Manufactory building equipment for the production of fiberglass and asbestos filaments
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Frp Pipe Manufacturing Process
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Ref country code : BE. Ref country code : SE. Ref country code : DE. Ref country code : NL. Ref country code : GB. Ref legal event code : PL. Ref legal event code : ST. Disclosed are a glass-fiber-reinforced cement panel and a process for its manufacturing, according to which a cement slurry devoid of asbestos fiber consisting of 0.
Technical Field of the Invention:. The process for manufacturing asbestos cement panels by way of sheet-making with cement slurries prepared by adding asbestos fiber to cement has heretofore been employed, and as a representative manufacturing process, the Hatschek sheet-making process shown in an accompanying drawing is known. According to this sheet-making process, at the pulper 1 , cement, asbestos and water are mixed to produce a slurry, and this slurry is transferred to the chest 2.
The slurry in the chest 2 is continuously fed to the bats 3 ; and the slurry in the bat is taken on the sheet- making cylinder 4 in a sheet form.
Then, the sheet on the sheet-making cylinder 4 is transferred to the felt belt 5 running in contact with this cylinder 4 , and the sheet on the felt belt 5 is, in turn, taken up by the making roll 6. As the sheet is taken up on this making roll to the predetermined thickness, the taken - up sheet is cut, and stripped off the making roll 6.
It is, then, expanded flat, and after being passed through a press, is cured in a high temperature, high pressure steam, yielding a set cement panel. Recently, this process has encountered some problems, including scanty supply of asbestos fiber, rising costs, and in addition, problems of work-site environment where asbestos fiber is handled, involving the adverse effect on human body of asbestos fiber scattered from weathered asbestos cement panels.
To overcome such difficulties, search is now going on for other fibers to replace asbestos. In order to explore a suitable manufacturing method of the glass-fiber-reinforced cement panels, the present inventors have carried out studies on the possibility of sheet-making with cement slurries containing glass fiber by conducting the following experiments:. In the mixed material of glass fiber which would be opened into mono-filaments in water, pulp and cement, the mixing rate of glass fiber was widely varied over 0.
Forty liters 40 1 of water was added to 2, g of this mixed material. This mixture was stirred for seconds, and the dispersed state of glass fiber after the stirring was observed. The result revealed that if the amount of pulp is twice as large as the amount of glass fiber or more, the glass fiber may be adequately dispersed. It also turned out, however, that the settling and separation of glass fiber with passage of time is appreciably rapid, giving rise to a difficulty causing glass fiber to be dispersed in slurry in stable state merely by addition of pulp.
In order to achieve an improvement on the settling and separation of glass fiber, a strong anionic floccuant is added to the mixed material of the aforementioned Experiment 1; then, water was added similarly as in Experiment 1, followed by stirring, and after this stirring, the settling and separating state of glass fiber was observed.
The result suggested that if the addition of the flocculant is more than 0. The reason is because the viscosity of the slurry is increased by the addition of the flocculant. The slurry after being stirred in Experiment 2 was filtered through a 60 mesh wire-netting, and the percentage of the cement solids in the slurry made into sheet on the wire-netting was measured.
Thus, it has been confirmed by the above-described experiments that the problem in the dispersion of glass fiber may be solved by the addition of pulp and cement flocculant to the slurry, and that the problem in the sheet-making efficiency of cement solids may be eliminated by the addition of the cement flocculant above-mentioned.
That the impact resistance of the cement panel may be improved by the addition of polyvinyl alcohol fiber, together with glass fiber, into the cement slurry has hitherto been known.
However, polyvinyl alcohol fiber, like glass fiber, is inferior in giving dispersion and in the sheet- making ability, having smaller cement solids capturing capacity than asbestos fiber. According to this invention, by the use of polyvinyl alcohol fiber and glass fiber in admixture, and through the addition of pulp and a certain cement flocculant, it is possible to improve the dispersion in the cement slurry and the cement capturing capacity, and to manufacture glass-fiber-reinforced cement panels having excellent impact resistance.
As the cement flocculant is added to the cement slurry, the cement particles are agglomerated, and become more easily captured by the pulp fiber and the cement fiber groups, giving rise to an improvement in the sheet-making ability. However, the effect of improving the sheet-making ability is largely dependent on in what step of the manufacturing process the flocculant is added.
Although the grounds are not certain, the agglomeration of cement particles caused by the addition of the flocculant is believed to result from the active parts of the cement particles and the active branches of the flocculant being bridged, and thereby chemically bonded. When such a cement slurry is violently stirred, the bridged molecules are served, to be turned into low molecular weight compounds.
The object of this invention is to provide a glass-fiber-reinforced cement panel having nearly equivalent strength to that of asbestos-fiber-reinforced cement panels, manufactured by use of a material prepared by mixing cement, glass fiber, pulp and cement flocculant, without employing asbestos fiber, and the manufacturing process thereof.
