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Space manufacturing devices of ship systems and pipelines

Space manufacturing devices of ship systems and pipelines

The pipelines include dedicated pipelines for specific consumers but excludes offshore crude pipelines, onshore well flow, feeder and collector pipelines. These standards are intended to ensure uniform application of design principles and to guide in selection and application of materials and components, equipment and systems and uniform operation and maintenance of the petroleum and petroleum products pipelines system and shall primarily focus on safety aspects of the employees, public and facilities associated with petroleum and petroleum products pipelines. The entity shall thereafter take approval from its Board or highest decision making body for non-conformities and mitigation measures. Approval of the Board or highest decision making body of entity along with the compliance report, mitigation measures and implementation schedule shall be submitted to the Board within six months from the date of notification of these regulations. The entity shall have proper records of the same.

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Why industrial systems need continuous delivery

Oil and gas produced from a field need to be transported to customers. On many oil fields, oil is loaded directly on to tankers buoy-loading. In other cases, oil and gas are transported by pipeline to onshore facilities. Oil, wet gas and liquefied natural gas LNG are transferred to ships at onshore facilities, while dry gas is moved by pipeline to the UK and continental Europe. In contrast to the oil and gas fields on the Norwegian shelf, where the companies themselves are responsible for the operations, the gas pipeline system is more directly controlled by the authorities.

An important consideration for the authorities is to ensure equal access to capacity in the system on the basis of companies' needs. Furthermore, the tariffs payable for access to the infrastructure must be reasonable. Another important consideration is to ensure that the Norwegian gas transport system operates efficiently, and that the system is developed to meet future needs.

The oil transport system is not as closely regulated as the gas transport infrastructure, mainly because transport is a less important part of the value chain for oil. Download as image PNG. The production well stream from different reservoirs contains oil, gas and water in various combinations.

To get marketable products, the production from the reservoirs must be separated and treated. The production from different reservoirs varies from oil with low gas content to almost dry gas methane with only small amounts of other gases.

Crude oil is a fluid that is a combination of different types of hydrocarbons. The composition varies from field to field, and the quality of the oil, including how light or heavy viscous the oil is, depends on the composition of the hydrocarbons as well as the contents of other substances, such as wax and sulphur. Rich gas, or crude natural gas, is a mixture of various gases.

When necessary, the gas is separated from the oil before the rich gas is treated in a processing facility that separates the dry and wet gas components. Dry gas is often referred to as natural gas, and consists mainly of methane, but also a little ethane.

In addition there are heavier condensates which some classify as a separate product. Naphtha and condensate are liquid at room temperature, while the lighter wet gas components can be made liquid either by cooling or adding pressure.

Not all gas that is produced is sold. Some of the gas is used to generate power on the fields, and small amounts are flared for safety purposes. On some fields, gas is reinjected into the reservoirs. Reinjection is often used to maintain reservoir pressure and displace the oil.

This results in efficient recovery of the oil, and the gas is stored for possible recovery in the future. A characteristic feature of gas production is that major investments are needed in transport infrastructure.

From dedicated gas transport solutions for individual fields, it has been transformed into an integrated system serving most of the Norwegian continental shelf. This is a cost-effective and reliable way of transporting gas, and gives Norwegian gas a substantial competitive edge.

Dry gas is separated from the rich gas for onward pipeline transport to receiving terminals abroad. There are four receiving terminals for Norwegian gas in continental Europe two in Germany, one in Belgium and one in France and a further two in the UK. The total length of the Norwegian gas pipeline network is about 8 kilometres, which is roughly the distance from Oslo to Bangkok. Most of the gas transport infrastructure is jointly owned through the partnership Gassled, while Gassco is the neutral and independent operator.

Print table Download data Gas pipelines on the Norwegian continental shelf. The authorities play an important role in ensuring that processing and transport capacity is developed to meet future needs. It is also essential to ensure that the Norwegian gas transport system operates efficiently.

The operator Gassco, the joint venture Gassled and regulated access to the transport system are important elements of the framework. The Norwegian gas transport infrastructure includes several receiving terminals in other countries.

Norway and the countries where gas from the Norwegian shelf is landed have concluded agreements regulating their rights and obligations in this connection. Special operatorship means the responsibilities Gassco is directly assigned under the Petroleum Act and associated regulations.

These include its role in developing new infrastructure, administering system capacity and coordinating and managing gas streams through the pipeline network to markets. Normal operatorship means running the infrastructure in accordance with the requirements of the Petroleum Act and the health, safety and environment legislation. As the system operator and the actor with the best overview of the system, Gassco has the task of further developing integrated Norwegian gas infrastructure.

This means for example that when major development projects are being evaluated, other gas fields than those that have a clearly defined need for gas transport must also be taken into consideration. Interactions between new and existing infrastructure must also be part of the assessment.

