attention of ceramicists during the early years of historicism.
Introduced by Minton in , it was revived in the s by these later ceramicists to become a consumer success for decades. Renaissance-style decorated vessels made of low-fired earthenware, covered with foliage and small animals molded in high relief and then overpainted with colorful lead glazes, formed the specialty of an inventive sixteenth-century French artisan named Bernard Palissy.
Even as late as , the potter Jean-Charles Avisseau became enthusiastic about these Mannerist celebrations of nature and experimented for over a decade before succeeding in firing his exquisitely modeled plates with plants and reptiles in the manner of Palissy.
While the strongly colored Hafnerwares displayed by Viennese firms in overshadowed the Palissy revival style, 18 the popularity of these Renaissance-inspired wares continued, and even the Zsolnay factory produced such designs from to Minton had already shown that a factory could employ strongly colored glazes for decorative vessels that recalled Palissy only through the application of figural modeled parts.
The German and Austrian ceramic style of the s to s Biedermier period mostly used a brilliant color palette which continued through the end of this era of historicism.
DeBourgoing in French Rubelles. Their most frequent products were bowls, plates, and platters with strong monochromatic fruits and leaf motifs, genre, landscapes, or half-figures, occasionally in Rococo frames. The motifs were incised as flat reliefs in wax tablets and transferred via stencils to earthenware. True Renaissance ceramic painting designs, especially in the form of colorful grotesques on white tin-glazed background derived from old Urbino majolica models, were used on plates to decorate chimney frames and in furniture inlay.
Outside Italy, the more self-conscious manufactories preferred to adapt the technique and porcelain painting style using non-historicist contemporary motifs, as Minton did in for a famous plate with the portrait of the young Queen Victoria.
He further refined the majolica genre by developing unique ceramic decorating techniques such as brilliant underglaze painting, colored glazes, lusters, and gold-grounds inspired by mosaics. For their Renaissance-style designs, ceramic modelers after the s and s had access to a wealth of historical material and antecedents, in decorative arts museums and trade schools that competed to provide original old patterns and reproduction models to designers.
The institutes, museums, and schools that shaped the tastes of the populace did not merely adopt Renaissance pictorial motifs, which at best had nostalgic value, but also tried to come to terms with the rich legacy of Renaissance ornament: the light, extensively developed vine scroll decorative motifs, arabesques, grotesques, and strapwork depicted in symmetrically arranged fields and borders.
The mining of Renaissance ornament as design sources for nineteenth-century ceramics factories was extended to include earlier traditional folk art decoration. Complicated natural motifs from past artistic regional styles and traditions depicted on peasant feast-day ceramics, embroidery, and painting were repeated in different, simplified, stylized variations. Among the most individual works made at the Klammerth firm, which had close ties with the young Museum fur Kunst und Industrie in Vienna, were tin-glazed faience wares that combined the patterns of traditional folk art with white-ground majolica, delftware, and French faience of the eighteenth century.
A powerful design source, which greatly expanded the European ornamental style and extended the palette, came from the Islamic world. After the mids, and even more after the s, comprehensive model books that categorically depicted different types of Islamic ceramics facilitated their adaptation by European ceramicists.
Contemporary nineteenth-century ceramicists were excited by sixteenth-century bowls and jugs, whose origin was at the time thought to be the island of Rhodes. Today it is known that these objects were made in Iznik; they are characterized by highly colored stylized carnations and tulips, flower clusters, featherlike leaflets, and cypresses in framing borders of simplified blossoms, painted against a white base.
Only a few experienced and ambitious ceramic designers and technicians attempted to analyze and reproduce this ware, which was so different from European faience. French ceramicists had also become acquainted with the cuerda-seca method in the s by studying Turkish ceramic production.
One of the most beautiful adaptations of Islamic ceramic design motifs was made by the English potter William De Morgan. His strongly colored compositions of birds, fish, mythical creatures, vases, and flowers among them, chrysanthemums and dahlias often form an ornamental ground as dense as a carpet. He even was able to produce two luster colors on one vase: a bluish or yellow silver luster and a deep red copper luster.
The art of Eastern Asia also inspired factory designers, and its motifs were adapted to ceramics throughout Europe. Although textiles and metalwork from British India, already seen by decorative artists in London at the Great Exhibition, stimulated local textile production, it held little value for imitation in ceramics.
HISTORY OF THE PORCELAIN
Inside the ovoid body jug is painted a scene representing a woman who rides a crawling bend man. In the Renaissance the majolica of Faenza definitively leaves the gothic and oriental decorative motifs. The five characters of the sculpture are grouped around a fountain with a column to keep the ink and an hexagonal basin tool post.
