Space product the equipment is cryogenic, compressor, refrigeration, autogenous, gas purification, v
Knowing and understanding when to use the right unit could save you time, money and minimize the chance of unit failure. Both units look and function in a similar fashion; however, there are differences that need to be considered when you evaluate the space and environment in which you intend to use the unit. Built-in units, like the LHPUFMB above , are designed to be installed in areas which typically have very little clearance around the unit for ventilation; for example, under a counter and between fitted cabinets. These built-in units draw room air from the front of the unit under the door. A fan is then used to draw this cool, room air into the compressor compartment keeping the compressor cool, helping to prevent the compressor from overheating and — ultimately — failing. It is worth noting that this fan will add a low level of noise to the room.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Scroll, Reciprocating, Rotary Hermetic Refrigerant Compressors! Cut Open!
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US3380809A - Process for liquefaction and conversion of hydrogen - Google Patents
Knowing and understanding when to use the right unit could save you time, money and minimize the chance of unit failure. Both units look and function in a similar fashion; however, there are differences that need to be considered when you evaluate the space and environment in which you intend to use the unit. Built-in units, like the LHPUFMB above , are designed to be installed in areas which typically have very little clearance around the unit for ventilation; for example, under a counter and between fitted cabinets.
These built-in units draw room air from the front of the unit under the door. A fan is then used to draw this cool, room air into the compressor compartment keeping the compressor cool, helping to prevent the compressor from overheating and — ultimately — failing. It is worth noting that this fan will add a low level of noise to the room. The free-standing unit, on the other hand, is designed to be placed in an open area, or in an area that allows for greater air circulation.
These units are not intended to be used in tight areas such as under a counter or between cabinets. However, because they lack the external fan that you find in the Built-in units, they tend to omit less noise. In conclusion, it is the placement of these units that matters most in terms of pinpointing their differences.
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Take the guess work out of finding the right freezer rack solution for you. These low-profile LN2 freezers coupled with our freezer racks will maximize your storage capacity whether storing cryo boxes, vials, straws or blood bags. In addition, they use as little liquid nitrogen as possible, yet still keeping long-lasting hold times, providing you with stable cryogenic storage conditions for your valuable biological samples.
Cryogenic Storage Dewars Cryogenic Dewars provide a safe and efficient way to safely store and dispense small amounts of liquid nitrogen. Their superior vacuum performance, super insulation and low LN2 consumption allows for optimal thermal efficiency and maximum holding times even under rugged conditions. These liquid nitrogen shipping containers are available in a wide range of capacities which utilize canes, straws, boxes, or blood bags for the storage of sensitive materials.
Depending on your specific requirements, the static holding times for LN2 storage can vary anywhere from 7 to 85 days. Once the transportation of samples is complete, our Chart MVE Doble series and Taylor Wharton CXR series cryogenic shippers can also be used as a liquid nitrogen freezer for long term storage of samples. Controlled Rate Freezers Cryogenic Freezer Racks Vertical freezer racks and racks for liquid nitrogen storage are designed to organize your laboratory freezer inventory.
These universal racks fit a wide variety of freezer sizes and models, are constructed of high-quality stainless steel or aluminum and provide safe, convenient storage of your samples. These products are well constructed and designed to handle a variety of liquid nitrogen applications that involve primary cell cultures, cell lines and tissue.
Included in this selection are alarms, liquid withdrawal devices, shipping containers and cryogenic apparel. Upright Freezer Racks Upright freezer racks consists of regular, drawer and tray style racks designed to hold fiberboard boxes, polycarbonate boxes, centrifuge tubes, microtiter plates and much more. These universal racks fit a wide variety of freezer sizes and models, are constructed of corrosion resistant stainless steel and provide safe, convenient storage of your samples.
We now offer custom labeling and engraving for freezer racks to help identify the freezer racks within your upright low temp freezer or cryogenic freezers.
See below for examples of types of labelings offered. Storage Boxes and Cell Dividers Our storage box and cell divider offering consists of fiberboard boxes, fiberboard cell dividers, plasti-coat boxes, polycarbonate boxes and much more designed to safely store your samples in an organized manner. These innovative thermometers are designed to measure the temperature within cold storage products providing you with accurate readings.
