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Plant industry pig-iron pressure pipes and connecting parts to them

Plant industry pig-iron pressure pipes and connecting parts to them

Piping for industrial plants and marine applications. This code prescribes minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, erection, test, and inspection of power and auxiliary service piping systems for electric generation stations, industrial institutional plants, central and district heating plants. Design of chemical and petroleum plants and refineries processing chemicals and hydrocarbons, water and steam. This Code contains rules for piping typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals. This Code prescribes requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection, and testing of piping. This Code applies to piping for all fluids including: 1 raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals; 2 petroleum products; 3 gas, steam, air and water; 4 fluidized solids; 5 refrigerants; and 6 cryogenic fluids.

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Your Building’s Drainage System: How it Works and Repair Options

The product flows between the components of the plant in the pipe system. A dairy also has conduit systems for other media such as water, steam, cleaning solutions, coolant and compressed air.

A waste-water system to the drain is also necessary. All these systems are basically built up in the same way. The difference is in the materials used, the design of the components and the sizes of the pipes. All components in contact with the product are made of stainless steel. Various materials are used in the other systems, e. Plastic is used for water and air lines, and ceramic for drainage and sewage pipes.

The following section deals only with the product line and its components. The pipe systems for service media are described in the section dealing with utility installations. Permanent joints are welded Figure 6. Where disconnection is required, the pipe connection is in the form of a threaded union with a male end and a retained nut with a joint ring in between, or a clamped union with a joint ring Figure 6.

The union permits disconnection without disturbing other pipe-work. This type of joint is therefore used to connect process equipment, instruments, etc. Different countries have different union standards. In the latter case, the fitting can be ordered with nut or male ends or with clamp fittings. All unions must be tightened firmly to prevent liquid from leaking out or air from being sucked into the system and causing problems in downstream parts of the process.

Sight glasses are fitted in the line where a visual check of the product is required. Bends with instrument connections are used for fitting instruments like thermometers and gauges.

The sensor should be directed against the flow to make readings as accurate as possible. The connection boss can also be used for a sampling cock. Instrument connections can also be provided with welding special bosses directly onto the pipe during installation.

Sampling devices need to be installed at strategic points in the plant to collect product samples for analysis. For quality control, such as determining the fat content of milk and the pH value of cultured products, the samples can be collected from a sampling cock Figure 6.

For hygienic quality tests, the sampling method must preclude any risk of contamination from outside the pipe. A sampling plug can therefore be used. This plug, shown in Figure 6. The plug is first removed and all parts that could contaminate the sample are sterilized typically a wad moistened in a chlorine solution just before sampling , after which the needle of a hypodermic syringe is inserted through the bung into the product, and a sample is withdrawn.

The aseptic sampling valve Figure 6. The rubber membrane is placed on the stem of the valve head and works as a stretchable plug. The aseptic sampling valve is designed for sterilization before and after each sampling. The manual valve is opened by rotating a handle or by activating a lever. The stem and the membrane are then retracted, allowing liquid to pass. Using the reverse procedure the built-in spring closes the valve and keeps the channel between the hose pieces open for sterilization.

Samples of aseptic products — heat treated at such a high temperature that they are sterile — are always collected through an aseptic sampling valve to avoid reinfection. There are many junctions in a piping system where product normally flows from one line to the other, but which must sometimes be closed off so that two different media can flow through the two lines without being mixed. When the lines are isolated from each other, any leakage must go to drain without any possibility of one medium being mixed with the other.

This is a common problem faced when engineering dairy plants. Dairy products and cleaning solutions flow in separate lines, and have to be kept separate. Figure 6. Zoom Fig. There are many places in a piping system where it must be possible to stop the flow or divert it to another line. These functions are performed by valves. Seat valves, manually or pneumatically controlled, or butterfly valves, are used for this purpose.

The valve body has a seat for the closing plug at the end of the stem. The plug is lifted from and lowered onto the seat by the stem, which is moved by a crank or a pneumatic actuator Figure 6. The seat valve is also available in a change-over version. This valve has three to five ports. When the plug is lowered, the liquid flows from inlet 2 to outlet 1, and when the plug is lifted to the upper seat, the flow is directed through outlet 3, according to the drawings to the right in Figure 6.

This type of valve can have up to five ports. The number is determined by the process requirements. There is also another type of seat valve, where the valve plug closes in the opposite way compared to a standard valve.

