Industrial factory structures and foundation details
Floor and wall units are produced off-site in a factory and erected on-site to form robust structures, ideal for all repetitive cellular projects. Panels can include services, windows, doors and finishes. Building envelope panels with factory fitted insulation and decorative cladding can also be used as load-bearing elements. This offers factory quality and accuracy, together with speed of erection on-site.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Steel Warehouse Construciton in Revit Tutorial
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Design of factory building pdf
A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings, consisting of a flat, horizontal surface made of cast concrete. Steel- reinforced slabs, typically between and mm thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner mud slabs may be used for exterior paving see below.
In many domestic and industrial buildings, a thick concrete slab supported on foundations or directly on the subsoil , is used to construct the ground floor. These slabs are generally classified as ground-bearing or suspended.
A slab is ground-bearing if it rests directly on the foundation, otherwise the slab is suspended. On technical drawings, reinforced concrete slabs are often abbreviated to "r. Calculations and drawings are often done by structural engineers in CAD software. Energy efficiency has become a primary concern for the construction of new buildings, and the prevalence of concrete slabs calls for careful consideration of its thermal properties in order to minimise wasted energy.
In some special cases, the thermal properties of concrete have been employed, for example as a heatsink in nuclear power plants or a thermal buffer in industrial freezers.
Thermal conductivity of a concrete slab indicates the rate of heat transfer through the solid mass by conduction , usually in regard to heat transfer to or from the ground. The coefficient of thermal conductivity, k , is proportional to density of the concrete, among other factors. These various factors complicate the theoretical evaluation of a k -value, since each component has a different conductivity when isolated, and the position and proportion of each components affects the overall conductivity.
To simplify this, particles of aggregate may be considered to be suspended in the homogeneous cement. Campbell-Allen and Thorne derived a formula for the theoretical thermal conductivity of concrete. Subsequently, Valore developed another formula in terms of overall density.
The actual value of k varies significantly in practice, and is usually between 0. The second consideration is the high thermal mass of concrete slabs, which applies similarly to walls and floors, or wherever concrete is used within the thermal envelope. Concrete has a relatively high thermal mass, meaning that it takes a long time to respond to changes in ambient temperature. However, the high thermal mass is an advantage in climates with large daily temperature swings, where the slab acts as a regulator, keeping the building cool by day and warm by night.
Typically concrete slabs perform better than implied by their R-value. Thus, when a concrete slab is subjected to fluctuating temperatures, it will respond more slowly to these changes and in many cases increase the efficiency of a building.
Thermal mass is also related to thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and insulation. Concrete has low thermal diffusivity, high heat capacity, and its thermal mass is negatively affected by insulation e.
Without insulation, concrete slabs cast directly on the ground can cause a significant amount of extraneous energy transfer by conduction, resulting in either lost heat or unwanted heat. In modern construction, concrete slabs are usually cast above a layer of insulation such as expanded polystyrene , and the slab may contain underfloor heating pipes.
In these cases, casting the slab directly onto a substrate of aggregate will maintain the slab near the temperature of the substrate throughout the year, and can prevent both freezing and overheating. A common type of insulated slab is the beam and block system mentioned above which is modified by replacing concrete blocks with expanded polystyrene blocks.
Ground-bearing slabs, also known as "on-ground" or "slab-on-grade", are commonly used for ground floors on domestic and some commercial applications. It is an economical and quick construction method for sites that have non-reactive soil and little slope. For ground-bearing slabs, it is important to design the slab around the type of soil, since some soils such as clay are too dynamic to support a slab consistently across its entire area.
This results in cracking and deformation, potentially leading to structural failure of any members attached to the floor, such as wall studs. Levelling the site before pouring concrete is an important step, as sloping ground will cause the concrete to cure unevenly and will result in differential expansion. In some cases, a naturally sloping site may be levelled simply by removing soil from the uphill site. If a site has a more significant grade, it may be a candidate for the "cut and fill" method, where soil from the higher ground is removed, and the lower ground is built up with fill.
In addition to filling the downhill side, this area of the slab may be supported on concrete piers which extend into the ground. In this case, the fill material is less important structurally as the dead weight of the slab is supported by the piers.
However, the fill material is still necessary to support the curing concrete and its reinforcement. There are two common methods of filling - controlled fill and rolled fill. Proper curing of ground-bearing concrete is necessary to obtain adequate strength.
