Produce fabrication other fur and sheepskin-fur products
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General Profile Debra Osinsky. Tanning and Leather Finishing Dean B. Fur Industry P. Footwear Industry F. Conradi and Paulo Portich. Technological choices for treatment tannery effluents. Animal furs and leather from tanned animal hides and skins have been used to make clothing for thousands of years.
Fur and leather remain important industries today. Fur is used to produce a variety of outer garments, such as coats, jackets, hats, gloves and boots, and it provides trim for other types of garments as well. Leather is used to make garments and can be employed in the manufacture of other products, including leather upholstery for automobiles and furniture, and a wide variety of leather goods, such as watch straps, purses and suitcases.
Footwear is another traditional leather product. Fur-producing animals include aquatic species such as beaver, otter, muskrat and seal; northern land species such as fox, wolf, mink, weasel, bear, marten and raccoon; and tropical species such as leopard, ocelot and cheetah. In addition, the young of certain animals such as cattle, horse, pig and goat may be processed to produce furs. Although most fur-bearing animals are trapped, mink in particular is produced on fur farms.
The major sources of leather are cattle, pigs, lambs and sheep. As of , the United States was the largest producer of bovine hides and skins. Goatskins are largely produced in China, India and Pakistan. The tanning industry in the United States has been shrinking steadily since , while most surviving tanneries in northern Europe have diversified in order to reduce dependence on the footwear-leather market.
Over one-third of all upholstery leather is destined for the vehicle industry and, according to LMC forecasts, the prospects for this subsector are fairly bright. The proportion of cars with leather upholstery has increased substantially through the s. The demand for leather garments is determined primarily by income and fashion, while fashion particularly influences the changing demand for specific types of leather.
For example, a strong demand for the softer, more supple sheepskin leather in fashion garments motivated the production of the fashionable garment nappa from sheepskins and cattle hides.
The major producers of mink pelts in were Canada, the Russian Federation, the Scandinavian countries and the United States. Leather employment also fell in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
In Botswana leather employment declined sharply in , then experienced a steep increase, doubling the level by There are several issues which will affect future production and employment in the leather, footwear and fur industries. New technology, the relocation of footwear production to developing countries and environmental regulations in the tanning industry will continue to affect the skills and the health and safety of workers in these industries.
Some text was revised from the article authored by V. Gupta in the 3rd edition of this Encyclopaedia. Tanning is the chemical process that converts animal hides and skins into leather.
The term hide is used for the skin of large animals e. Hides and skins are mostly by-products of slaughterhouses, although they may also come from animals that have died naturally or been hunted or trapped. Tanning industries are usually located near stock-raising regions; however, hides and skins may be preserved and transported prior to tanning, so the industry is widespread.
The hide is composed of three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer. The dermis is used to make leather after the other layers have been removed using chemical and mechanical means. The tanning process uses acids, alkalis, salts, enzymes and tanning agents to dissolve fats and non-fibrous proteins and chemically bond the collagen fibres together.
Tanning has been practised since prehistoric times. The oldest system of tanning relies on the chemical action of vegetable material containing tannin tannic acid. Extracts are taken from the parts of plants that are rich in tannin and processed into tanning liquors.
The hides are soaked in pits or vats of increasingly strong liquors until they are tanned, which may take weeks or months. This process is used in countries with low levels of technology. This process is also used in developed countries to produce firmer, thicker leather for shoe soles, bags, cases and straps, although process changes have been introduced to shorten the time needed for tanning.
Chemical tanning using mineral salts such as chromium sulphate was introduced during the late 19th century and has become the primary process to produce softer, thinner leather for goods such as handbags, gloves, garments, upholstery and shoe uppers. Tanning may also be accomplished using fish oils or synthetic tannins.
There is great variation in the scale and types of tanning facilities. Some tanneries are highly mechanized and use closed automatic systems and many chemicals, whereas others still use largely manual work and natural tanning substances with techniques essentially unchanged over the centuries see figure 1.
The type of product required e. Leather production can be divided into three stages: preparation of the hide for tanning, which includes processes such as the removal of hair and adherent flesh; the tanning process; and the finishing process. Finishing includes mechanical processes to shape and smooth the leather and chemical treatments to colour, lubricate, soften and apply a surface finish to the leather see figure 2.