This valve type can be used to eliminate pressure shocks in the product lines. This type of valve can be either in change-over or shut-off version. Various remote-controlled actuator alternatives are available. For example, the valve can be opened by compressed air and closed with a spring, or vice versa. It can also be both opened and closed by compressed air Figure 6. Actuators for an intermediate plug position and for two-stage opening and closing are also available.

The valve control unit Figure 6. The top unit includes indication unit, activation stem, sensor system and solenoid valves to control and supervise all kinds of pneumatic processing valves. It receives signals from a PLC to control the valve and it sends feedback signals to the PLC to indicate when the valve is in a certain position.

The top unit can easily be set by remote control and indicate seat lift of mixproof valves and it includes a maintenance programme to indicate when plug seals of a single seat is worn out. The modern top units can be used for digital as well as bus communication systems. A solenoid valve is fitted in the top unit.

An electric signal triggers the solenoid valve and allows compressed air to enter the actuator. The valve then opens or closes as required. On the way, the compressed air passes through a filter to free it from oil and other foreign matter that might affect proper operation of the valve.

The air supply is cut off when the solenoid is de-energized and the air in the product valve is then evacuated through an exhaust port in the solenoid valve. Manual shut-off seat valve and pneumatically operated change-over seat valve. The operating mechanism is interchangeable between shut-off and change-over seat valves. The butterfly valve Figure 6. Two valves must be used to obtain a change-over function.

Butterfly valves are often used for sensitive products, such as yoghurt and other cultured milk products, as the restriction through the valve is very small, resulting in very low pressure drop and no turbulence. It is also good for high viscosities and, being a straight-through valve, it can be fitted in straight pipes. The valve usually consists of two identical halves with a seal ring clamped between them.

A streamlined disc is fitted in the centre of the valve. It is usually supported by bushes to prevent the stem from seizing against the valve bodies. With the disc in the open position, the valve offers very low flow resistance. In the closed position, the disc seals against the seal ring. The butterfly valve is fitted with a handle, usually for two positions — open and closed. This type of valve is not really suitable as a control valve, but can be used for coarse control with a special handle for infinite positions.

The disc is easy to turn until it touches the seal ring. Then it needs more power to compress the rubber. A normal, spring powered actuator is strongest in the beginning, when less power is required, and weaker at the end, when more power is required. It is therefore an advantage to use actuators which are designed so that they provide the correct power at the right time. Another type of the butterfly valve is the flange valve, shown in Figure 6.

It is the same type of butterfly valve as described above, but it is fitted between two flanges welded to the line. Its function is the same as an ordinary butterfly valve. During operation, it is clamped between the flanges with screws. For servicing, the screws are loosened. The valve part can then be pulled out for easy servicing.

Mixproof valves Figure 6. A double-seated valve has two independent plug seals separating two liquids, forming a leakage chamber between them under atmospheric pressure during every working condition.

In case of rare accidental leaking of product, this will flow into the leakage chamber and be discharged through the leakage detection pipe. When the valve is open, the leakage chamber is closed. The product can then flow from one line to the other. During cleaning one upper or lower of the plugs lift so that seat and plug are cleaned.

The cleaning liquid is discharged through the leakage chamber. External cleaning of upper and lower plugs and leakage chamber, as well as aseptic-like operation, are also possible.

Water Distribution Pipes

A flange is a method of connecting pipes, valves, pumps and other equipment to form a piping system. It also provides easy access for cleaning, inspection or modification. Flanges are usually welded or screwed. Flanged joints are made by bolting together two flanges with a gasket between them to provide a seal. Pipe flanges are manufactured in all the different materials like stainless steel, cast iron, aluminium, brass, bronze, plastic etc.

The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section or choke of a pipe. Thread smaller hole. We feature an expansive collection at the best prices.

A water pipe is any pipe or tube designed to transport treated drinking water to consumers. The varieties include large diameter main pipes, which supply entire towns, smaller branch lines that supply a street or group of buildings, or small diameter pipes located within individual buildings. Materials commonly used to construct water pipes include cast iron, polyvinyl chloride PVC , copper, steel or concrete. Freshwater , Drinking Water. A water pipe is any pipe or tube designed to transport drinking water to consumers.