Incubators Incubation is important for growing and maintaining cells, tissue and other microbiological cultures. Creating an in-vivo environment by keeping cells at optimal temperature and humidity while inside an incubator are crucial elements for cell line growth. We have an extensive line of premium CO2, refrigerated, and heated incubators from NuAire, and Panasonic as well as environmental chambers from Bahnson Environmental Specialties and Nor-Lake Scientific that are designed to provide the ideal environment for any cell culture application including biochemical studies, bacteriology, hematological studies, research microbiological determination, and pharmaceutical stability.
Our incubators offer flexibility to the researcher as well as optimal performance for a stable and reliable environment. Specific design features are used to minimize contamination problems while making them more energy efficient and offering a safe environment for your cells lines. CO2 Incubators CO2 Incubators allow you to not only control the temperature, but also the carbon dioxide CO2 level and relative humidity which can be an important element particularly during the cultivation of mammalian cells.
We specialize in a number of CO2 incubators from NuAire and Panasonic including small, stackable to large capacity direct heat CO2 incubators as well as small, stackable water jacketed CO2 incubators. They are ideal for a variety of cell culture applications from basic laboratory to more advanced, sophisticated cell culture applications including stem cell research, autologous tissue regeneration, low volume media micro-plate work, in vitro fertilization research, growth studies, and general research.
All of our CO2 incubators are designed to deliver a higher level of performance providing better controlled in-vitro conditions for optimal cell growth. Microbiological Incubators Microbiological incubators are designed to provide an optimal environment for growing and storing bacterial cultures.
Their extremely small footprint makes these units ideal for personalized workspace or for overcrowded labs with small sample volumes. Our microbiological incubators ensure the viability of your research by provide long-term, optimum performance with improved temperature uniformity and stability.
We offer a large selection of incubators from Thermo Scientific, Benchmark Scientific and Scientific Industries comprised of different convection types such as gravity, mechanical and dual as well as various shaking abilities.
Refrigerated Incubators Refrigerated Incubators, also known as low temperature incubators, are designed to keep drugs, cells, plants, tissue, fungal cultures and other samples at a constant temperature to either promote or prevent growth. They are ideal for a variety of applications including BOD determinations, plant and insect studies, fermentation studies, bacterial culturing, water pollution testing and enzyme digestion studies. These cooled incubators feature a heavy duty refrigeration system designed to optimize air flow and temperature uniformity, a programmable controller with audible and visual alarms, a well-insulated cabinet, and precise temperature control and uniformity.
Our BOD refrigerated incubators from Panasonic are ideal for biochemical oxygen demand BOD applications and meet EPA government regulations for secondary treatment standard of wastewater.
Typical applications include clinical protocols, cell culture applications, microplate processing, transfusion applications and much more. These units bring the user variety, reliability and efficiency in a compact, high capacity system while optimizing routine throughput.
They are one of the most essential instruments needed for routine processes in a number of laboratories, including micropropagation and other cell culture laboratories. Our full line of Sartorius and Torbal scales and balances are ideal for weighing and analyzing cell and tissue culture media, reagents and biochemicals. These high-quality units feature a sleek, well-constructed design with easy-to-read digital display, straightforward processing system and tough, long-lasting control keys or touch screen.
Analytical Balances: these units feature weighing capacities of 60g to g and readabilities of 0. These units feature a USB port for communication to a PC or other equipment, touch-screen displays, below balance weighing and calibration either automatically or manually. They are equipped with a draft shield to eliminate interfering ambient effects and their proprietary monolithic weigh cell provides repeatable weighing results and fast response times.
They are crafted to perform daily routine tasks and offer an easy operation with ultra-fast response times. These units feature a built-in digital interface, internal calibration and adjustment as well as the isoCAL internal automatic calibration and adjustment. Molecular Devices systems are available for a wide variety of applications in biotechnology, pharmaceutical, food and water safety, and many more. Baths Laboratory baths are essential instruments in order to perform a number of general lab applications, such as defrosting; cooling and warming liquids; practical science demonstrations and experiments; and maintaining temperature control of samples.