Another object of this invention is to provide a glass-fiber-reinforced cement panel manufactured by use of a cement material containing glass fiber and polyvinyl alcohol fiber, without employing asbestos fiber, and the manufacturing process thereof. Further object is to offer an improvement in the sheet- making property of the cement slurry by making the addition of the cement flocculant in the midway as the cement slurry is transferred from the chest to the bats.
Figure 1 presents an explanatory diagram of a Hatschek model sheet-making system employed for exercising the process of this invention, showing the position for making the addition of the cement flocculant by an arrow A. According to the Hatschek sheet-making process of this invention, a mixed material of 0. Then, in the midway, as indicated by the arrow A, as this cement slurry is transferred from the chest 2 to the bats 3 , 0.
The slurry in the bat 3 is taken in a sheet form on the sheet-making cylinder 4 as well-known, and this sheet goes through the felt belt 5 , and is taken up on the making roll 6. As it is taken up on the making roll 6 to the predetermined thickness, the taken-up sheet is cut, and stripped off the making roll 6. Then, it is extended, passed through the press, and cured, yielding a set cement panel. For the mixed material of the cement slurry, the total amount of glass fiber and polyvinyl alcohol fiber running up to 0.
The cement slurry prepared from this mixed material, to which 0. In that way, a glass-fiber-reinforced cement panel containing polyvinyl alcohol fiber can be manufactured.
The glass fiber confers the bending strength on the panel. An addition of glass fiber in the range of 0. For the glass fiber employed in the process of this invention, strands formed by collecting and setting mono- filaments by use of a water soluble collector-setter and, then, chopped, are used.
The chopped strand has a length of 3 - 19 mm. The longer the glass fiber, the better effect may be achieved on improving the bending strength of panels, 3 mm or less being disadvantageous from panel bending strength standpoint.
With longer glass fibers, however, they have difficulty being homogenously dispersed, and it becomes hard to cut the taken-up sheet which has been taken in a sheet form on the making roll. The compromise length of the glass fiber may be limited to 19 mm. The polyvinyl alcohol fiber provides the panel with improved shock resistance. VPM The length of the polyvinyl alcohol fiber is nearly equal to that of the aforementioned glass fiber. Pulp contributes to the improvements in the dispersion of glass fiber and polyvinyl alcohol fiber and in the cement solids capturing capacity.
With regard to the amount of pulp added, pulp has no effect on improving the dispersion of glass fiber and polyvinyl alcohol fiber, when the amount is less than twice the amount of glass fiber or the total amount of glass fiber and polyvinyl. The cement flocculant provides an effective means for improving the sheet-making property of cement. Dut if its addition is less than 0. For the cement flocculants for the process of this invention either the anionics or the cationics are usable, but those of strong anionic type having molecular weights of 10 6 - are most effective.
Of the flocculants of strong anionic type, by aid of which the cement particles are supposed to be flocculated due principally to the bridge forming and adsorbing effects, those having larger molecular weights are believed to be advantageous. Particularly desirable for use are polyacrylamides.
Such polyacrylamidcs employed in the process of this invention have molecular weights ranging from 3 - 13 millions. Polyacrylamides of this invention are polyacrylamides on which Na substitution is made as represented by the following formula:. The above-mentioned products of strong anionic flocculants commercially available include Flocculant EXP No. Kindai Kagaku Kogyo K. The flocculation by the aid of cationic flocculants is believed to result from the electrical bonding of the cations of the flocculant and the anions of the cement particles.
Commercially available products representing intermediately, cationic flocculants include Diaflock KPA, and commercially available weakly cationic flocculants Diaflock KP In exercising the process of this invention, cement panels were manufactured, with the amount of pulp used varied in the range from 0 - 7.
The results of the measurements of the bending strength, flexure 80 cm span and the Charpy impact resistance of each panel are shown in Table 1. Referring, now, to Table 1, in the Experiment Nos. This mixture was transferred to the chest. Then, while continuously feeding the slurry in the chest into the bats, a strongly anionic flocculant EXP No. The slurry in the bat was taken in a sheet form on the. This sheet thus produced was fed to the making roll through a felt shape belt, and as the sheet was taken up on this roll to 5 mm thickness, the taken-up sheet was cut, and stripped off the making roll.
The stock board stripped off the making roll was extended to a flat plate state. In the Experiment Nos. Other conditions were the same as in Experiment Nos. Experiment Nos. The above-listed experiments showed evident results that the glass-fiber-reinforced cement panels manufactured by the process of this invention all had higher mechanical strengths, as compared with the controls containing no pulp, and that the improvement in the dispersion of glass fiber realized by the addition of pulp and flocculant was remarkable.
A process for manufacturing a fiber-reinforced cement panel by way of sheet-making with a cement slurry comprising the step of forming a slurry consisting of 0. The process for manufacturing a fiber-reinforced cement panel, as specified in Claim 1, wherein the addition of the cement flocculant is made in the midway as the slurry, after being stirred, is fed from the chest to the bats.