Types Of Flanges

The product flows between the components of the plant in the pipe system. A dairy also has conduit systems for other media such as water, steam, cleaning solutions, coolant and compressed air. A waste-water system to the drain is also necessary. All these systems are basically built up in the same way. The difference is in the materials used, the design of the components and the sizes of the pipes. All components in contact with the product are made of stainless steel. Various materials are used in the other systems, e.

Cast iron pipe

Internal inspection of clad or lined piping for disbanding, bulging and cracking; Internal inspection of refractory lined piping for erosion, deterioration of anchors, undercutting of refractory and coke build up behind refractory. This type of connection in a pipe flange allows for ease of disassembly and separation for repair and regular maintenance. Weld neck flanges have a long, tapered hub between the flange ring and the weld joint. We can offer hoses with fixed or swivel type flange ends.

Cast Iron Grade 20 check online to validate version www. S-NiCr S-NiCr - Nickel cast iron: chemical composition, mechanical and physical properties, hardness Database of steels and alloys Marochnik contains information about chemical composition and properties more then steels and alloys.

Cast iron pipe is a pipe which has had historic use as a pressure pipe for transmission of water, gas and sewage, and as a water drainage pipe during the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. It comprises predominantly a gray cast iron tube and was frequently used uncoated, although later coatings and linings reduced corrosion and improved hydraulics. In cast iron pipe, the graphite forms flakes during the casting process, when examined under a microscope.

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Introduction to Piping System

The accessibility of raw materials made the rapid development of engineering possible. Great Britain became the country where the machine revolution began. Historically, only charcoal was used to cast iron, as both a heat source and reducing reagent. The need for iron was rising, while the amount of local wood was limited. In the mid-seventeenth century, England imported charcoal first from Sweden, then from Russia. Great Britain eventually became dependent on imported raw materials from these countries. Therefore, the salvation and the main innovation in the metallurgical industry from the industrial revolution era was the replacement of charcoal with coal and coke. Young workers.

From the installation time,Ductile cast iron pipe is more convenient and These pipes are particularly useful in areas of high pressure. JCM is a leading manufacturer of pipe fittings and fabrications for the repair, connection and branching of Utah based wholesale plumbing, waterworks, irrigation and industrial.

Available from diameter 80 mm up to diameter mm. Different profiles for pipes and components with 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm wall-thickness. Available in galvanized steel. Inside the pull-ring there is a sealant being physiologically safe and temperature resistent up to 80 degree C.

AMERICAN Ductile Iron Pipe

Ductile iron pipe is a pipe made of ductile cast iron commonly used for potable water transmission and distribution. In highly corrosive environments loose polyethylene sleeving LPS to encase the pipe may also be used. Life expectancy of unprotected ductile iron pipes depends on the corrosiveness of soil present and tends to be shorter where soil is highly corrosive.

Types of connections

Was your condominium or apartment building built before ? Are you experiencing regular toilet stoppages and backups, tree root intrusion, or sewer odors? If so, the long-term solution is NOT having your sewer lines snaked every few months.

Pipe Sleeve Seal. They are functional above or below ground to keep out dirt, water, insects and more out of the pipe.

A pipe can be defined as a tube made of metal, plastic, wood, concrete or fiberglass. Pipes are used to carry liquids, gases, slurries, or fine particles. A piping system is generally considered to include the complete interconnection of pipes, including in-line components such as pipe fittings and flanges. Pumps, heat exchanges, valves and tanks are also considered part of piping system.

Cast Iron Venturi

Какой у нас выбор? - спросила Сьюзан. Она хорошо понимала, что в отчаянной ситуации требуются отчаянные меры, в том числе и от АНБ. - Мы не можем его устранить, если ты это имела в виду. Именно это она и хотела узнать. За годы работы в АНБ до нее доходили слухи о неофициальных связях агентства с самыми искусными киллерами в мире - наемниками, выполняющими за разведывательные службы всю грязную работу.

- Танкадо слишком умен, чтобы предоставить нам такую возможность, - возразил Стратмор.

Это беспокоило Фонтейна: к коммандеру сходится множество нитей в агентстве, а директору нужно оберегать свое ведомство. Фонтейну нужен был кто-то способный наблюдать за Стратмором, следить, чтобы он не потерял почву под ногами и оставался абсолютно надежным, но это было не так-то. Стратмор - человек гордый и властный, наблюдение за ним следует организовать так, чтобы никоим образом не подорвать его авторитета. Из уважения к Стратмору Фонтейн решил заняться этим лично.

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  1. Dikinos

    It absolutely agree with the previous phrase