We set a simple goal: to answer most of the questions that you have for free, in a reliable and simple language.
Main page
REGISTRATION
Warehouse commercial other livestock products

Warehouse commercial other livestock products

Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production , also known by its opponents as factory farming , [1] is a type of intensive agriculture , specifically an approach to animal husbandry designed to maximize production, while minimizing costs. There is a continuing debate over the benefits, risks and ethics of intensive animal farming. The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare ; health risks and the environmental impact e. Intensive animal farming is a relatively recent development in the history of agriculture , and the result of scientific discoveries and technological advances.

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: The Geography of Livestock

Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to resolve Warehouse commercial other livestock products, but each case is unique.

If you want to know, how to solve your particular problem - contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!

Content:

Looking for other ways to read this?

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Understanding the place of animal feeding operations in the U. This chapter starts with information on the overall size of the major livestock feeding operations cattle, swine, dairy cows, and poultry and their relationship to crop agriculture. It then turns to the general economics of livestock agriculture and the structure of the livestock industry.

It ends with a discussion of the economics of emissions and manure management and potential methods of livestock operation emissions control and mitigation. Livestock agriculture is concerned with raising and maintaining livestock, primarily for the purposes of producing meat, milk, and eggs.

Livestock agriculture also includes wool and leather production and may include animals kept for recreation riding or racing and draft. Department of Commerce, , Table Livestock agriculture is the market or consumer for a significant portion of U. Annual U. Corn provided Sorghum and barley added another 2 percent of cash receipts from farm marketings of crops. Hay is consumed by livestock and represented 3. Livestock agriculture is also the market or consumer for soybean meal and other oilseed meals.

Soybeans accounted for Approximately 37 percent of U. In summary, livestock agriculture directly accounts for nearly half of U. In many states, livestock agriculture accounts for more than 65 percent of cash receipts from farming. Livestock agriculture provides the basis for the meat, dairy, and egg processing industries. Meat products represent Finally, meat, dairy products, and eggs are important components of the U. Economic characteristics of livestock agriculture addressed here include markets and prices, production costs, and industry structure.

Prices for livestock and products are determined in competitive markets. With the exception of federal marketing orders for dairy see Blayney and Manchester, , for a description of U. Producers respond to market prices for livestock and their products and to prices of feed ingredients by increasing production following periods of high profit and decreasing production following periods of losses.

Biological lags in production response are a fundamental characteristic of livestock agriculture. The gestation or hatching periods of livestock and poultry plus the period from birth to market weight or to milk or egg production impose minimum times in which livestock and poultry farmers can respond to price or profit signals. This period approaches one year for swine and two to three years for cattle. Broiler producers are able to respond within a few months, while egg and turkey producers may require 6 to 18 months to respond.

The result of the lagged response is a cycle in production, prices, and profits as producers are constantly adjusting output by expanding or exiting production. Prices and profits in any single year may not be representative of the equilibrium price and profit of a livestock sector due to the length of cycles in prices and profits. Volatility in prices is evident. Feed cost is generally the largest component of total cost and varies directly with ingredient corn, soybean meal, hay prices.

Recent U. Department of Agriculture USDA benchmark cost series show feed to be about 60 percent of the cost of broilers, turkeys, table eggs, and pigs. Feed is more than 70 percent of the benchmark cost of weight gain in high plains cattle feeding operations. Volatile prices for feed ingredients and market animals, combined with biological lags in production response, result in extremely volatile profit margins.

Extended periods of losses sometimes severe and profits are common in the livestock sector. For example, beef cattle feedlots with more than head of cattle, which sold an average of. The largest size categories for other kinds of livestock operations have similarly large shares of the number of animals and production.

Nevertheless, the large number of operations in even the largest size categories keeps any one, or any group, of them from having sufficient market power to affect the prices of their products. Various methods of vertical coordination between meat processing organizations and animal feeding operations AFOs are in use Martinez, Broiler, turkey, and some swine processors use production contracts.

Production contracts are generally defined as contracts between owners of livestock and independent farmers to have the farmers raise the livestock on their farms. Typical production contracts have the livestock owner frequently, but not necessarily, a processor provide livestock, feed, medication, and managerial and veterinary support, while farmers provide buildings, labor and management, land, manure management, utilities, repairs, and supplies in exchange for a fee per head or per pound produced.

Marketing contracts or agreements are another method of vertical coordination between processors and livestock producers. Marketing contracts or agreements may be defined as contracts to deliver livestock, and establish the base price and price increments for specific attributes e.