Authors have divided the field into sections, and have in many cases presented learned and exhaustive special treatises. Notwithstanding the solid learning and critical acumen reflected in their pages, their form and voluminous character, however, detracted from their value as books for familiar and speedy reference, and left the acquirement of a general knowledge of the ceramic art a matter for wide research and prolonged study on the part of every reader and collector. The attempt has here been made to condense the leading points of the subject, to arrange them after a simple and easily intelligible method, and thus to present in one volume a comprehensive history. No hesitation has been shown in drawing upon foreign authors. Many of the later developments of the art have also been touched upon, and the results of the more recent efforts of artists and manufacturers have been illustrated and described.
Delftware as Inspiration for Northern French Ceramic Centers
Special manufacturing equipment for ceramics
T HE revelations of the Centennial Exhibition set our potters to thinking and stimulated them to greater competition. Never before was such an impetus given to any industry. The best productions of all nations were sent here and exhibited beside our own modest manufactures, and it was only too apparent that America had been left behind in the race. Up to that time there had been a few sporadic instances of attempts at originality, but comparatively little had been accomplished of a really artistic nature.
Account Options Prijavite se. Modern Belgian Handicrafts. Richard Zondervan.
THE CERAMIC ART.
In different periods of time and in different countries the word majolica has been used for two distinct types of pottery. Firstly , from midth century onwards there was maiolica , a type of pottery reaching Italy from Spain, Majorca  and beyond. This was made by a tin-glaze process dip, dry, paint, fire , resulting in an opaque white glazed surface decorated with brush-painting in metal oxide enamel colour s.
The invention of a white pottery glaze suitable for painted decoration, by the addition of an oxide of tin to the slip of a lead glaze, was a major advance in the history of pottery. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century. The term is now used for a wide variety of pottery from several parts of the world, including many types of European painted wares, often produced as cheaper versions of porcelain styles. English generally uses various other terms for well-known sub-types of faience. Italian tin-glazed earthenware, at least the early forms, is called maiolica in English, Dutch wares are called Delftware , and their English equivalents English delftware , leaving "faience" as the normal term in English for French, German, Spanish, Portuguese wares and those of other countries not mentioned it is also the usual French term, and fayence in German.
ITALIAN CERAMICS FROM MIDDLE AGE TO THE PRESENT
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Seventeenth and eighteenth-century Delftware was inspired by many other ceramic centers. Sources of influence included Southern European wares, such as maiolica and Faenza, the much coveted Chinese porcelain wares and later the Northern European ceramic centers, such as Nevers and Meissen. Of course, Delftware was also inspirational for these same ceramic centers. Some examples of Chinese porcelain retain Delftware marks, and Meissen potters adapted the techniques of red stoneware objects after visiting the factories in Delft.
It is a collective noun related to several movements in several countries, which were mainly a response to Art Nouveau and Jugendstil. The design is firm and simple; long, thin forms, bent surfaces, geometrical forms, red, black and silver, abstraction and clear colours. Art Nouveau Art Nouveau is an art movement, which emerged between and in several places in Europe, mainly as a response to the impressionism. A common characteristic of the Art Nouveau movements is the use of undulating ornamental lines, usually in the form of stylised plants.
The porcelain of the Chinese Porcelain has been known as a product of the Chinese since the golden age of West-Chinese cultures to B. But Porcelain was not invented in China, but it was the result of a long process of development. Porcelain items reached Europe by way of laborious routes from the 13th century onwards by traders, explorers and globetrotters like Marco Polo. Porcelain was imported in particular via the Dutch since the 17th century.
Сьюзан, - начал он, - я не был с тобой вполне откровенен. ГЛАВА 73 У Дэвида Беккера было такое ощущение, будто его лицо обдали скипидаром и подожгли. Он катался по полу и сквозь мутную пелену в глазах видел девушку, бегущую к вращающейся двери.
Она бежала короткими испуганными прыжками, волоча по кафельному полу туристскую сумку. Беккер хотел подняться на ноги, но у него не было на это сил.
Простите, что я на вас накричала. Я так испугалась, увидев. - Не стоит, - удивился Беккер - Я зашел куда не следовало. - Моя просьба покажется вам безумной, - сказала она, заморгав красными глазами, - но не могли бы вы одолжить мне немного денег. Беккер посмотрел на нее в полном недоумении. - Зачем вам деньги? - спросил. Я не собираюсь оплачивать твое пристрастие к наркотикам, если речь идет об .
А потом они со Сьюзан будут лежать в кровати с балдахином в Стоун-Мэнор и наверстывать упущенное время. Девушка наконец нашла то, что искала, - газовый баллончик для самозащиты, экологически чистый аналог газа мейс, сделанный из острейшего кайенского перца и чили.
Одним быстрым движением она выпрямилась, выпустила струю прямо в лицо Беккеру, после чего схватила сумку и побежала к двери.