Production industrial finished silk fabrics
Probably it is the unique example of insect completely domesticated. The Chinese kept the secret of the silk-thread production for ages selling the products at a very high price. Only towards or A. As regards Italy, silk manufacture extended from Sicily to other provinces; but from the the breeding interested more the Center-North ones. Hundred of thousands people could work in the various operating cycles. Today, the silkworm-breeding and the silk reeling have given up in Italy.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Silk is made from Silkworms ? - Production Of Silk from Silk Worm
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Silk has set the standard in luxury fabrics for several millennia. Silk is highly valued because it possesses many excellent properties. Not only does it look lustrous and feel luxurious, but it is also lightweight, resilient, and extremely strong— the strongest natural fiber known to man, one filament of silk is stronger then a comparable filament of steel!
Although fabric manufacturers have created less costly alternatives to silk, such as nylon and polyester, silk is still in a class by itself. The origins of silk date back to ancient China. Legend has it that a Chinese princess was sipping tea in her garden when a cocoon fell into her cup, and the hot tea loosened the long strand of silk.
Ancient literature, however, attributes the popularization of silk to the Chinese Empress Si-Ling, to around B. Called the Goddess of the Silkworm, Si-Ling apparently raised silkworms and designed a loom for making silk fabrics. Silk was originally reserved exclusively for the use of the emperor; gradually silk came into more general use.
Silk, indeed, rapidly became one of the principal elements of the Chinese economy. Eventually even the common people were able to wear garments of silk.
During the Han Dynasty, silk ceased to be a mere industrial material and became an absolute value in itself.
Farmers paid their taxes in grain and silk. Silk began to be used for paying civil servants and rewarding subjects for outstanding services. Values were calculated in lengths of silk as they had been calculated in pounds of gold. Before long it was to become a currency used in trade with foreign countries.
For more than two thousand years the Chinese kept the secret of silk altogether to themselves. It was the most zealously guarded secret in history.
Indeed, the reigning powers decreed death by torture to anyone who divulged the secret of the silk-worm. Eventually, the mystery of the silk-making process was smuggled into neighboring regions, reaching Japan about A. Silk has a miniscule percentage of the global textile fibre market—less than 0.
This figure, however, is misleading, since the actual trading value of silk and silk products is much more impressive. This is a multibillion dollar trade, with a unit price for raw silk roughly twenty times that of raw cotton. The precise global value is difficult to assess, since reliable data on finished silk products is lacking in most importing countries. The finest, most desirable silk comes from the mulberry silkworm, which is actually a caterpillar and not a worm. Blind and flightless, it feeds solely on the leaves of mulberry trees.
Known as the Bombyx mori , the mulberry silk worm is a fascinating but tragic bundle of insect life. Raised by professional keepers in China on trays of mulberry leaves a thousand years before the Roman Empire when wild tribes were roaming Europe living in stick and mud huts, the mulberry silkworm has been totally domesticated and can not live without humans for their care and feeding.
There are no wild silkworms or Bombyx mori moths that roam and feed in the wild. The cultivation of silkworms for the purpose of producing silk is called sericulture. Over the centuries, sericulture has been developed and refined to a precise science. Today, a hugely developed industry has developed around the raising of silkworms for the production of silk.
Silk worms are raised by large corporate silk worm farmers and hobbyists all over the world. Sericulture companies sell and ship all that the silk grower enthusiast needs from Bombyx mori ova silkworm eggs in an incubation dish to handling tools. One acre of mulberry trees produces enough foliage to feed silkworms that create pounds of cocoons which can be unraveled into 35 pounds of raw silk.
The mulberry leaves are a renewable and sustainable crop as the trees produce year after year. One mature mulberry tree will produce enough foliage for silkworms. Other elements include fats, salts, and wax. One silkworm produces very little useable silk. To make one yard of silk material, about 3, cocoons are used.