Marketing contracts are distinguished from production contracts in that farmers retain ownership of the livestock and provide feed and other inputs until the livestock are delivered to the processor. Producers of livestock and poultry compete in an international market.

Beef and pork are both imported and exported. Net exports range from 3 percent of pork production to 18 percent of broiler production. Although exports constitute a relatively small fraction of total production, they add significantly to agricultural income. Increased production costs can decrease the international competitiveness of U.

A significant cost increase in the U. The number of farms in the United States peaked in at about 6. There were 1. The fraction of U. Increased specialization has accompanied increased productivity. There has been little change in the number of pigs in the United States since The number of cows being milked peaked at 25 million in and has since dropped to about 9 million.

Milk production per cow increased markedly from kilograms per year in to more than 8, kiograms per year in USDA, c, d. Annual production of livestock and products has risen steadily over the past century, although production cycles are evident in the data. Also evident is a steady increase in livestock productivity defined here as the quantity of meat, milk, and eggs produced annually from a given inventory of livestock.

Productivity gains arise from an increased number of animals born and raised per breeding animal per year, increased growth rates and market weights of animals intended for slaughter, and increased milk or egg production per animal per year. In addition to producing more from a given inventory of animals, livestock farmers have greatly decreased the quantity of feed required to produce a pound of meat, milk, or eggs.

Productivity gains have been accomplished through genetic selection, as well as through improvements in diet formulation and processing, housing and environmental controls e.

Havenstein and colleagues demonstrate that a strain of broiler chicken fed a current diet requires about one-third the feed and one-third the time to produce a 4.

Since modern broilers are grown to heavier weights, the actual efficiency gains are altered. The modern broiler raised to 5. The strain required about days to produce a 4. These productivity gains are consistent with those cited by Martinez , Table 3. Note that reduced feed consumption per pound of product results in a proportionally larger reduction in the quantity of excreta on a dry weight basis.

For example, if feed consumption is reduced to 42 percent of the original quantity, and if 15 percent of the original quantity was and is retained in the product, then the dry weight excreta would be In the United States, there were 79, dairy farms with more than three milk cows reported in the census of agriculture Kellogg, In contrast to other food animal industries, the dairy industry is not.

Farms are owned and managed independently of processors. Most dairy farms raise their own replacement heifers but sell bull calves. Fluid milk is sold to processors, which may be controlled by cooperatives or by private or public corporations.

See Blayney, , and Manchester and Blayney, , for further exposition of structure and trends in the U. Beef Cattle. The number of beef cattle in the United States peaked at million head in USDA estimated that in the U.

Many of these are cow-calf operations, with cattle fed on pasture, that are not considered AFOs. For example, 0. Feedlots vary in size, from a great many operations that hold only a few animals to a small number with a one-time occupancy capacity of more than , head. The cattle feeding industry has not developed integration or contractual arrangements to the extent that the poultry or swine industries have. Most feedlots are privately held; an owner may have more than one, but ownership of a feedlot does not necessarily mean ownership of the cattle being fed there.

Custom feeding is common where an investor who owns the cattle may have no active involvement in cattle feeding or agriculture except through an investment portfolio. These operations may involve feedlots with capacities as large as 10,, head.

Large commercial feedlots may have a substantial land base for feed production but in most instances would have to purchase a significant portion of the feed needed. Custom feeding housing and feeding cattle on a feedlot for a fee; the cattle are not owned by the feedlot owner is common. Cow-calf operators who do not have a feedlot may also utilize custom feeding after their cattle have been weaned. The proportion of custom-fed cattle within a feedlot is not necessarily related to overall size of the feedlot.

It has become increasingly common for smaller farmer-feeder operations to use custom feeding as a way to decrease risk or to capitalize expansion. Almost all of the U. There were 81, farms with at least one pig on December 1, Of those, The U.

Intensive animal farming

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Understanding the place of animal feeding operations in the U. This chapter starts with information on the overall size of the major livestock feeding operations cattle, swine, dairy cows, and poultry and their relationship to crop agriculture. It then turns to the general economics of livestock agriculture and the structure of the livestock industry.

Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat , eggs , milk , fur , leather , and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants , such as cattle and goats.

The type and importance of animal species that are used for livestock production varies between regions and with the categories of livestock owners. The different species play important roles for food production and income generation and have also other important non-food functions. Efficient livestock production requires good management practices which include appropriate feeding and health care and the selection and development of breeds that are well adapted to the specific production environments. Infographic: Egg Facts.