Since these slabs are inevitably poured on-site rather than precast as some suspended slabs are , it can be difficult to control conditions to optimize the curing process.
This is usually aided by a membrane, either plastic temporary or a liquid compound permanent. Ground-bearing slabs are usually supplemented with some form of reinforcement, often steel rebar.
However, in some cases such as concrete roads, it is acceptable to use an unreinforced slab if it is adequately engineered see below. For a suspended slab, there are a number of designs to improve the strength-to-weight ratio. In all cases the top surface remains flat, and the underside is modulated:. Unreinforced or "plain"  slabs are becoming rare and have limited practical applications, with one exception being the mud slab see below.
They were once common in the USA, but the economic value of reinforced ground-bearing slabs has become more appealing for many engineers. As a result, any stress induced by a load, static or dynamic, must be within the limit of the concrete's flexural strength to prevent cracking.
Mud slabs, also known as rat slabs , are thinner than the more common suspended or ground-bearing slabs usually 50 to mm , and usually contain no reinforcement. This includes use as a base or "sub-slab" for a larger structural slab. On uneven or steep surfaces, this preparatory measure is necessary to provide a flat surface on which to install rebar and waterproofing membranes. Sometimes a mud slab may be a substitute for coarse aggregate. Mud slabs typically have a moderately rough surface, finished with a float.
A one-way slab has moment-resisting reinforcement only in its short axis, and is used when the moment in the long axis is negligible.
Non-reinforced slabs may also be considered one-way if they are supported on only two opposite sides i. A one-way reinforced slab may be stronger than a two-way non-reinforced slab, depending on the type of load. One-way slabs are typically to mm in depth and cover spans of 3 to 12 m. Their span-depth ratio is roughly constant at low loadings i. A two-way slab has moment resisting reinforcement in both directions.
However, an important characteristic governing the requirement of a two-way slab is the ratio of the two horizontal lengths. A concrete slab may be prefabricated precast , or constructed on site.
Prefabricated concrete slabs are built in a factory and transported to the site, ready to be lowered into place between steel or concrete beams. They may be pre-stressed in the factory , post-stressed on site , or unstressed.
In-situ concrete slabs are built on the building site using formwork - a type of boxing into which the wet concrete is poured. If the slab is to be reinforced , the rebars , or metal bars, are positioned within the formwork before the concrete is poured in. This concept is known as concrete cover. For a ground-bearing slab, the formwork may consist only of side walls pushed into the ground. For a suspended slab, the formwork is shaped like a tray, often supported by a temporary scaffold until the concrete sets.
The formwork is commonly built from wooden planks and boards, plastic, or steel. On commercial building sites, plastic and steel are gaining popularity as they save labour. After the concrete has set the wood may be removed, or left there permanently. In some cases formwork is not necessary - for instance, a ground slab surrounded by brick or block foundation walls, where the walls act as the sides of the tray and hardcore rubble acts as the base. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Shallow foundation Commonly used for ground-bearing slabs Hollow-core slab Voided slab, one-way spanning Voided biaxial slab Voided slab, two-way spanning Formwork Precast concrete Reinforced concrete Rebar Concrete cover. Design and Construction of Concrete Floors.
Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann, Soils and Foundations for Architects and Engineers. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, Retrieved American Concrete Institute. March Magazine of Concrete Research. UDC February Concrete International. University Physics 7th ed. Addison Wesley. Design and Construction of Concrete Floors 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. Dow Construction Products. Retrieved 9 May The Australian House Building Manual. Pinedale Press.
National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. Archived from the original PDF on 4 April Retrieved 4 April Kaset Kalip. Archived from the original PDF on 29 March Retrieved 8 May
Low-rise commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings
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This collection of peer-reviewed papers, presented as a three-volume set, covers the latest advances in micromechanical characterization, mechanical properties, durability analysis, failure mechanisms and non-destructive evaluation of building materials. Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Reinforced Concrete. Analysis on Nonlinear Flowing Consolidation of Clay. Research on Expanded Polystyrene Lightaggregate Concrete.