All of these processes may take place in one facility, although it is common for leather finishing to be conducted at locations different from tanning in order to take advantage of transportation costs and local markets.
The implication is that it affects the likelihood of cross-contamination among the processes. Curing and shipment. Because raw hides and skins decay rapidly, they are preserved and disinfected prior to shipment to the tannery. The hide or skin is flayed from the carcass and then preserved by curing. Curing can be accomplished by a variety of means. Curing by drying is suitable in regions where hot and dry climatic conditions prevail.
Drying consists of stretching the hides on frames or spreading them on the ground in the sun. Dry-salting, another method of curing hides, consists of rubbing the fleshy side of the hide with salt. Brine curing, or brining, consists of submerging the hides in a solution of sodium chloride to which naphthalene may have been added.
Brining is the most common form of preservation in developed countries. Prior to shipment, hides are generally treated with DDT, zinc chloride, mercury chloride, chlorophenols or other agents for disinfection.
These substances may represent hazards both at the site of curing and on receipt at the tannery. The cured hides and skins are prepared for tanning by several operations, collectively referred to as beamhouse operations. First the hides are sorted, trimmed and then washed in vats or drums.
Disinfectants such as bleaching powder, chlorine and sodium acid fluoride in the water prevent putrefaction of hides. Chemicals such as caustic soda, sodium sulphide and surfactants are added to the water to accelerate soaking of dry-salted or dried hides. The soaked hides and skins are then limed by immersing in milk of lime to loosen the epidermis and hair roots and to remove other unwanted soluble proteins and fats.
In another method, a depilatory paste of lime, sulphide and salt is applied to the flesh side of the skins in order to save hair and wool. The limed hides are unhaired to remove the loosened hairs and defleshed. Epidermal debris and fine hair roots are mechanically removed by the scudding operation.
These operations are followed by deliming and bating with buffering salts, such as ammonium sulphate or ammonium chloride, and the action of proteolytic enzymes neutralizes the high alkalinity of limed hides. In pickling, hides are placed in an acid environment consisting of sodium chloride and sulphuric acid.
The acid is necessary because chrome-tanning agents are not soluble under alkaline conditions. Vegetable-tanned hides do not need to be pickled. Many of the beamhouse operations are carried out by processing the hides in solutions using large pits, vats or drums. Solutions are piped or poured into the containers and later emptied through pipes or into open drainage channels in the work area. The chemicals may be added to the containers by pipes or manually by workers.
Good ventilation and personal protective equipment are needed to prevent respiratory and dermal exposure. Various substances may be used for tanning, but the main distinction is between vegetable and chrome tanning. Vegetable tanning may be carried out either in pits or in rotating drums.
Rapid tanning, in which high concentrations of tannins are used, is carried out in rotating drums. The chrome-tanning process most often used is the one-bath method, in which the hides are milled in a colloidal solution of chromium III sulphate until tanning is complete. A two-bath chrome-tanning process was used in the past, but this process involved potential exposure to hexavalent chromium salts and required more manual handling of the hides. The two-bath process is now considered obsolete and is rarely used.
Once tanned, the hide is further processed to shape and condition the leather. The hide is removed from the solution and excess water is removed by wringing. Chrome leather must be neutralized after being tanned. Splitting is the longitudinal division of wet or dry leather that is too thick, for articles such as shoe uppers and leather goods. Roll machines with cutting blades are used to further reduce the leather to the thickness required.
A large amount of dust may be released when the leather is split or shaved while dry. Re-tanning, colouring and fat-liquoring. After tanning, most leathers except sole leathers undergo colouring dyeing. Generally, colouring is performed in a batch mode; and re-tanning, colouring and fat liquoring operations are all performed in sequence in the same drum with intermediate steps of washing and drying.
Three major types of dyes are used: acid, basic and direct. Blends of dyes are used in order to obtain the exact shade desired, so the composition is not always known except by the supplier. The purpose of fat-liquoring is to lubricate leather to give it strength and flexibility. Oils, natural fats, their transformation products, mineral oils and several synthetic fats are used. After drying, vegetable tanned leather is subjected to mechanical operations setting and rolling and given a final polish.
The finishing process for chrome leather includes a series of mechanical operations and, normally, the application of a covering layer to the leather surface.
