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Commercial building products of the microbiological and milling industry

Commercial building products of the microbiological and milling industry

Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L. Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing.

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Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L. Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing.

This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries. Other articles in this chapter and Encyclopaedia deal with particular food industry sectors and particular hazards.

Many food industries depend almost entirely on local agriculture or fishing. In the past, this meant seasonal production and hiring of seasonal workers.

Improvements in food processing and preservation technologies have taken some of the pressure off workers to process food quickly to prevent spoilage. This has resulted in a decrease in seasonal employment fluctuations. However, certain industries still have seasonal activities, such as fresh fruit and vegetable processing and increases in production of baked goods, chocolate and so forth for holiday seasons.

Seasonal workers are often women and foreign workers. Much of this increase can be attributed to an increased demand for processed food and drink, especially in developing countries where the market has not yet been saturated. This increase in output of food and drink products, however, has not resulted in increased employment because of intensified competition, which has resulted in decreased employment in many food industries, especially in industrialized countries.

This is due to increased productivity and mechanization in many of these industries. Demographic pressure, uneven distribution of agricultural resources and the need to insure preservation of food products to facilitate their better distribution explain the rapid technical evolution in the food industries. Constant economic and marketing pressures drive the industry to provide new and different products for market, while other operations may make the same product in the same way for decades.

Even highly industrialized facilities often resort to seemingly archaic techniques when starting new products or processes. In practice, to satisfy population requirements, there is a need not only for a sufficient quantity of foodstuffs, which presupposes an increase of production, but also strict control of sanitation to obtain the quality essential to maintain the health of the community. Only modernization of techniques justified by production volumes in a stable production environment will eliminate manual handling hazards.

In spite of the extreme diversity of the food industries, the preparation processes can be divided into handling and storage of raw materials, extraction, processing, preservation and packaging. Manipulation of the raw materials, the ingredients during processing and the finished products is varied and diverse. Mechanical handling may involve: self-propelled in-plant transport with or without palletization or super or bulk sacks often containing several thousand pounds of dry powder material ; conveyor belts e.

Storage of raw materials is most important in a seasonal industry e. It is usually done in silos, tanks, cellars, bins or cold stores. Storage of the finished products varies according to their nature liquid or solid , the method of preserving and the method of packaging loose, in sack or super sack, in bundles, boxes or bottles ; and the respective premises must be planned to suit the conditions of handling and preserving traffic aisles, ease of access, temperature and humidity suited to product, cold-storage installations.

Commodities may be held in oxygen-deficient atmospheres or under fumigation while in storage or just before shipment. To extract a specific food product from fruit, cereals or liquids, any of the following methods may be used: crushing, pounding or grinding, extraction by heat direct or indirect , extraction by solvents, drying and filtration. In other cases it may be the actual extraction process, as in flour milling. Heat can be used directly as a means of preparation by extraction, as in roasting e.

Oils can be extracted equally well by combining and mixing the crushed fruit with solvents that are later eliminated by filtering and reheating. The separation of liquid products is carried out by centrifuging turbines in a sugar refinery or by filtering through filter presses in breweries and in oil and fat production. Operations in processing food products are extremely varied and can be described only after individual study of each industry, but the following general procedures are used: fermentation, cooking, dehydration and distillation.

Fermentation, obtained usually by addition of a micro-organism to the previously prepared product, is practiced in bakeries, breweries, the wine and spirits industry and the cheese products industry. Cooking occurs in many manufacturing operations: canning and preserving of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits; ready-to-serve meat-processing plants e. In other cases, cooking is done in a vacuum-sealed container and produces a concentration of the product e. Besides the drying of products by the sun, as with many tropical fruits, dehydration can be carried out in hot air fixed dryers or drying tunnels , by contact on a drying drum heated by steam, such as in the instant-coffee industry and the tea industry , vacuum drying often combined with filtering and lyophilization freeze drying , where the product is first frozen solid and then dried by vacuum in a heated chamber.

Distillation is used in the making of spirits. The fermented liquid, treated to separate grain or fruit, is vaporized in a still; the condensed vapour is then collected as liquid ethyl alcohol.

Briefly, the first three methods destroy microbial life; the latter merely inhibit growth. Raw ingredients such as fish and meat, fruit or vegetables are taken fresh and preserved by one of the above methods, or a mixture of different foods are processed to form a product or dish, which is then preserved.

Such products include soups, meat dishes and puddings. Food preservation goes back to the last Ice Age, about 15, BC, when Cro-Magnon humans discovered for the first time a way of preserving food by smoking it. The evidence for this lies in the caves at Les Eyzies in the Dordogne in France, where this way of life is well portrayed in carvings, engravings and paintings. From then to the present day, although many methods have been used and still are, heat remains one of the principal cornerstones of food preservation.

