Commercial ware pectins, spice extracts
Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic—chemical methods.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Spice Extract bottling plant.
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Regal Foods 10 lb. All-Natural Pectin
Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases.
Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic—chemical methods.
This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products. Dietary fibre has long history, its term originating with Hipsley who coined dietary fibre as a nondigestable constituents making up the plant cell wall and further its definition has seen several revisions. Botanists define fibre as a part of the plant organs, chemical analysts as a group of chemical compounds, consumer as a substance with beneficial effects on human health and for the dietetic and chemical industries dietary fibre is a subject of marketing.
Later dietary fibre was defined as a ubiquitous component of plant foods and includes materials of diverse chemical and morphological structure, resistant to the action of human alimentary enzymes Kay The most consistent definition that is now accepted is from Trowell et al. American Association of Cereal Chemists AACC in defined dietary fibre as the edible parts of plant or analogous carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine with complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine.
Dietary fibre includes polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, lignin and associated plant substances. During the year , Australia New Zealand Food Authority ANZFA defined dietary fibre as that fraction of the edible part of plants or their extracts, or analogous carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine, usually with complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine.
The term includes polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and lignins. The panel on the definition of dietary fibre constituted by National Academy of Science during the year defined the dietary fibre complex to include dietary fibre consisting of non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants, functional fibres consisting of isolated, non digestible carbohydrates which have beneficial physiological effects in humans and total fibre as the sum of dietary fibre and functional fibre.
Dietary fibre, although not always defined as such, has been consumed for centuries and is recognized for having health benefits. Soluble and insoluble fibres make up the two basic categories of dietary fibre.
Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin- are not soluble in water whereas pectins, gums and mucilages- become gummy in water. The importance of food fibres has led to the development of a large and potential market for fibre-rich products and ingredients and in recent years, there is a trend to find new sources of dietary fibre that can be used in the food industry Chau and Huang Supplementation has been used to enhance fibre content of foods. Supplementation has been focused on cookies, crackers and other cereal-based products, enhancement of fibre content in snack foods, beverages, spices, imitation cheeses, sauces, frozen foods, canned meats, meat analogues and other foods also has been investigated Hesser Tungland and Meyer suggested several different classification systems to classify the components of dietary fibre: based on their role in the plant, based on the type of polysaccharide, based on their simulated gastrointestinal solubility, based on site of digestion and based on products of digestion and physiological classification.
However, none is entirely satisfactory, as the limits cannot be absolutely defined. Cellulose is not digested to any extent by the enzymes of the human gastrointestinal system. These are cell wall polysaccharides solubilized by aqueous alkali after removal of water soluble and pectic polysaccharides. They contain mostly xylose and some galactose, mannose, arabinose and other sugars Anita and Abraham It is not a polysaccharide but a complex random polymer containing about 40 oxygenated phenylpropane units including coniferyl, sinapyl and p-coumaryl alcohols that have undergone a complex dehydrogenative polymerization Braums ; Schubert ; Theander and Aman Lignins vary in molecular weight and methoxyl content.
Due to strong intramolecular bonding, which includes carbon to carbon linkages, lignin is very inert. Lignin demonstrates greater resistance than any other naturally occurring polymer. Pectic substances are a complex group of polysaccharides in which D-galacturonic acid is a principal constituent. They are structural components of plant cell walls and also act as intercellular cementing substances. Pectin is highly water-soluble and is almost completely metabolized by colonic bacteria.
Due to their gelling behaviour, these soluble polysaccharides may decrease the rate of gastric emptying and influence small intestinal transit time. This explains their hypoglycemic properties Jenkins et al.
These are the types of plant fibres that are not cell wall components but are formed in specialized secretory plant cells Van Denffer et al. These are reported to be highly branched polysaccharides that form gels, bind water and other organic material. Gums are sticky exudations formed in response to trauma i. They mainly consist of guar gum and gum arabic.
Guar gum is a galactomannan isolated from the seed of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus guar. Partial enzymatic hydrolysis results in a product that can be used as a soluble dietary fibre. The physiological effects of this fibre source comply with what might be expected from a soluble fibre. Gum arabic is exudated from the acacia tree, is a complex arabinogalactan polysaccharide in admixture with a glycoprotein. Mucilages are secreted into the endosperm of plant seeds where they act to prevent excessive dehydration.
Dietary fibre is a complex mixture of polysaccharides with many different functions and activities as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract. Many of these functions and activities depend on their physico-chemical properties. Some of these properties of dietary fibre are discussed below:.
Particle size plays an important role in controlling a number of events occurring in the digestive tract i. The range of particle size depends on the type of cell walls present in the foods, and on their degree of processing. Particle size of fibre may vary during transit in the digestive tract as a result of chewing, grinding and bacterial degradation in the large intestine.
Raghavendra et al. The fat absorption capacity was also reported to increase with decrease in particle size. Porosity and available surface can influence the fermentation of dietary fibre availability to microbial degradation in the colon while the regiochemistry of the surface layer may play a role in some physiochemical properties adsorption or binding of some molecules accounting for some physiological effects of dietary fibre.