Gassled Gassled is a joint venture that owns most of the gas infrastructure on and serving the Norwegian continental shelf: pipelines, platforms, onshore processing plants and receiving terminals abroad.

Organisation as a joint venture means that it is possible to avoid conflicts of interest, for example when deciding which pipeline should be used to transport gas from a particular source. This ensures that gas is transported as efficiently as possible, thus helping to maximise value creation. Gassled has no employees, but a system of committees with specific tasks. Transport infrastructure makes up a smaller part of the value chain for oil than for gas.

In many cases, oil is loaded directly on to tankers on the offshore fields. For some of the larger field developments in Norway, it was considered most appropriate to build onshore oil terminals. Other fields have subsequently been connected to this infrastructure.

Oil transport infrastructure on the Norwegian shelf is divided into four different systems. At the Norwegian terminals, oil is stored in rock caverns before most of it is loaded on to tankers for export. Print table Download data Oil and condensate pipelines on the Norwegian continental shelf. The cost of transport is lower in relation to the product price, and buoy-loading directly on to tankers on the oil fields is an alternative to using pipelines and terminals.

The owners and users negotiate agreements on access to oil transport infrastructure between themselves. Like negotiations on the use of infrastructure on the fields, these negotiations are governed by the Regulations relating to the use of facilities by others.

The gas transport system is a natural monopoly, requiring substantial infrastructure investments in the development phase. Access to the system and tariffs for its use are therefore regulated by the authorities through chapter 9 in the "Regulations to Act relating to petroleum activities" and the "Regulations relating to the stipulation of tariffs etc. To promote sound resource management, the tariffs are set such that returns from oil and gas production are mainly derived from the producing fields, while at the same time providing a reasonable return on investment for the infrastructure owners.

This avoids a situation where development projects for fields and discoveries that are profitable for society are not commercially viable because the cost of using the transport system is too high. The petroleum companies are given access to capacity in the system on the basis of their needs.

To provide flexibility, the users are allowed to exchange transport rights if their needs change. State management and control of the industry is ensured through an extensive legislation that requires companies to obtain licences and approval from the competent authorities for all phases of petroleum activities. Improving the recovery rate on fields in production can further add to value creation on the Norwegian shelf. Declining production from a field also releases infrastructure capacity, which can be used by tying in new resources to the same The oil and gas pipeline system One of the main objectives for the authorities is to achieve the greatest possible value creation from the extraction of Norwegian petroleum resources.

Efficient systems for transporting oil and gas from the fields are an important element of efforts to achieve this. Today, the total length of the Norwegian gas pipeline network is roughly similar to the distance from Oslo to Bangkok.

In addition, several pipelines connect oil fields on the Norwegian continental shelf with onshore oil terminals. Home Production and exports The oil and gas pipeline system. One of the main objectives for the authorities is to achieve the greatest possible value creation from the extraction of Norwegian petroleum resources.

Gas pipelines Oil pipelines Regulation of access. Efficient transportation systems are required to achieve the greatest possible value creation from the extraction of Norwegian petroleum resources. What do we produce on the Norwegian shelf? Gas pipelines. Gas pipelines on the Norwegian continental shelf. Photo: Manfred Jarisch, Equinor Statoil.

Oil and condensate pipelines. Oil and condensate pipelines on the Norwegian continental shelf Updated: Oil and condensate pipelines on the Norwegian continental shelf. Organisation of the oil pipeline transport system The oil transport system is not as closely regulated as the gas transport infrastructure, mainly because transport is a less important part of the value chain for oil.

Regulation of access to the pipeline system. Updated: Relevant content The Petroleum Act and the licensing system State management and control of the industry is ensured through an extensive legislation that requires companies to obtain licences and approval from the competent authorities for all phases of petroleum activities. Effective resource management in mature areas Improving the recovery rate on fields in production can further add to value creation on the Norwegian shelf.

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Why industrial systems need continuous delivery

Design and design review for subsea structures, offshore pipelines - both in shallow and deep waters - and onshore pipelines aim at supplying a company with a final package of documents that can be used to make a FID Final Investment Decision for a project or for the tender phase with EPCI Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Installation contractors. This site or the third party tools it uses, make use of cookies needed to function and useful for the purposes indicated in the cookie policy. To learn more or deny consent, consult the cookie policy. By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking on a link or continuing to browse in another way, you accept the use of cookies.