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The size of buildings in the commercial, institutional, and industrial market segment ranges from a few hundred to as much as 45, square metres , square feet. All of these buildings have public access and exit requirements, although their populations may differ considerably in density. The unit costs are generally higher than those for dwellings although those of simple industrial buildings may be lower , and this type includes buildings with the highest unit cost, such as hospitals and laboratories. Residential buildings are fairly static in their function, changing only at long intervals. By contrast, most commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings must respond to fairly rapid changes in their functions, and a degree of flexibility is required in their component systems. In addition, these buildings are built by contractors who utilize heavy mechanized equipment not only for foundations pile drivers and caisson augers but also for lifting heavy components a wide variety of cranes and hoists. Semimanual machines such as cement finishers, terrazzo grinders, and welding generators are also used, but a large percentage of the work is done manually; the human hand and back remain major instruments of the construction industry , well adapted to the nonrepetitive character of building. The foundations in these buildings support considerably heavier loads than those of residential buildings. Floor loadings range from to 1, kilograms per square metre to pounds per square foot , and the full range of foundation types is used for them.
Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property. The vast majority of building construction projects are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. Often, the owner of the property acts as laborer, paymaster, and design team for the entire project. However, all building construction projects include some elements in common - design, financial, and legal considerations. For this reason, those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome.
Bathroom Fixtures. Introduction to Construction Project Management. Learn everything about building construction. Mild steel is a material that is immensely strong.
Building construction techniques
A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings, consisting of a flat, horizontal surface made of cast concrete. Steel- reinforced slabs, typically between and mm thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner mud slabs may be used for exterior paving see below. In many domestic and industrial buildings, a thick concrete slab supported on foundations or directly on the subsoil , is used to construct the ground floor. These slabs are generally classified as ground-bearing or suspended.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How It’s Made Metal Building Innovations Are Revolutionizing Low Rise Commercial Construction
Bathroom Fixtures. Introduction to Construction Project Management. Learn everything about building construction. Concrete frame structures are a very common - or perhaps the most common- type of modern building internationally. As the name suggests, this type of building consists of a frame or skeleton of concrete. Of these, the column is the most important, as it is the primary load-carrying element of the building.
Formwork For Slab
These buildings are typically used for workshops, factories, industrial and distribution warehouses and retail and leisure. Whilst most single-storey buildings are relatively straightforward building projects, increasing levels of specialisation by steelwork contractors and other supply chain members have, in recent years, led to huge improvements in quality, cost and delivery performance of single storey steel buildings. These improvements have been achieved through increasingly efficient use of the portal frame by design-and-build steelwork contractors, improved project planning , and active supply chain management by main contractors. This article deals specifically with single storey industrial buildings. Single storey buildings in other sectors are addressed in other articles, e. Snetterton Renewable Energy Centre, Norfolk. Dublin Waste to Energy project.
Mohamed A. EI-Reedy's background is in structural engineering. His main area of research is the reliability of concrete and steel structures.
FCP mezzanines, mezzanine floors, metal buildings , industrial canopies, modular offices, support platforms, and trade show booths are designed and engineered to meet your specific workspace needs and load requirements. Pre-engineered modular components are the core of your custom structure, reducing architect and engineer costs and time. We pre-fabricate your order in our factory and ship it to you for easy on-site assembly which reduces the expense and time delays of conventional construction. Our other pre-engineered modular components include support platforms, metal buildings, double decks, and a variety of accessories such as guard rails and stair systems.
CONCRETE FRAME STRUCTURES
The role of the structural engineer is a key component in the construction process. Part of the wider discipline of civil engineering, structural engineering is concerned with the design and physical integrity of buildings and other large structures, like tunnels and bridges. Structural engineers have wide range of responsibilities - not least a duty to ensure the safety and durability of the project on which they are working.
All rights reserved. People and rescuers gather after an eight-story building collapsed near Dhaka, Bangladesh, on April The substandard construction methods that are suspected of triggering the deadly collapse of an eight-story building in Bangladesh on Wednesday are a common problem in developing countries, where construction materials can be expensive and building inspections infrequent, experts say. The catastrophic collapse happened around 9 a.
It explains simply, clearly and with numerous worked examples how economic foundation design is achieved. It deals with both straightforward and difficult sites, following the process through site investigation, foundation selection and, finally, design. For the Second Edition the chapter on contaminated and derelict sites has been updated to take account of the latest guidelines on the subject, including BS Elsewhere, throughout the book, references have been updated to take account of the latest technical publications and relevant British Standards. Norman Seward, is a chartered engineer and a former Curtin employee.
Design of factory building pdf. SLP was used to analyzed and designed possible cellular layouts for the factory. Section 1 identifies some of the basics in selecting, handling, and storing plywood. But for this to happen, a more compelling case for investment in modern methods of construction MMC must be made.