Table of Contents
Account Options Ieiet. Nirmal Sinha. John Wiley and Sons , The Handbook of Food Products Manufacturing is a definitive master reference, providing an overview of food manufacturing in general, and then covering the processing and manufacturing of more than of the most common food products. With editors and contributors from 24 countries in North America, Europe, and Asia, this guide provides international expertise and a truly global perspective on food manufacturing.
General Profile Debra Osinsky. Tanning and Leather Finishing Dean B. Fur Industry P. Footwear Industry F. Conradi and Paulo Portich.
Fur clothing is clothing made of furry animal hides. Fur is one of the oldest forms of clothing, and is thought to have been widely used as hominids first expanded outside Africa. Some view fur as luxurious and warm; however, others reject it due to moral concerns for animal rights. The term 'fur' is often used to refer to a coat, wrap, or shawl made from the fur of animals. Controversy exists regarding the wearing of fur coats, due to animal cruelty concerns. The most popular kinds of fur in the s known as the luxury fur were blond mink, silver striped fox and red fox. Cheaper alternatives were pelts of wolf, Persian lamb or muskrat.
Account Options Ieiet. United States Census of Manufactures, : Industry statistics. Volume II. Saturs Miscellaneous chemical products 28H1. Metal stamping and coating 34D1.
Спасибо, - сказал Беккер.
Могу биться об заклад. - Он откусил кусок пирога и заговорил с набитым ртом. - Максимальное время, которое ТРАНСТЕКСТ когда-либо тратил на один файл, составляет три часа. Это включая диагностику, проверку памяти и все прочее.
Беккер нахмурился. Он вспомнил кровоподтеки на груди Танкадо. - Искусственное дыхание делали санитары.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Techsew 202 Industrial Fur / Mink Sewing Machine
Должно быть, Клушар ослышался. Беккер набрал первый из трех номеров. - Servicio Social de Sevilla, - прозвучал приятный женский голос. Беккер постарался придать своему испанскому тяжелый немецкий акцент: - Hola, hablas Aleman.
- Нет, но я говорю по-английски, - последовал ответ. Беккер перешел на ломаный английский: - Спасибо.
Это был Стратмор. Лицо его снизу подсвечивалось маленьким предметом, который он извлек из кармана. Сьюзан обмякла, испытав огромное облегчение, и почувствовала, что вновь нормально дышит: до этого она от ужаса задержала дыхание. Предмет в руке Стратмора излучал зеленоватый свет. - Черт возьми, - тихо выругался Стратмор, - мой новый пейджер, - и с отвращением посмотрел на коробочку, лежащую у него на ладони.
Он забыл нажать кнопку, которая отключила звук.
Он посмотрел вверх, на крышу трехэтажного дома, развернулся и бросился назад, но почти тут же остановился. В некотором отдалении от него возникла фигура человека, приближавшегося медленно и неотвратимо. В руке его поблескивал пистолет. Беккер, отступая к стене, вновь обрел способность мыслить четко и ясно.
Он почувствовал жжение в боку, дотронулся до больного места и посмотрел на руку.
Вы сейчас же отпустите мисс Флетчер, или я вызову службу безопасности и засажу вас в тюрьму до конца ваших дней. - Вы этого не сделаете, - как ни в чем не бывало сказал Хейл. - Вызов агентов безопасности разрушит все ваши планы. Я им все расскажу.
Информация уходит. - Вторжение по всем секторам. Сьюзан двигалась как во сне. Подойдя к компьютеру Джаббы, она подняла глаза и увидела своего любимого человека.
Он перевел взгляд на слова, нацарапанные на ее руке. Она смутилась.
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Он застонал. Проклятые испанцы начинают службу с причастия. ГЛАВА 92 Сьюзан начала спускаться по лестнице в подсобное помещение. Густые клубы пара окутывали корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА, ступеньки лестницы были влажными от конденсации, она едва не упала, поскользнувшись.
Она нервничала, гадая, сколько еще времени продержится ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Он попытался сделать из апельсиновой кожуры джем, но чтобы можно было взять его в рот, в него пришлось добавить огромное количество сахара. Так появился апельсиновый мармелад. Халохот пробирался между деревьями с пистолетом в руке. Деревья были очень старыми, с высокими голыми стволами.