Mission-critical systems have a very different risk appetite than the latest mobile game or business application. That appetite for little or no risk has led to a development workflow that is rigorous and process-driven.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The offshore pipeline industry, since its first ventures into the Gulf of Mexico and the waters off California more than 40 years ago, has steadily improved its operating practices, with new materials, more robust designs, and more efficient techniques for construction, operation, and maintenance. Today it operates with confidence in waters as deep as 1, feet, with near-term plans for depths of 3, feet Salpukas,

Subsea structures and pipeline design

While this may sound like science fiction, these kinds of factories have been a reality for more than 15 years. To imagine a world where robots do all the physical work, one simply needs to look at the most ambitious and technology-laden factories of today. In June , the Chinese e-commerce giant JD. Without robots, it would take as many as workers to fully staff this 40K square foot warehouse — instead, the factory requires only five technicians to service the machines and keep them working. To answer this, we took a deep dive into 8 different steps of the manufacturing process, to see how they are starting to change:. Despite representing The timelines and technologies will vary by sector, but most steps in nearly every vertical will see improvement. From drug production to industrial design, the planning stage is crucial for mass-production. Across industries, designers, chemists, and engineers are constantly hypothesis testing. Will this design look right?

Digitalisation and Energy

Digital technologies are everywhere, affecting the way we live, work, travel and play. Digitalisation is helping improve the safety, productivity, accessibility and sustainability of energy systems around the world. But it is also raising new security and privacy risks, while disrupting markets, businesses and workers. The report examines the impact of digital technologies on energy demand sectors, looks at how energy suppliers can use digital tools to improve operations, and explores the transformational potential of digitalisation to help create a highly interconnected energy system. This report seeks to provide greater clarity to decision makers in government and industry on what digitalisation means for energy, shining a light on its enormous potential and most pressing challenges.

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ISS National Lab Project Pipeline Map

Pipeline transport is the long-distance transportation of a liquid or gas through a system of pipes —a pipeline—typically to a market area for consumption. Liquids and gases are transported in pipelines and any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline. Pipelines are useful for transporting water for drinking or irrigation over long distances when it needs to move over hills , or where canals or channels are poor choices due to considerations of evaporation , pollution , or environmental impact. Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes which are usually buried.

Ship-related operational discharges of oil include the discharge of bilge water from machinery spaces, fuel oil sludge, and oily ballast water from fuel tanks. Also other commercial vessels than tankers contribute operational discharges of oil from machinery spaces to the sea. Cargo-related operational discharges from tankers include the discharge of tank-washing residues and oily ballast water. Before international regulations were introduced to prevent oil pollution from ships, the normal practice for oil tankers was to wash out the cargo tanks with water and then pump the resulting mixture of oil and water into the sea. Also, oil cargo or fuel tanks were used for ballast water and, consequently, oil was discharged into the sea when tankers flushed out the oil-contaminated ballast water to replace it with new oil. In a sea area with Special Area status under the international MARPOL Convention Annex I so far, only the Mediterranean Sea area, the Baltic Sea area, the Red Sea area, the Gulf of Aden area, the Antarctic area, and the North West European waters , it is altogether forbidden for oil tankers to discharge oil, oily sludge and oil-contaminated residues from tank washing, or heavily oil-contaminated ballast water.

Pipeline transport

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That why CI/CD pipelines are critical to IIoT. The principle is simple: Code in mission-critical systems such as airplanes, cars, medical devices, and smart or MRI machine in the development team's space, it is cost-prohibitive and won't scale. This allows the team to write code in a highly iterative manner but to ship it.

Energy security is critical for the growth and prosperity of European economies. Space-based systems and services already play an important part in the commercial sectors of the energy industry, but there is still a significant potential for increasing this. Space services have applications in renewable energy sources as well as in traditional oil-carbon and nuclear sectors. Such services can deliver benefits throughout all the phases of energy production and supply, ranging from identifying reservoirs and sites, to controlling and monitoring of the distribution networks across Europe.

The subject who is truly loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures. This article was published more than 2 years ago. Some information in it may no longer be current. Benjamin Dachis is associate director of research at the C.

Oil and gas produced from a field need to be transported to customers. On many oil fields, oil is loaded directly on to tankers buoy-loading. In other cases, oil and gas are transported by pipeline to onshore facilities.

Ну и ловок, подумала Сьюзан. На все у него готов ответ.

Энсей Танкадо стал изгоем мирового компьютерного сообщества: никто не верил калеке, обвиняемому в шпионаже, особенно когда он пытался доказать свою правоту, рассказывая о какой-то фантастической дешифровальной машине АНБ. Самое странное заключалось в том, что Танкадо, казалось, понимал, что таковы правила игры. Он не дал волю гневу, а лишь преисполнился решимости.

Когда службы безопасности выдворяли его из страны, он успел сказать несколько слов Стратмору, причем произнес их с ледяным спокойствием: - Мы все имеем право на тайну.

Фонтейн глубоко вздохнул. Его темные глаза выжидающе смотрели на Сьюзан. - Мисс Флетчер, как вы полагаете, если это не ключ, то почему Танкадо обязательно хотел его отдать. Если он знал, что мы его ликвидируем, то естественно было бы ожидать, что он накажет нас, допустив исчезновение кольца. В разговор вмешался новый участник.

А я-то думал, что ты будешь это отрицать. - Подите к черту. - Очень остроумно.

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  1. Meztile

    The matchless phrase, is pleasant to me :)