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Production manufacturing food concentrates

Production manufacturing food concentrates

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Whey, the liquid residue of cheese, casein and yoghurt production, is one of the biggest reservoirs of food protein available today. World whey output at approximately million tonnes in contains some 1. The latest research shows that whey protein is arguably the most nutritionally valuable protein available; little wonder that nutritional markets such as sports, clinical and infant nutrition are driving an unprecedented investment level in dairy production.

Whey as a by-product from the manufacture of hard, semi-hard or soft cheese and rennet casein is known as sweet whey and has a pH of 5. Manufacture of mineral-acid precipitated casein yields acid whey with a pH of 4. Table Whey is very often diluted with water. The figures above relate to undiluted whey. The rest is amino acids and peptides glycomacropeptide from renneting action on casein. Advances in membrane filtration and chromatography have underpinned economically viable commercial processes for the fractionation of whey into highly purified protein and lactose products that allow end users to take advantage of the various functional properties of individual whey components.

This is a trend that is expected to continue as research uncovers new bioactive properties and consumers become more educated about the nutritional value of whey.

The block diagram in Figure Production of whey powder, delactosed whey and lactose has traditionally dominated processing of whey solids. The shift in the image of whey from an unwanted by-product to a highly-valuable nutritional source is complete.

Some of the products now in use are described in this chapter. Zoom Fig. Whey must be processed as soon as possible after it is drawn from the cheese curd as its temperature and composition promote the growth of bacteria that lead to protein degradation and lactic acid formation. It is recommended that whey is drawn directly from the cheese process into short duration buffer storage then clarified, separated, pasteurized and cooled into storage to await further processing.

If transporting the whey it can be concentrated by membrane filtration to reduct transport costs. Casein fines are always present in whey. They have an adverse effect on fat separation and should therefore be removed first. The collected fines are often pressed in the same way as cheese, after which they can be used in processed cheese manufacture and, after a period of ripening, also in cooking. Normally, this works well for short maturation cheeses such as mozzarella, but note that the risk of rancid off flavours is heightened as the maturation time is increased.

It is important to break the recycle loop to avoid the build-up of free fatty acids and other undesirables that are not trapped in the curd matrix. For cheddar production, whey cream is generally not reused due to the sensitivity of the starter to bacteriophages.

In some of these cases, whey cream is converted to whey butter. Whey that is to be stored before processing must be either chilled or pasteurized and chilled as soon as the fat and fines have been removed. Longer periods of storage and utilization of the whey in high-quality infant formula and sports nutrition applications require pasteurization of the whey directly after the removal of fat and fines; generally, this approach is recommended in order to cater to the increasingly strict demands on product quality.

Then whey can either be transported to another site for further processing e. The product is held in the crystallizers for 4 — 8 hours to obtain a uniform distribution of small lactose crystals, which will give a non-hygroscopic product when spray-dried. Concentrated whey is a supersaturated lactose solution and, under certain temperature and concentration conditions, the lactose can sometimes crystallize spontaneously before the whey leaves the evaporator.

Basically, whey is dried in the same way as milk, i. The use of drum dryers involves a problem: it is difficult to scrape the layer of dried whey from the drum surface. A filler, such as wheat or rye bran, is therefore mixed into the whey before drying, to make the dried product easier to scrape off. Spray drying of whey, is at present, the most widely used method of drying. Before being dried, the whey concentrate is usually treated as mentioned above to form small lactose crystals, as this results in a non-hygroscopic product which does not go lumpy when it absorbs moisture.

Acid whey from cottage cheese and casein production is difficult to dry due to its high lactic acid content. It agglomerates and forms lumps in the spray dryer. Drying can be facilitated by neutralization and additives, such as skim milk and cereal products.

Increasingly it is preferred that lactic acid is removed by a combination of nanofiltration and electrodialysis improving flavour, nutritional profile, drying and handling. Whey proteins were originally isolated through the use of various precipitation techniques, but nowadays membrane separation fractionation and chromatographic processes are used in addition to both precipitation and complexing techniques.

