Warehouse product products from porcelain, faience, semi-porcelain and majolica
Ceramics has been known since ancient times and is probably the first man-made artificial material. Take a walk in the excavations of any ancient site of ancient settlement. What do you see in abundance under your feet? As a result of the heat treatment of the ceramic, the material is almost eternal oh, if not for its fragility! It is no accident that one of the most important methods of dating in archeology is based precisely on the classification of ceramic shards. Already from the definition it is clear that this is the most ancient type of ceramics.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Ceramic Review: Masterclass with Angela Mellor
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Majolica, Faience, and Delftware
Ceramics has been known since ancient times and is probably the first man-made artificial material. Take a walk in the excavations of any ancient site of ancient settlement. What do you see in abundance under your feet? As a result of the heat treatment of the ceramic, the material is almost eternal oh, if not for its fragility!
It is no accident that one of the most important methods of dating in archeology is based precisely on the classification of ceramic shards. Already from the definition it is clear that this is the most ancient type of ceramics. It is terracotta used in the construction of the majestic ancient Babylon, the legendary Roman public buildings of aqueducts and the term, the ancient Greek systems of natural water conduits, which are used in places to this day!
Our contemporaries, brick and tiles are worthy descendants of ancient traditions. Such a simple material as terracotta, from ancient times and still inspires artists and craftsmen to create toys, figurines, dishes and decor items. The methods of decoration of terracotta ware are limited, basically, by modeling the convex or concave relief, giving the surface of the product a different texture.
Pottery ceramics — terracotta, subjected to additional processing to give it water resistance or decor. Terracotta acquires shine, water resistance and a beautiful shade of cognac color.
These methods of decoration and are still widely used in folk crafts and art workshops. Majolica — the nearest relative of pottery, is covered with colored glazes — enamels. The name comes from the Mediterranean island of Mallorca, through which such dishes from Mauritanian Spain were imported to Italy. In fact, irrigation ceramics are known to people since the times of Ancient Egypt and Babylon, where it was widely used even for decorating buildings for example — the famous Ishtar Gate.
In the Middle Ages majolica was widely developed in Islamic art. The mosques and minarets all over the world store her unsurpassed samples. European masters with pleasure have picked up this technics and have developed it in manufacture of tiles, sculptural reliefs, utensils, subjects of a life and any nice knickknacks. To modern authors, it still leaves a considerable space for the embodiment of the most bizarre ideas.
A distinctive method of decorating majolica:. Also for the decoration of majolica we use modeling, watering with colored engobes, painting overglaze paints and glazes. European majolica as an art, began to develop about years ago and continues to gain popularity. Faience from the name of the Italian city of Faenza, a well-known place of production — ceramic products facing tiles, architectural details, utensils, sanitary ware, etc.
The earthenware shard is denser than ceramic, but less dense than porcelain and does not have its whiteness and transparency.
If there is a glaze on the rim — you have faience in front of you porcelain products do not glaze because of the technology of production on the rim of the bottom! If there is no glaze — drop a drop of water: on faience it will absorb in a few seconds into the shard. There is still an old sure way: porcelain always rings, even with a slight tapping, the sound of faience will always be deaf and low. Stone ceramics — refractory, opaque, forming a solid crusted crock of gray or light brown color.
Tableware from the ceramic mass is usually covered with a transparent crystalline or matt glaze, often decorated with a delicate relief. Modern stone masses often imitate a natural stone, for example, granite. Used stone pottery for the production of refractory dishes, massive pots, garden and park sculptures.
In China, the appearance of the ceramic mass preceded the invention of porcelain. Porcelain — the peak of the ceramic achievements of mankind, can be conditionally divided into a soft semi-porcelain and solid. Their main difference is not in the hardness of the composition, as one might think, but in the firing temperature. In addition, in soft porcelain more diverse substances, giving it additional qualities — for example, whiteness and translucence.
Variety of soft porcelain:. It contains bone ash, rich in calcium. Soft porcelain is often used for the production of expensive thin-walled translucent utensils, art products. High-temperature, used for everyday dishes, vases, figurines, figurines and sculptural groups, decor items for the home, in technology.