High-temperature processes can destroy bacteria, depending on the cooking temperature and duration. Sterilization mainly used in canneries involves submitting the already canned product to the action of steam, generally in a closed container such as an autoclave or continuous cooker. Smoking is carried out mainly on fish, ham and bacon, assuring dehydration and giving a distinctive flavor. Ionizing radiation sterilization is used heavily on spices in some countries to reduce wastage and spoilage.

However, sterilizing canned foods with radiation requires such high dosage that unacceptable flavours and odours result. Microwave sterilization is another type of electromagnetic emission that is currently finding use in the food industry. It is used for rapidly thawing raw frozen ingredients before further processing, as well as for heating frozen cooked foods in 2 to 3 minutes. Such a method, with its low moisture content loss, preserves the appearance and flavour of the food.

Drying is a common preservation process. Sun drying is the oldest and most widely used method of food preservation. Today foodstuffs may be dried in air, superheated steam, in vacuum, in inert gas and by direct application of heat. Many types of dryers exist, the particular type being dependent on the nature of the material, the desired form of finished product and so on.

Dehydration is a process in which heat is transferred into the water in the food, which is vapourized. The water vapour is then removed. Low-temperature processes involve storage in a cold store the temperature determined by the nature of the products , freezing and deep-freezing, which allows foodstuffs to be preserved in their naturally fresh state, by various methods of slow or rapid freezing.

With freeze drying, the material to be dried is frozen and placed in a sealed chamber. The chamber pressure is reduced and maintained at a value below 1 mm Hg. Heat is applied to the material, the surface ice heats up and the resultant water vapour is drawn off by the vacuum system.

As the ice boundary recedes into the material, the ice sublimes in situ and the water percolates to the surface through the pore structure of the material. The technology, which is difficult, is a spin-off from space travel.

Open-shelf stability is achieved by suitable control of acidity, redox potential, humectants and preservatives. Most developments to date have been in foods for pet animals. Whatever the preservation process, the food to be preserved has first to be prepared.

Meat preservation involves a butchery department; fish needs cleaning and gutting, filleting, curing and so on. Before fruit and vegetables can be preserved they have to be washed, cleaned, blanched, perhaps graded, peeled, stalked, shelled and stoned.

Many of the ingredients have to be chopped, sliced, minced or pressed. There are many methods of packaging food, including canning, aseptic packaging and frozen packaging. The conventional method of canning is based on the original work of Appert in France, for which in the French government awarded him a prize of 12, francs.

He preserved food in glass containers. In Dartford, England, in , Donkin and Hall set up the first cannery using tinned iron containers. Today the world uses several million tonnes of tinplate annually for the canning industry, and a substantial amount of preserved food is packed into glass jars.

The process of canning consists of taking cleaned food, raw or partly cooked but not intentionally sterilized, and packing it into a can that is sealed with a lid. The can is then heated, usually by steam under pressure, to a certain temperature for a period of time to allow penetration of the heat to the centre of the can, destroying the microbial life.

The can is then cooled in air or chlorinated water, after which it is labelled and packed. Changes in processing have occurred over the years. Continuous sterilizers cause less damage to cans by impact and allow cooling and drying in a closed atmosphere. Foods can also be heat preserved in retortable pouches. These are bags of small cross-sectional area made from laminates of aluminium and heat-sealable plastics. The process is the same as for conventional canning, but better taste properties are claimed for the products because sterilization times can be reduced.

Very careful control of the retorting process is essential to avoid damage to the heat seals with subsequent bacterial spoilage. There have been recent developments in the aseptic packaging of food. The process is fundamentally different from conventional canning. In the aseptic method the food container and closure are sterilized separately, and the filling and closing are done in a sterile atmosphere.

Product quality is optimal because heat treatment of the foodstuff can be controlled precisely and is independent of the size or material of the container. Of concern is employee exposure to the sterilizing agents. It is likely that the method will become more widely used because overall it should result in energy savings. Developments on particulate foodstuffs will follow. One likely benefit in food factories will be the reduction of noise if rigid metallic containers are replaced.

Such containers may also cause problems by contaminating preserved food with lead and tin. These are minimized by new-type two-piece containers drawn from lacquered tinplate and three-piece containers with welded instead of soldered side seams.

The frozen food industry utilizes all methods of deep-freezing fresh food at temperatures below their freezing point, thus forming ice crystals in the watery tissues. The food may be frozen raw or partially cooked e.

Food for freezing must be in prime condition and prepared under strict hygienic control.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Expansion of biobased industrial production in the United States will require an overall scale-up of manufacturing capabilities, di versification of processing technologies, and reduction of costs.

Хейл выжидал. Стояла полная тишина, и он внимательно прислушался.

Он стоял с безучастным видом, словно происходящее его никак не касалось. И это понятно, - подумала.  - Никакой вирус Хейла не волнует, он ведь отлично знает, что происходит с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ. Но Чатрукьян стоял на. - Зараженный файл существует, сэр.