Whey proteins, as constituents of whey powders, can easily be produced by careful drying of whey. Isolation of whey proteins has therefore been developed. The whey proteins obtained by membrane separation or ion exchange possess good functional properties, i. Protein concentrates have a very good amino acid profile, with high proportions of available lysine and cysteine. Whey protein concentrates WPC are powders made by drying the retentates from ultrafiltration of whey.

Example: kg of whey yields approximately 17 kg of retentate and 83 kg of permeate at close to six-fold 5. Percentage protein in dry matter according to the values in Table The concentrations of lactose, NPN and ash are generally the same in the retentate serum and permeate as in the original whey, but a slight retention of these components is reported. It is then necessary to diafilter the concentrate to remove more of the lactose and ash and raise the concentration of protein relative to the total dry matter.

Diafiltration is a procedure in which water is added to the feed as filtration proceeds, in order to wash out low molecular components which will pass through the membranes, basically lactose and minerals. A process line for the production of drier whey protein concentrate using UF is shown in Figure For further details about UF, see Chapter 6. Advances in microfiltration have drastically improved the quality and economics of product available, moving from a traditionally hot ceramic filter process to a cold organic spiral wound process in recent years.

Microfiltration also concentrates fat globule membranes and most of the bacteria in the MF retentate, which is collected and processed separately; in some cases, this retentate is dried on the same dryer as the WPI, resulting in a high fat WPC powder. The defatted MF permeate is routed to a second UF plant for concentration; this stage also includes diafiltration.

As Figure The retentate is pumped to the MF plant 3 , while the permeate goes to a collecting tank after RO concentration and cooling. The retentate from MF treatment, which contains most of the fat and bacteria, is collected separately, and the defatted permeate is forwarded to further ultrafiltration with diafiltration 4. These are explained in more detail below.

Consequently, there is an absence of GMP glycomacropeptide , lactic acid levels above those that are naturally occurring, degradation of proteins by starter culture enzymes and risks from bacteriophages. As figure The retentate, in liquid or powder form, can be used in a variety of products where casein fortification is beneficial; this includes cheese, dairy desserts and beverages.

The resulting permeate from UF 2 is concentrated directly and then stored ready for further processing. The type of membrane used to concentrate permeate depends on whether it is being used to standardize protein in milk powders, spray-dried as permeate or used for lactose production. This is explained in more detail below. In general, serum protein or whey proteins cannot be precipitated by rennet or acid.

It is, however, possible to precipitate whey proteins with acid, if they are first denatured by heat. The process is divided into two stages:. Denatured whey proteins can be mixed with cheese milk prior to renneting; they are then retained in the lattice structure formed by the casein molecules during coagulation. This discovery led to intensive efforts to find a method of precipitating and separating whey proteins, as well as a technique for optimizing the yield.

Adding denatured whey proteins to the cheese is not permitted by law in several countries, and also for certain types of cheese. Denatured proteins, either by adding or by pasteurization at high temperatures, affect both yield and ripening of the cheese. Figure After pH adjustment, the whey is pumped via an intermediate tank 1 to a plate heat exchanger 2 for regenerative heating.

Acid is introduced during this stage, to lower the pH. The acid is either organic or inorganic e. Those proteins that can be, and have been, modified by heat are precipitated within 60 seconds in a tubular holding section 4. The addition of concentrated whey protein to cheese milk — principally in the manufacture of soft and semi-hard cheeses — causes only minor changes in the coagulating properties.

The structure of the curd becomes finer and more uniform than with conventional methods. The processed whey proteins are more hydrophilic than casein.

There are currently a few options available for the further processing of UF permeate from whey or skim milk as shown below. Only milk UF permeate and lactose can be used for the standardization of protein in milk powders.

The processes for the manufacture of lactose and permeate powder are explained below in Fig. Lactose is the main constituent of whey. There are two basic methods of recovery, depending on the raw material:. Both methods produce a mother-lye, molasses, which can be dried and used as fodder.

The feed value can be increased considerably if the molasses is desalinated and if high-quality proteins are added. Several of these factors are mutually related to each other, for example degree of saturation and viscosity.