The porosity and surface available for bacteria or molecular probes such as enzymes will depend on the architecture of the fibre, which is related to its origin and processing history Guillon et al. The hydration properties partly determine the fate of dietary fibre in the digestive tract induction of fermentation and account for some of their physiological effects fecal bulking of minimally fermented dietary fibre.
Swelling and water retention capacity provide a general view of fibre hydration and will provide information useful for fibre supplemented foods. Water absorption provides more information on the fibre, in particular its substrate pore volume.
It helps our understanding of the behaviour of fibre in foods or during gut transit. Processes, such as grinding, drying, heating or extrusion cooking for example, modifies the physical properties of the fibre matrix and also affect the hydration properties Thibault et al.
The environmental conditions such as temperature, pH, ionic strength, dielectric constant of the surrounding solution and nature of the ions can also influence the hydration characteristics of fibre containing poly-electrolytes charged groups such as carboxyl in fibres rich in pectin, carboxyl and sulfate groups in fibres from algae Fleury and Lahaye ; Renard et al.
Camire and Flint compared the effects of extrusion-cooking and baking on the dietary fibre composition and hydration capacity of corn meal, oat meal and potato peels. They observed an increase in total non-starch polysaccharides in oat meal and potato peels with both processes, but the ratio of soluble to insoluble non-starch polysaccharides was higher in the extruded samples.
The process of extrusion also reported to increase the hydration capacity of corn meal and oat meal but the hydration capacity of processed potato peels was observed to be lower than raw peels.
Nassar et al. Incorporation of orange peel and pulp in biscuit formulation showed an increase in water absorption, dough development time and stability, while mixing tolerance was decreased. Solubility has profound effects on fibre functionality. It is also well established that soluble viscous polysaccharides can impede the digestion and absorption of nutrients from the gut. If the polysaccharide structure is such that molecules fit together in a crystalline array, the polymer is likely to be energetically more stable in the solid state than in solution Guillon and Champ More branching like gum acacia , the presence of ionic groups e.
Aravantinos-Zafiris et al. It was observed that fibre fraction had comparable water and oil absorption capacities with commercial fibre products. Fuentes-Alventosa et al. Intense treatment in water was found to contain highest dietary fibre content and lowest was found in fibres gently extracted in ethanol. The drying system employed also affected fibre surfaces. Solubility and oil holding capacity of freeze-dried fibre was observed to be higher than oven-dried fibres.
The viscosity of the fluid can be roughly described as its resistance to flow. Generally, as the molecular weight or chain length of fibre increases, the viscosity of fibre in solution increases. However, the concentration of the fibre in solution, the temperature, pH, shear conditions of processing and ionic strength all substantially depend on the fibre used.
Primarily, long chain polymers, such as the gums guar gum, tragacanth gum bind significant water and exhibit high solution viscosity. However, in general, highly soluble fibres, that are highly branched or are relatively short chain polymers such as gum arabic have low viscosities. The effect of wheat bran natural and toasted and flavour pineapple and pina colada on yogurt quality was studied by Aportela-Palacios et al. It was observed that the pH increased and syneresis decreased with increasing fibre 1.
Natural bran had a greater effect on consistency than the toasted bran and the yogurt flavoured with pina colada had higher viscosity than yogurt flavoured with pineapple. Garcia-Perez et al. Addition of 0. Incorporation of fibre obtained from asparagus shoots increased yogurt consistency and imparted a yellowish-greenish colour to the yogurt Sanz et al.
Fibre has been suspected of impairing mineral absorption because charged polysaccharide such as pectins through their carboxyl groups and associated substances such as phytates in cereal fibres have been shown invitro to bind metal ions. Charged polysaccharides do not have effect on mineral and trace element absorption while associated substances such as phytates can have a negative effect.
The ability of various fibres to sequester and even chemically bind bile acids has been suggested as a potential mechanism by which certain dietary fibres rich in uronic acids and phenolic compounds may have a hypocholesterolemic action. The environmental conditions duration of exposure, pH the physical and chemical forms of fibres and nature of bile acids may influence the adsorption capacity of fibre Dongowski and Ehwald ; Thibault et al.
Dietary fibre is naturally present in cereals, vegetables, fruits and nuts. The amount and composition of fibres differ from food to food Desmedt and Jacobs A fibre-rich diet is lower in energy density, often has a lower fat content, is larger in volume and is richer in micronutrients.
This larger mass of food takes longer to eat and its presence in the stomach may bring a feeling of satiety sooner, although this feeling of fullness is short term Rolls et al.
Lambo et al. Source Farhath Khanum et al. Numerous methods have been proposed for measuring dietary fibre and some have become routine analysis for research and practical use Mertens Later the proximate analysis system for seeds was developed. The carbohydrate content of a sample was determined by difference.
Dietary fibre in foods: a review
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