The natural course in the cycle of worm to moth would be for the chrysalis to break through the protective cocoon and emerge as a moth. This is done by stoving, or stifling, the chrysalis with heat. The usual method is that of immersing the cocoons in steam for a few minutes.
Another method, that of placing the cocoons in boiling water, serves a double purpose. Organic and sustainable certification organizations are working on standards for organic silk but they have not yet been finalized and adopted. This is called degumming, and it improves the sheen, color, hand and texture of the silk. If the scouring and bleaching are not well and carefully done, the reduction in strength may be serious indeed.
After the raw silk has been reeled into skeins or hanks, the most laborious parts of silk production are completed; that is, most of the work done on the fiber thereafter is done by machine processes instead of by hand. The amount of hand labor that it takes to produce raw silk is almost incredible, and the amount of labor taken after the machine processes begin is no less than for other textiles. More hours are expended, and more people have something to do with the work.
If the laborers employed in the production of silk were paid as high wages as are commonly paid in the iron and steel industry the silk dress would cost almost as much as that locomotive. As it is, raw silk production is carried on chiefly in countries where wages are very low. At the present prices of silk, the most efficient workmen doing their very best could not earn more than fifteen cents per day at this kind of work. Silk is sold by weight. The reason for adding metals to silk fabric is to increase the weight of the fabric and, because silk fabric sells by the pound, the extra weight increases the selling price of the fabric.
Generally, only the finer and more expensive reeled silks are weighted rather than the less costly spun silks By means of weighting the manufacturer can increase the weight of silk by 3 to 4 times. Weighting causes the fabric to lose its strength as soon as the weighting is applied. Heavily weighted silk must be made into garments as soon as it is made. Spots develop in the dyes. Saltwater, perspiration and tears cause spots to be formed which seems as if the silk is eaten by acids.
Sunlight also attacks weighted silk and can cause silk to fall to pieces. In the pure-dye process, the silk is colored with dye, and may be finished with water-soluble substances such as starch, glue, sugar, or gelatin. But it is not weighted. If weighting is not executed properly, it can decrease the longevity of the fabric by causing it to lose much of its strength and durability, so pure-dye silk is considered the superior product.
Also, the metallic salts used to weight silk can cause health risks and problems for some people. After dyeing, silk fabric may be finished by additional processes, such as bleaching, embossing, steaming, or stiffening. The wild silks are gathered principally in Japan, China; and India.
There are several varieties of wild silk cocoons, each with qualities somewhat different from the rest. The principal variety of Japan is the Yamai-mai, and the chief varieties of India are the tusser, or tussah, and the ailanthus. Most of these silks are much darker in color than the domesticated silk, the Bombyx mori, probably because of the difference in feed.
Wild silkworms do not always have mulberry leaves to eat. Great numbers feed on oak leaves and in some cases on other plants. They are harder to bleach, and do not take dyes so well. They are generally very uneven in texture, but when made up into fabrics are often more durable than common silks.
Wild silks are used principally in the manufacture of pile fabrics such as velvet, plush, and imitation sealskin, and in heavy or rough cloths such as pongees and shantungs.
While the silkworms of the wild varieties take care of themselves, and therefore do not require the constant labor that must be given to domesticated silk, the expense of gathering is nevertheless high. The wild cocoons must be hunted, trees must be climbed to gather them, and much time may be consumed in collecting comparatively few. Silk, a protein fiber like wool, with a smooth hand, is very lustrous and retains its shape well.
Silk can take on many different appearances. A raw silk fabric may fool you into thinking that it is cotton or synthetic. The more refined the silk and the smaller the yarn, the more it resembles the look and feel that we know as silky. This should not, however, be confused with wear ability or abrasion resistance. Silk will not stand up to the heavy wear that other fibers will. Silk creases and wrinkles easily, especially when damp or wet.
Some silk clothing manufacturers apply softeners, elastomers, and synthetic resins such as EPSIA — a silicone-containing epoxy crosslinking agent — to increase the dry and wet anti-wrinkling and crease-resistance performance of silk garments.