Our dry baths use dry heat to heat aluminum block inserts which then heat up samples, whereas our water baths use water inside a chamber to heat samples as well as cool equipment. Bead Baths Dry Baths Digital dry baths provide for precise temperature control combined with ease of use in heating and maintaining the temperature of substances contained within their high-grade aluminum blocks.
Units offer an extensive array of features that range from heated lids to digital timers to built-in recalibration, all ensuring the accuracy and protection of samples. The availability of exchangeable blocks for a wide variety of tube sizes, as well as custom block availability provide convenience and versatility of use.
Water Baths. Hotplates Hotplates are generally used in a laboratory setting to heat glassware and its contents to required temperatures. Our hotplates are reliable, portable and long-lasting making them an essential piece of equipment in the lab.
Automatic stirrers ensure that a solution is constantly stirred, even when left unattended while the hotplate component ensures that heat is consistently applied across the entire sample. Overheard stirrers can also be used if the solution is particularly viscous or larger volumes are involved.
Overhead stirrers are suitable for creating suspensions, gas intrusions, and recirculation applications. Our hotplate-stirrer offering consists of analog or digital models with stainless steel, ceramic or porcelain plates all designed to mix or encourage small-scale reactions. Magnetic Stirrers Magnetic stirrers use a rotating magnetic field to cause a stirrer bar to rotate within a glass container, which is best suited for small volumes of non-viscous liquids.
Our magnetic stirrer offering consists of single- and multi-position units ideal for a number of chemistry and biology applications. Single Channel Pipettes Multi Channel Pipettes Scilogex multi-channel pipettes, available in eight and twelve channels, is designed to simplify your pipetting processes for various PCR studies and molecular biology applications.
Selecting the right volume is made easy with the turn of the plunger button, while the finger support keeps the instrument in place with minimum user effort and the tip ejector allows convenient one-handed operation.
These mechanical pipettes have adjustable volumes, available in a range of 0. Motorized Pipette Fillers Manual Pipette Controller Serological Pipettes Pipette Accessories We have a number of pipette accessories including stands, tips and reservoirs designed to help you with your pipetting processes.
Units can be placed inside incubators or cold rooms as required. Orbital Shakers Orbital shakers are designed to stir or mix liquid samples in a circular, swirling motion, creating a vortex effect inside the sample container, which is ideal for a number of applications including molecular biology, fermentation, staining and de-staining, hybridization studies and genetic research.
Our orbital shakers offer user-friendly operating and safety features for reliable shaking of glassware and other lab vessels of various shapes and sizes. The variable speed control allows gentle to vigorous agitation and aeration, while the digital timer function allows for automatic run at any specific length of time. These laboratory shakers have a large selection of optional features and accessories available to meet the need of any application.
Shaking Incubators Shaking incubators integrate both a shaker and an incubator into one space-saving unit; basically a linear shaker contained inside an incubated enclosure. Oxygen and the proper nutrients combined with optimal environment conditions are key factors during cell growth.
Typically, researchers have used a separate shaker inside an incubator in order to provide some form of agitation or shaking to get their culture media the proper oxygen and nutrients needed. This occurs while samples are incubated at a stable, consistent temperature.
Our shaking incubators can be used to grow all types of cells including bacterial cultures, tissue cultures and microorganisms. We have a wide selection of shaking incubators that are capable of holding flasks, petri dishes and test tubes of all sizes. Thermal Shakers. Adjustable speed mixers give a lab precise mixing while enabling them to have the flexibility of changing the setting from gentle to vigorous.
Microplate Mixers Available in different types of motions, microplate mixers are designed to mix liquid samples within microtiter plates. These particular units mix samples in an orbital direction which creates a vortex motion within each microplate well. These easy-to-use mixers come in either an analog model ideal for high speed mixing or a digital model ideal for precise speed and time control. Ventilated Workstations Specialty Stainless. Laboratory Carts We offer an extensive line of laboratory carts that are configured in a manner that is parallel to that of our shelving systems.
Built-in vs. Free-standing Applications: Understanding the Difference
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Theophilos, Ph. Here the 20 F point has been selected because it normally represents the onset of embrittlement for ordinary carbon steels in typical structural applications. Cryogenics is not a separate branch of physics, since it obeys all laws of ordinary physics. In fact, cryogenics is low-temperature physics.