The tanks have cooling jackets and equipment for control of the cooling temperature. They are also fitted with special agitators. After crystallization, the slurry proceeds to decanter centrifuges and a sieve centrifuge 3 for separation of the crystals, which are dried 4 to a powder. Following grinding typically in a hammer mill and sifting, the lactose is packed 5. For efficient and simple separation of lactose crystals from the mother liquor, crystallization must be arranged so that the crystals exceed 0.

The degree of crystallization is determined in principle by the quantity of b-lactose converted to the desired a-lactose form, and the cooling of the concentrate must therefore be carefully controlled and optimized. Various types of centrifuges can be used for harvesting lactose crystals. One is the horizontal decanter centrifuge Figure Two machines are installed in series.

The lactose from the first is reprocessed in the second for more efficient separation.


Fully automated Standard size production line follows the same processes as a Small line, but only large production volumes in mind, both in bone raw materials and end products to ensure the great-tasting bone stock, broth, and derivative products such as ready sauces and soups. This allows you to produce large quantities of end-product over a number of batches with the same level of quality and characteristics every time. The turnkey line installation is delivered pre-assembled, which ensures quick and easy installation by Coctio installation team. The line is ready for connection with the pipes to Coctio equipment and the available power supply reducing installation expenses to a minimum. One batch produces 4, litres of natural bone broth which requires 3, kg of animal bones and 4, litres of water.

We know it well because we manufacture complete technological lines for juice and concentrate production. We'll describe this production process for apple juice. In Poland, every year, there are tones of apples from plantations.

Socioeconomic progress, diseases, and the constantly changing pace of life and lifestyles of consumers worldwide require food to be improved and tailored to meet the needs of purchasers. The produced food is functional, convenient, and enriched. This is achieved, i. Nowadays, food additives are very widespread in the human diet, but not all of them are synthetic and invasive on human health. All food additives, and their application and dosage, are subject to strict regulations.


The Austria Juice Group is one of the most important manufacturers of high-quality food and beverage ingredients and is one of the global players in the food and beverage market. Since the company was founded in , it has steadily developed into an expert in the development of innovative beverage concepts. Due to our decades of experience and our determination to process only the highest-quality fruits, sustainability and resource protection are fundamental principles reflected in all of our entrepreneurial actions. We respect both stakeholders and the communities in which we operate. We form long-term partnerships with our suppliers and customers. In the production of fruit juice concentrates, we process apples and berries in Europe and China. We pay particular attention to the fact that we increasingly source raw materials directly from farmers, avoiding long and unnecessary supply chains. We attach great importance to long-term, trust-based partnerships and support the training of future, self-employed farmers.

Food Additives in Food Products: A Case Study

Manufacturers of packaged juice need state licensing, production in a commercial kitchen, correct labeling and most likely a food safety plan along with a Process Authority Review to sell their product in Michigan. The license you obtain covers your production at a licensed commercial kitchen. The kitchen itself will require seperate licensing in order to be used for commercial purposes. This will determine what is needed to bring a kitchen space up to code to meet the regulatory requirements for commercial production. All shelf stable products need to undergo a Process Authority Review PAR testing to determine additional processing requirements needed for licensing.

Food industry: Protein flours and vegan protein powders are more popular than ever before!

Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration.

Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate.

Our core business is built upon our ability to control the technologies used for extraction, purification, and liquid and powder formulation. Naturex is known for its large industrial capacity and expertise. Over the years, we have diversified our technologies by pooling and adapting equipment and methods from our various acquisitions. Through open dialogue between our production sites and the exchange of technological knowledge, our industrial performance continues to advance on a daily basis.