Chemical treatments are also added to silk to improve anti-static, water and oil repellency, flame retardant, dimensional stability and other wash-and-wear properties that our easy-care culture seems to expect. Textile chemicals have become an integral and important component of conventional textile and clothing manufacturing. Textile chemicals, also know as textile auxiliaries, have two primary purposes: to increase the efficiency and lower the costs of conventional textile manufacturing; and to create special finishing effects and properties for the clothing.
Draperies should be lined and even interlining may be desirable. Impurities in the air may cause as much fading as the direct rays of the sun.
Avoid storing silk fabric in a basement or attic near a furnace. Furnaces not only give off fumes but also pull fumes and impurities from other parts of the home. Silk will become brittle with age and exposure to sunlight. The silk fibroin from the silkworm is an ideal biomaterial biocompatibility, biodegradation, non-toxicity, absorption properties, etc. Sign me up! Patty and Leigh Anne founded this company to make the whole world safer while making our personal environments more beautiful.
After forming O Ecotextiles in , they began a world-wide search for manufacturing partners interested in a cradle-to-cradle process of creating no-impact, perfectly safe, incredibly luxurious fabrics. The first fabrics coming out are, as the sisters envisioned, sophisticated, stylish and "green.
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The modern textile industry
The production of the silk used by man is carried out by a little animal, the silkworm. Silkworms spin themselves into their precious filaments, forming a cocoon. These filaments are then unwound from the cocoon by dint of painstaking work and twisted to form the silk thread. The secrecy surrounding the production of this much sought-after silk fabric has played an important role in history. The Chinese held the monopoly of it for a long time.
Silk, one of the oldest fibers known to man, originated in China. The history of silk is both enchanting and illustrious. The following sections cover the various facets of silk history. According to well-established Chinese legend, Empress Hsi Ling Shi, wife of Emperor Huang Ti also called the Yellow Emperor , was the first person to accidentally discover silk as weavable fiber. One day, when the empress was sipping tea under a mulberry tree, a cocoon fell into her cup and began to unravel.
Silvia Mara Bortoloto Damasceno Barcelos. E-mail: silviabortoloto hotmail. Leila Mendes Luz. E-mail: leila. Ronaldo Salvador Vasques. E-mail: rsvasques uem. Cassiano Moro Piekarski. E-mail: cassianopiekarski gmail. Antonio Carlos Francisco. E-mail: acfrancisco utfpr.
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In textile manufacturing , finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth into a usable material and more specifically to any process performed after dyeing the yarn or fabric to improve the look, performance, or "hand" feel of the finish textile or clothing. Some finishing techniques such as bleaching and dyeing are applied to yarn before it is woven while others are applied to the grey cloth directly after it is woven or knitted. In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber or fabric, it is customary to subject the material to different types of physical and chemical treatments. For example, wash and wear finish for a cotton fabric is necessary to make it crease -free or wrinkle -free. In a similar way, mercerising , singeing , flame retardant , water repellent, waterproof , anti-static and peach finishing achieve various fabric properties desired by consumers.
ZURZACH — A new fabric finishing process from Swiss textile chemicals company HeiQ is said to allow for the production of performance fabrics which, when blended with short-chain polymer silk fibres, claims to rival silk fabrics themselves in terms of temperature regulation, tear resistance and dry-fastness. Stressing that the development will also be an advantage for the entire functional textiles market, HeiQ says that third-party samples will be available to potential manufacturing partners from 1 July Looking beyond the cutting edge of textile innovation allows you to stay well ahead of the competition.