The process for manufacturing a fiber-reinforced cement panel, as specified in Claim 2, wherein the flocculant is polyacrylamide. The process for manufacturing a fiber-reinforced-cement panel by way of sheet-making with a cement slurry comprising the step of forming a cement slurry devoid of asbestos fiber prepared by adding, to cement, a total amount of 0.
The process for manufacturing a fiber-reinforced cement panel, as specified in Claim 4, wherein the glass fiber is produced by chopping the strand formed by collecting and setting monofilaments by the aid of a water soluble collector-setter, the chopped strand having a length of 3 - 19 mm.
The process for manufacturing a fiber-reinforced cement panel, as specified in 1 or 4, wherein the addition of the flocculant is made in the midway as the cement slurry, after being stirred in the pulper, is being fed from the chest to the bats. The process for manufacturing a fiber-reinforced cement panel wherein the flocculant is polyacrylamide.
The process for manufacturing a fiber-reinforced cement panel wherein for the polyacrylamide, a Na substituted polyacrylamide having a molecular weight of 3 - 13 million and represented by the undermentioned formula is employed;. A fiber-reinforced cement panel formed by sheet-making with a material slurry consisting of 0.
Now in its revised and updated Second Edition, this volume is the most comprehensive and authoritative text in the rapidly evolving field of environmental toxicology. The book provides the objective information that health professionals need to prevent environmental health problems, plan for emergencies, and evaluate toxic exposures in patients. Coverage includes safety, regulatory, and legal issues; clinical toxicology of specific organ systems; emergency medical response to hazardous materials releases; and hazards of specific industries and locations.
This is the name for laminated material made from thermosetting resin reinforced with glass fiber mainly unsaturated polyester resin or epoxy resin. We manufacture a wide range of custom storage tanks as well as a variety of standard model above-and-below ground tanks with capacities ranging from Imperial Gallons to 34, Imperial Gallons. This joint can be. Additive manufacturing of carbon fiber-reinforced R.
Archivos de Bronconeumologia http: www. Other types of articles such as reviews, editorials, special articles, clinical reports, and letters to the Editor are also published in the Journal. It is a monthly Journal that publishes a total of 12 issues, which contain these types of articles to different extents. All manuscripts are sent to peer-review and handled by the Editor or an Associate Editor from the team. The Journal is published both in Spanish and English. Therefore, the submission of manuscripts written in either Spanish or English is welcome. Translators working for the Journal are in charge of the corresponding translations. See more Access to any published article, in either language, is possible through the Journal web page as well as from Pubmed, Science Direct, and other international databases. Furthermore, the Journal is also present in Twitter and Facebook.
Reviewed: October 24th Published: January 23rd Fibre-reinforced polymer FRP , also Fibre-reinforced plastic , is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been sometimes used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic, and phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Materials as a field is most commonly represented by ceramics, metals, and polymers. While noted improvements have taken place in the area of ceramics and metals, it is the field of polymers that has experienced an explosion in progress.
AMI-GLAS Product Line - Fiberglass Fabric and Industrial Textiles
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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Vishal P Kumbhar. Daulatrao Aher College of Engineering, Karad, India Abstract Glass, Carbon and polyamide fibers are commonly used in manufacturing of reinforcing bars for concrete applications.
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About the Author DR. His professional field of interest is construction engineering and management, with a primary focus on international construction, construction finance, and strategic management. He has taught the basic courses in construction, facility design, and engineering and management of infrastructures, both in the Department of Civil Engineering at M. Over the past twenty-five years, Dr. Moavenzadeh has directed a series of research programs relating to construction engineering and management, both in the U. These include: international construction finance; merger and acquisition in the construction industry; nature and organization of construction in the U. Most recently, he conducted a major study on the globalization of construction firms and the need for restructuring of the construction industry in light of recent changes in the global market and new developments in the information and communication fields. Currently, Dr.
Leonard Mayer. An architectwith more than thirty-three years' experience as a master plannerand programmer of laboratories and clinical facilities, Mr. Mayeroffers a comprehensive overview of the fundamental issues relatedto laboratory planning and design.
The fiber reinforcement provides the structural performance required of the final part. The fibers or filaments come in many chemical types and forms and are the primary contributor to the stiffness, strength and other properties of the composite. The dominant chemical types of commercially available fibers are: fiberglass, aramid, carbon, polyester and vectran.
Building Systems for Interior Designers is the first book to explain technical building systems and engineering issues in a clear and accessible way to interior designers. The technical knowledge and vocabulary presented here allow interior designers to communicate more effectively with architects, engineers, and contractors while collaborating on projects, leading to more accurate solutions for problems related to a broad range of other building considerations with an impact on interior design. Information on sustainable design is integrated throughout the book, making it a relevant tool for current and emerging trends in building design. Written in a straightforward, nontechnical style that maintains depth and accuracy, this book is the first complete text applicable to interior design courses and provides thorough preparation for the NCIDQ exam.
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify asbestos materials or probable-asbestos in buildings by simple visual inspection. We provide photographs of asbestos containing materials and descriptive text of asbestos insulation and other asbestos-containing products to permit identification of definite, probable, or possible asbestos materials in buildings.
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