Compound feed: A mixture of products of vegetable or animal origin in their natural state, fresh or preserved, or products derived from the industrial processing thereof, or organic or inorganic substances, whether or not containing additives, for oral feeding in the form of a complete feed HMSO, ; see also formula feed. Concentrate: A feed used with another to improve the nutritive balance of the total and intended to be further diluted and mixed to produce a supplement or a complete feed AAFCO, Expanded, expanding: Process Subjected to moisture, pressure, and temperature to gelatinize the starch portion. Fish Meal: Feed Ingredient Fish meal is the clean, dried, ground tissue of undecomposed whole fish or fish cuttings, either or both, with or without the extraction of part of the oil. Gelatinized, gelatinizing: Process Having had the starch granules completely ruptured by a combination of moisture, heat and pressure, and in some instances, by mechanical shear AAFCO, Heat-processed, heat-processing: Process Subjected to a method of preparation involving the use of elevated temperatures with or without pressure AAFCO,

FRUIT processing lines

Customized food supplements to complement your diet: Natural and effective health solutions that fully respect the environment. To preserve the health of your body and mind, you should have every day a healthy and balanced diet. Food supplements are food products that complement your diet. They contain vitamins or minerals, obtained through plants or herbal preparations. Since , food supplements are subject to a detailed regulation, ensuring the highest safety for you and your customers. Protein snacks, shakes and powdered proteins are a quick, practical and effective way to consume the right amount of proteins and consequently achieve your results.

Global producer, marketer and provider of technology-based natural ingredients, ingredient systems and integrated solutions for the food and beverage industry.

Pelagia is also through our company Epax a leading global producer of concentrated marine-based omega-3 fatty acids for dietary supplement and pharmaceutical preparations. Pelagia thereof got two major divisions, Food fish for consumption and Feed protein concentrate, fishmeal and fish oil , as Norway Pelagic and Egersund Fisk were leading producers of pelagic fish for consumption, and Welcon were a leading producer of protein concentrate, fish meal and oil. Pelagia Feed have eight production facilities for fishmeal and fish oil, and three facilities for production of protein concentrates and oil. In addition, Pelagia feed has a facility with significant storage capacity in Egersund approved as a border station for importation of protein and oils from third countries. Pelagia Feed employes full-time equivalents, and is led by Arnt-Ove Hoddevik.

The process of production of juices and concentrates in a nutshell!

The company has been successfully operating on the market cince year. Our customer base includes both large-size agricultural holdings and middle-size agri businesses that are spread from the northeastern part of Russia to the Urals, as well as abroad. MEGAMIX sets much stricter requirements for biosecurity and quality of its products, as well as for the company's goodwill, than it is set out in the laws of the Russian Federation and commonly accepted by the market.

Florida Food Products Through the Decades

Refine your products with our wide range of natural flavours and extracts derived from the best of nature. More energy, vitality or relaxation — products with functional added value are in greater demand than ever before. Are you looking for a plant-based alternative to spoonable yoghurts? Our plant-based fermented dessert concepts are based on ingredients such as almonds, oats,….

Our animal feed solutions help you produce top quality feed and to make economical use of your raw materials and energy.

The portfolio of the company is represented by various groups of medicinal preparations for the following areas of application: oncology, hematology, cardiology, immune diseases, anti microbial preparations, antivirals including HCV, HIV therapy , medicines used in transplantology, multiple sclerosis, hemophilia and diabetes as well as muscle relaxants, radiopaque contrast agents and preparations for anaesthesia. It is a world leading engineering company in the sphere of pharm industry and biotechnologies. Engineering design provides for all the technical solutions allowing to save energy resources when the building is in service and during manufacturing processes. Innovative production of Biopharmaceuticals based on GE Healthcare technology. September 20th, — A ceremonial opening of a new line for production of medicinal proteins took place at R-Pharm finished dosage form production facility in Yaroslavl.

Our Understanding of Sustainability

Matuev, Assoc. Meat and Meat Produce Technology M. Danilov, Prof. Dairy Produce Technology. Commodity Research and Examination of Goods I. Khamagaeva, Prof. Food and Agricultural Engineering V.


The global vegetable concentrates market is expected to register a CAGR of 4. Vegetable concentrates are most widely used in the soups, sauces and puree, vegetables-based foods, vegetable based baked and confectionary goods such as vegetable patties, and vegetable-based mixtures. With the increase in the hectic lifestyle of the people around the world, it can be added as a substitute for natural vegetables thereby, cutting the cooking time of the consumers.

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  1. Moogull

    Very useful phrase