Sudbury is a major silk manufacturing centre with five local firms involved in the production of a wide range of quality fabrics. However, silk manufacture has been established here a mere years or so, whilst textile manufacturing has been established in the town since at least the 14 th century. When demand for the heavy woollen broadcloth declined in the 16 th century the weavers of Sudbury turned to producing lighter fabrics — bays, says, crepes and cotton bunting — in the 18 th century much of the bunting was supplied to the Royal Navy for flags. Silk making began in China but by the late Middle Ages the knowledge had been brought back to Europe where France and Italy became the leading producers.
Refine your search. We sell worldwide, selling a wide range of fabrics , including many fantasy fabrics and fabrics with printed motifs. You will also find printed fabrics , Find out about this company. WEFT: an emblematic brand produces collections of fabrics for women's clothing, particularly for the mid to high ranges of ready-to-wear items.
The secret of silk
Several initiatives are helping the traditional industry to make a fresh start. Azerbaijan wants to revive its once strong textile, silk and clothing industry. In , the sector still accounted for just under 18 percent of the total industrial production — in it was just 0. Future investment activities will be determined by several initiatives. These include the implementation of programs for the production and processing of cotton and silk cocoons for semi-finished and finished goods, the establishment of an industrial park for light industry in Mingatchevir and the establishment of branches of the Azerkhalcha company for hand-woven carpets. New projects in cotton processing on the horizon At the beginning of the s, cotton cultivation boomed in the country with an annual harvest of more than 1 million tons of raw cotton. The collapse of the Soviet Union, the transformation crisis in the s and general neglect almost brought the industry to a standstill.
Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to ecological environment problems, and the dyeing and finishing field is no exception. Environmentally friendly dyeing and finishing methods have been extensively studied. Inspired by the bioadhesive force of marine mussels, dopamine DA was applied as a dyestuff and investigated in textile dyeing. The color fastness of dyed fabric to light fastness reached Level 4.
silk fabrics - production - Import export
Silk has set the standard in luxury fabrics for several millennia. Silk is highly valued because it possesses many excellent properties. Not only does it look lustrous and feel luxurious, but it is also lightweight, resilient, and extremely strong— the strongest natural fiber known to man, one filament of silk is stronger then a comparable filament of steel! Although fabric manufacturers have created less costly alternatives to silk, such as nylon and polyester, silk is still in a class by itself.
Silk’s history and manufacturing
Silk, a Chinese invention, was one of the world's first global commodities due to its high value per weight and the ease with which it could be carried, stored, and packed. Its production involved three main stages: seri-culture the cultivation of mulberry trees and the rearing of silkworms , silk reeling, and weaving. International trade in silk was most intense in raw silk, the product of the second stage.
When James Haskell founded his silk company in Westbrook in , American silk mills were proliferating. Silk manufacturing, which had always been a handcraft, was a mechanized industry by the post Civil War years, powered by American inventions. By the late 19th century, Haskell and others relied primarily on Japanese raw silk filament , turning out previously unimaginable quantities of affordable silk goods and ending American reliance on expensive imports. Before the Civil War, however, American interest in silk production was virtually a cottage industry. To help launch the American industry to make silk fabrics and become less reliant on foreign silk textiles the Secretary of the Treasury had published an instructional silk manual known as the "Rush Letter" in
Dopamine-Dyed and Functionally Finished Silk with Rapid Oxidation Polymerization
Silk has set the standard in luxury fabrics for several millennia. The origins of silk date back to Ancient China. Legend has it that a Chinese princess was sipping tea in her garden when a cocoon fell into her cup, and the hot tea loosened the long strand of silk. Ancient literature, however, attributes the popularization of silk to the Chinese Empress Si-Ling, to around B. Called the Goddess of the Silkworm, Si-Ling apparently raised silkworms and designed a loom for making silk fabrics.
Both industrialized and developing countries now have modern installations capable of highly efficient fabric production. In addition to mechanical improvements in yarn and fabric manufacture, there have been rapid advances in development of new fibres, processes to improve textile characteristics, and testing methods allowing greater quality control. The modern textile industry is still closely related to the apparel industry, but production of fabrics for industrial use has gained in importance.