Интересно, почему Стратмор его до сих пор не отключил. Ему понадобилось всего несколько мгновений, чтобы принять решение. Фонтейн схватил со стола заседаний трубку внутреннего телефона и набрал номер шифровалки.

В трубке послышались короткие гудки. В сердцах он швырнул трубку на рычаг. - Черт! - Фонтейн снова схватил трубку и набрал номер мобильника Стратмора. На этот раз послышались длинные гудки. Фонтейн насчитал уже шесть гудков. Бринкерхофф и Мидж смотрели, как он нервно шагает по комнате, волоча за собой телефонный провод. Директор АНБ напоминал тигра на привязи.

Самопроизвольный взрыв? - ужаснулась Соши.  - Господи Иисусе. - Ищите.  - Над ними склонился Фонтейн.

Наконец он нашел его и снова выстрелил. Пуля ударила в закрывающуюся дверь.

Сзади щелкнул взведенный курок беретты. - Отпусти ее, - раздался ровный, холодный голос Стратмора. - Коммандер! - из последних сил позвала Сьюзан.

Косые лучи утреннего солнца падали в башню сквозь прорези в стенах. Беккер посмотрел. Человек в очках в тонкой металлической оправе стоял внизу, спиной к Беккеру, и смотрел в направлении площади.

Я вызвал тебя сюда, потому что мне нужен союзник, а не следователь. Сегодня у меня было ужасное утро. Вчера вечером я скачал файл Танкадо и провел у принтера несколько часов, ожидая, когда ТРАНСТЕКСТ его расколет. На рассвете я усмирил свою гордыню и позвонил директору - и, уверяю тебя, это был бы тот еще разговорчик.

Доброе утро, сэр. Извините, что пришлось вас разбудить.

Из самолета? - повторила.  - Что происходит. С какой стати университетский профессор… Это не университетские дела. Я позвоню и все объясню. Мне в самом деле пора идти, они связи, обещаю.

- Дэвид! - крикнула.  - Что… Но было уже поздно. Дэвид положил трубку.

Table The food industries, their raw materials and processes Grain milling, malting, brewing, filter pressing, fermentation Briefly, the first three methods destroy microbial life; the latter merely inhibit growth. For some chemicals, sensors in the building are used to provide early warning to all employees through a.

Тогда почему они послали не профессионального агента, а университетского преподавателя. Выйдя из зоны видимости бармена, Беккер вылил остатки напитка в цветочный горшок. От водки у него появилось легкое головокружение. Сьюзан, подшучивая над ним, часто говорила, что напоить его не составляет никакого труда. Наполнив тяжелый хрустальный стакан водой из фонтанчика, Беккер сделал несколько жадных глотков, потянулся и расправил плечи, стараясь сбросить алкогольное оцепенение, после чего поставил стакан на столик и направился к выходу.

Джабба нередко прибегал к ВР, что в компьютерных кругах означало виртуальная реальность, но в АНБ это сокращение имело несколько иной смысл - визуальная репрезентация. В мире технических служащих и политиков, имеющих чрезвычайно разные уровни понимания, визуальная репрезентация нередко была единственным способом что-либо доказать: взмывающая вверх кривая производит куда более сильное впечатление, чем целые тома рассуждений.

Джабба понимал, что ВР текущего кризиса со всей наглядностью объяснит то, что он хотел сказать.

- Она сдвинула брови, задумавшись, почему ТРАНСТЕКСТ за весь день не взломал ни единого шифра.  - Позволь мне кое-что проверить, - сказала она, перелистывая отчет. Найдя то, что искала, Мидж пробежала глазами цифры и минуту спустя кивнула: - Ты прав, Чед.

ТРАНСТЕКСТ работал на полную мощность.

Колокола Гиральды по-прежнему звонили, заставляя содрогаться каменные своды. Беккер перевел взгляд на позолоченную стену под потолком.

Это можно было предвидеть, - подумала Сьюзан. -Ангел-хранитель. - И, полагаю, если с Танкадо что-нибудь случится, эта загадочная личность продаст ключ. - Хуже. Если Танкадо убьют, этот человек опубликует пароль.

- Она смотрела ему прямо в. Хейл наклонил голову набок, явно заинтригованный такой скрытностью. И, как бы желая обратить все в игру, сделал еще один шаг. Но он не был готов к тому, что произошло в следующее мгновение. Сохраняя ледяное спокойствие, Сьюзан ткнула указательным пальцем в твердокаменную грудь Хейла и заставила его остановиться.

Никакой Цифровой крепости не существует, - еле слышно пробормотала она под завывание сирены и, обессилев, склонилась над своим компьютером. Танкадо использовал наживку для дурачков… и АНБ ее проглотило. Сверху раздался душераздирающий крик Стратмора.

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  1. Mikalkis

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