A variety of porcelain products, in which their surface is not covered with glaze and not painted. At the same time, the velvety surface of the biscuit excellently emphasizes the texture and warmth of figures and figurines made of it. The whiteness and firmness of the porcelain shard allow the widest range of decoration methods to be used: decoration with stucco decoration, coating with a wide range of glazes, underglaze and overglaze painting, painting and plating with gold and platinum:.
Performed on unglazed raw or burned potato, followed by glaze coating. The pattern, usually, has soft contours and soft colors, so a small group of pigments withstand the subsequent high-temperature firing. The technique of such a painting requires high skill: because of the porosity of the cranium, the error is almost impossible to correct.
In addition, the real color of the pigment appears only after firing, and the artist does not always see what, in fact, he drew.
It is performed on the burnt glazed pottery, followed by fixing the paints with low-temperature roasting. The palette of modern paints for the overglaze painting of porcelain and ceramics is incomparably wider. In addition, an inaccurate smear is easy to erase and remodel.
Such a painting because of the brightness of the colors and the clarity of even thin lines is very popular.
It is carried out with preparations containing natural gold, on top of the glaze with subsequent low-temperature fixation on it. Often performed in the form of a thin ribbon on the rim of a cup or saucer.
This technique is called gold bend. It consists in applying thin gold lines along the edges of the painted surface or along the border of two sections of different colors. Sometimes the artistic method is to cover with gold a large surface or even the whole product. Porcelain is still a beautiful and refined material that once was an attribute of real luxury and now can become a true decoration of the house and give joy to its inhabitants for many years.
All the items presented in the photographs in this article are in the collection of the State Hermitage Museum , St. Petersburg, Russia. Notify me of new posts by email. Pottery Pottery ceramics — terracotta, subjected to additional processing to give it water resistance or decor. Majolica Majolica — the nearest relative of pottery, is covered with colored glazes — enamels. Faience Faience from the name of the Italian city of Faenza, a well-known place of production — ceramic products facing tiles, architectural details, utensils, sanitary ware, etc.
How to visually distinguish faience from porcelain? Stone ceramics Stone ceramics — refractory, opaque, forming a solid crusted crock of gray or light brown color.
Porcelain Porcelain — the peak of the ceramic achievements of mankind, can be conditionally divided into a soft semi-porcelain and solid.
Art pottery — the history of development in western culture. Imperial porcelain factory: history and modernity. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email.
Pottery Greek - pottery, from the word keramos - clay - are products that are manufactured by sintering a mixture of clay and clay with mineral additives. Pottery common in everyday life dishes, ceramic figurines, vases, pictures , it is used in construction, in the arts. There are basic types of ceramics: terracotta, majolica, faience, porcelain. The history of ceramics varied and very interesting.
The invention of a white pottery glaze suitable for painted decoration, by the addition of an oxide of tin to the slip of a lead glaze, was a major advance in the history of pottery. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century. The term is now used for a wide variety of pottery from several parts of the world, including many types of European painted wares, often produced as cheaper versions of porcelain styles. English generally uses various other terms for well-known sub-types of faience. Italian tin-glazed earthenware, at least the early forms, is called maiolica in English, Dutch wares are called Delftware , and their English equivalents English delftware , leaving "faience" as the normal term in English for French, German, Spanish, Portuguese wares and those of other countries not mentioned it is also the usual French term, and fayence in German.
Majolica, faience, and delftware are terms that describe glazed earthenware objects. Yet there are distinguishing factors among these products that are often misunderstood; this article provides a brief historical overview in an attempt to create some order out of the confusion. By the first half of the fifteenth century the cities of Brugge and Antwerp in the Southern Netherlands, now Belgium, were importing Italian earthenware through their trade connections with Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Majolica, as the pottery came to be known, is an earthenware product coated with a highly translucent lead glaze on the back, which is rendered an opaque white on the front by the addition of tin oxide. The Italian city of Faenza was a recognized center for earthenware production. By the mid-fifteenth century the earthenware industry was well established in Antwerp, as reflected in the founding of the Guild of Saint Luke St. Lucas Gilde ; this guild existed for many centuries and stretched throughout the Netherlands. The books of the guild report that at the end of the fifteenth century several Italian majolica and faience makers had moved to Antwerp. Under religious pressure, many of the reformists left Antwerp in the second half of the sixteenth century, and moved to various destinations including London, England, Hamburg, Germany, and the Northern Netherlands, specifically to the city of Haarlem.