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April 30, c. This invention relates to the liquefaction of hydrogen and more particularly to a method of and apparatus for producing liquid hydrogen of high para composition. It is known that normal hydrogen is a mixture of two gases referred to "as ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen, and that the equilibrium concentration of ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen varies with temperature. At temperatures above F. It is also known that orthohydrogen conversion is an exothermic reaction releasing about B. The percentage of mass of liquid hydrogen that is lost by vaporization is a function of the ortho-hydrogen composition of the liquid hydrogen at the time ortho-hydrogen conversion begins, such as the time liquid hydrogen is introduced into a storage vessel, and a function of the degree of completeness of conversion of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen, that is, the storage period. Thus, it is not practical to store liquefied normal hydrogen.
Proceedings 10 Cryo
June D. It is known that normal hydrogen is a mixture of two gases referred to as ortho hydrogen and para hydrogen, and that the equilibrium concentration of ortho hydrogen and para hydrogen varies with temperature. At temperatures above about F. It is also known that ortho hydrogen conversion is an exothermic reaction, releasing about B. The percentage of liquid hydrogen that is lost by vaporization is a function of the ortho hydrogen composition of the liquid hydrogen at the time ortho hydrogen conversion begins, such as the time liquid hydrogen is introduced into a storage vessel, and a function of the degree of completeness of conversion of ortho hydrogen to para hydrogen, that is, the storage period.
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US3095274A - Hydrogen liquefaction and conversion systems - Google Patents
Интересно, почему Стратмор его до сих пор не отключил. Ему понадобилось всего несколько мгновений, чтобы принять решение. Фонтейн схватил со стола заседаний трубку внутреннего телефона и набрал номер шифровалки.
Мысли его перенеслись назад, в детство. Родители… Сьюзан. О Боже… Сьюзан. Впервые с детских лет Беккер начал молиться. Он молился не об избавлении от смерти - в чудеса он не верил; он молился о том, чтобы женщина, от которой был так далеко, нашла в себе силы, чтобы ни на мгновение не усомнилась в его любви.
Он закрыл глаза, и воспоминания хлынули бурным потоком.
Туда и обратно, - повторил он мысленно. ГЛАВА 31 Сьюзан вернулась в Третий узел. После разговора со Стратмором она начала беспокоиться о безопасности Дэвида, а ее воображение рисовало страшные картины. - Ну, - послышался голос Хейла, склонившегося над своим компьютером, - и чего же хотел Стратмор.
Провести романтический вечер в обществе своего главного криптографа. Сьюзан проигнорировала его вопрос и села за свой терминал.
Вспомнил о Сьюзан. Это были простые воспоминания: как он учил ее есть палочками, как они отправились на яхте к Кейп-Коду. Я люблю тебя, Сьюзан, - подумал. - Помни это…. Ему казалось, что с него сорваны все внешние покровы.
- Он просто расстроен. Но он получит то, что ему причитается. - Она встряхнула волосами и подмигнула. - Может быть, все-таки скажете что-нибудь .
ГЛАВА 108 Лифт Стратмора начал стремительно спускаться. В кабине Сьюзан жадно вдохнула свежий прохладный воздух и, почувствовав головокружение, прижалась к стенке лифта. Вскоре спуск закончился, переключились какие-то шестеренки, и лифт снова начал движение, на этот раз горизонтальное.
Стратмор подхватил ее и слегка обнял, пытаясь успокоить. - Ш-ш-ш, - утешал он .
Это была шутка, Мидж. - Но он знал, что сказанного не вернешь. ГЛАВА 62 Коммандер и Сьюзан стояли у закрытого люка и обсуждали, что делать. - Итак, внизу у нас погибший Чатрукьян, - констатировал Стратмор. - Если мы вызовем помощь, шифровалка превратится в цирк.
Слышались и другие голоса - незнакомые, ненужные. Он хотел их отключить. Для него важен был только один голос, который то возникал, то замолкал. - Дэвид, прости. Он увидел пятна света.
Вот почему я тебя вызвал. Мне нужна твоя помощь. Сьюзан плохо его понимала. Ей показалось, что столь своевременная кончина Танкадо решила все проблемы.