Animal production

Там подают отличный карпаччо.  - Хейл улыбнулся.  - Что скажешь. А потом мы могли бы… - Выкинь это из головы. - Сколько в тебе снобизма.  - Хейл вздохнул и повернулся к своему компьютеру. В этом вся ее сущность. Блестящий криптограф - и давнишнее разочарование Хейла.

Он часто представлял, как занимается с ней сексом: прижимает ее к овальной поверхности ТРАНСТЕКСТА и берет прямо там, на теплом кафеле черного пола.

Клушару эта идея понравилась. Он сел в кровати. - Нуда, конечно… С удовольствием. Беккер достал блокнот. - Итак, начнем с утра.

Soccoro! - Его голос звучал еле слышно.

Ты, часом, не шутишь? - Он был едва ли не на полметра выше этого панка и тяжелее килограммов на двадцать. - С чего это ты взял, что я шучу. Беккер промолчал.

Стратмор пока не сказал ей, что этот ключ представляет для него отнюдь не только академический интерес. Он думал, что сможет обойтись без ее участия - принимая во внимание ее склонность к самостоятельности - и сам найдет этот ключ, но уже столкнулся с проблемами, пытаясь самостоятельно запустить Следопыта.

Рисковать еще раз ему не хотелось. - Сьюзан, - в его голосе послышалась решимость, - я прошу тебя помочь мне найти ключ Хейла.

Нравится нам это или нет, но демократию от анархии отделяет не очень-то прочная дверь, и АНБ ее охраняет. Хейл задумчиво кивнул: - Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Сьюзан была озадачена. - Это по-латыни, - объяснил Хейл.

 - Из сатир Ювенала.

Беккер держался центра башни, срезая углы и одним прыжком преодолевая сразу несколько ступенек, Халохот неуклонно двигался за. Еще несколько секунд - и все решит один-единственный выстрел. Даже если Беккер успеет спуститься вниз, ему все равно некуда бежать: Халохот выстрелит ему в спину, когда он будет пересекать Апельсиновый сад. Халохот переместился ближе к центру, чтобы двигаться быстрее, чувствуя, что уже настигает жертву: всякий раз, пробегая мимо очередного проема, он видел ее тень.

Вниз.

Solicits business for tobacco auction warehouse and rents space for display of tobacco on and livestock, foodstuffs, textiles, apparel, fuels and petroleum products, Sells cattle, horses, hogs, and other livestock on commission to packing to retail outlets and industrial and commercial establishments, performing duties.

Одним глазом он следил за тенью, другим - за ступенями под ногами. Вдруг Халохоту показалось, что тень Беккера как бы споткнулась. Она совершила судорожный рывок влево и вроде бы закружилась в воздухе, а затем снова прильнула к центру лестницы.

С Дэвидом все в порядке. Просто мне приходится быть крайне осторожным. В тридцати футах от них, скрытый за стеклом односторонней видимости Грег Хейл стоял у терминала Сьюзан. Черный экран.

Беккер грохнулся на пол возле двери. Мостовая стремительно убегала назад в нескольких дюймах внизу. Он окончательно протрезвел.

- Я опытный диагност.

Не знаете, как его зовут. Клушар на мгновение задумался и покачал головой: - Понятия не имею.  - Он поморщился от боли и откинулся на подушки. Беккер вздохнул. Кольцо словно исчезло у него из-под носа.

Теперь можно возвращаться домой. Кольцо на пальце и есть тот Грааль, который он искал. Беккер поднял руку к свету и вгляделся в выгравированные на золоте знаки. Его взгляд не фокусировался, и он не мог прочитать надпись, но, похоже, она сделана по-английски. Первая буква вроде бы О, или Q, или ноль: глаза у него так болели. что он не мог разобрать, но все-таки кое-как прочитал первые буквы, В них не было никакого смысла. И это вопрос национальной безопасности.

Двое сидевших в нем людей были напряжены до предела: они не в первый раз получали чрезвычайный приказ из Форт-Мида, но обычно эти приказы не приходили с самого верха. Агент, сидевший за рулем, повернув голову, бросил через плечо: - Есть какие-нибудь следы нашего человека.

Глаза его партнера не отрывались от картинки на большом мониторе, установленном под крышей мини-автобуса. - Никаких.

Comments 1
Thanks! Your comment will appear after verification.
Add a comment

  1. Niran

    I congratulate, what excellent message.