In different periods of time and in different countries the word majolica has been used for two distinct types of pottery. Firstly , from midth century onwards there was maiolica , a type of pottery reaching Italy from Spain, Majorca  and beyond. This was made by a tin-glaze process dip, dry, paint, fire , resulting in an opaque white glazed surface decorated with brush-painting in metal oxide enamel colour s. During the 17th century, the English added the letter j to their alphabet . Maiolica was commonly anglicized to majolica thereafter.
Но Бринкерхофф не ответил, лишившись дара речи.
Все люди умирают… что значит еще одна смерть. ГЛАВА 91 В соборе всегда ночь. Тепло дня здесь сменяется влажной прохладой, а шум улицы приглушается мощными каменными стенами.
В АНБ сосредоточена самая секретная государственная информация: протоколы военной связи, разведданные, списки разведчиков в зарубежных странах, чертежи передовой военной техники, документация в цифровом формате, торговые соглашения, - и этот список нескончаем. - Танкадо не посмеет этого сделать! - воскликнула. - Уничтожить всю нашу секретную информацию? - Сьюзан не могла поверить, что Танкадо совершит нападение на главный банк данных АНБ. Она перечитала его послание.
Конечно, - чуть слышно сказала. - Танкадо подумал, что раз мы приостановили действие его страхового полиса, то можем приостановить и его. Постепенно она начала понимать. Время сердечного приступа настолько устраивало АНБ, что Танкадо сразу понял, чьих это рук дело, и в последние мгновения своей жизни инстинктивно подумал о мести. Энсей Танкадо отдал кольцо, надеясь обнародовать ключ.
Причиной этого стала любовь, но не. Еще и собственная глупость. Он отдал Сьюзан свой пиджак, а вместе с ним - Скайпейджер. Теперь уже окаменел Стратмор. Рука Сьюзан задрожала, и пейджер упал на пол возле тела Хейла. Сьюзан прошла мимо него с поразившим его выражением человека, потрясенного предательством.
Коммандер не сказал ни слова и, медленно наклонившись, поднял пейджер.
Этот чертов компьютер бьется над чем-то уже восемнадцать часов. Конечно же, все дело в вирусе. Чатрукьян это чувствовал.
Бринкерхофф взял первую распечатку. ШИФРОВАЛКА - ПРОИЗВОДИТЕЛЬНОСТЬРАСХОДЫ Настроение его сразу же улучшилось. Мидж оказала ему настоящую услугу: обработка отчета шифровалки, как правило, не представляла собой никаких трудностей.
Последний файл в списке таким кодом не сопровождался, вместо этого следовала запись: ФИЛЬТР ОТКЛЮЧЕН ВРУЧНУЮ.
Господи Иисусе! - подумал Бринкерхофф. - Мидж снова оказалась права.
- Он повернулся к Сьюзан. - Я понял, что Цифровую крепость не следует останавливать.
Он стал лучшим программистом корпуса, и перед ним замаячила перспектива отличной военной карьеры. Но за два дня до окончания третьего боевого дежурства в его будущем произошел резкий зигзаг. В пьяной драке Хейл случайно убил сослуживца. Корейское искусство самозащиты, тхеквондо, оказалось в большей мере смертоносным, нежели оборонительным.
Военной службе пришел конец.
Возможные последствия полученного известия словно пулей пронзили Джаббу. Казалось, тучный шеф отдела обеспечения системной безопасности вот-вот рухнет на пол. - Мертв. Но это значит… значит… что мы не можем… - Это значит, что нужен другой план действий. - Фонтейн, как обычно, говорил спокойно и деловито. Глаза Джаббы по-прежнему выражали шок и растерянность, когда сзади раздался душераздирающий крик: - Джабба.
Внезапно он все понял. Сьюзан на экране тянулась к нему, плача и смеясь, захлестнутая волной эмоций. Вот она вытерла слезы. - Дэвид… я подумала… Оперативный агент Смит усадил Беккера на сиденье перед монитором.