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Manufacture building structures and building products from aluminum and aluminum alloys

Manufacture building structures and building products from aluminum and aluminum alloys

Photo 1. Aluminum wiring incorrectly installed on copper-only receptacle. Electricity is transmitted from the utility generating station to individual meters using almost exclusively aluminum wiring. In the U.

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Building & Construction

Aluminum Al , also spelled aluminium , chemical element , a lightweight, silvery-white metal of main Group 13 IIIa, or boron group of the periodic table. Because of its chemical activity, aluminum never occurs in the metallic form in nature, but its compounds are present to a greater or lesser extent in almost all rocks , vegetation, and animals.

Aluminum occurs in igneous rocks chiefly as aluminosilicates in feldspars , feldspathoids , and micas ; in the soil derived from them as clay; and upon further weathering as bauxite and iron-rich laterite. Bauxite, a mixture of hydrated aluminum oxides, is the principal aluminum ore. Crystalline aluminum oxide emery , corundum , which occurs in a few igneous rocks, is mined as a natural abrasive or in its finer varieties as rubies and sapphires.

Aluminum is present in other gemstones , such as topaz , garnet , and chrysoberyl. Of the many other aluminum minerals, alunite and cryolite have some commercial importance. British chemist Sir Humphry Davy had prepared an iron -aluminum alloy by electrolyzing fused alumina aluminum oxide and had already named the element aluminum; the word later was modified to aluminium in England and some other European countries.

The new metal was introduced to the public at the Paris Exposition at about the time that it became available in small amounts at great expense by the sodium reduction of molten aluminum chloride. During the s aluminum moved into first place, ahead of copper , in world production of nonferrous metals.

For more specific information about the mining, refining, and production of aluminum, see aluminum processing. Aluminum is added in small amounts to certain metals to improve their properties for specific uses, as in aluminum bronzes and most magnesium -base alloys; or, for aluminum-base alloys , moderate amounts of other metals and silicon are added to aluminum.

The metal and its alloys are used extensively for aircraft construction, building materials, consumer durables refrigerators, air conditioners, cooking utensils , electrical conductors, and chemical and food-processing equipment. Pure aluminum Ductile and highly malleable , aluminum can be drawn into wire or rolled into thin foil. The metal is only about one-third as dense as iron or copper. Though chemically active, aluminum is nevertheless highly corrosion-resistant, because in air a hard, tough oxide film forms on its surface.

Aluminum is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. Its thermal conductivity is about one-half that of copper; its electrical conductivity, about two-thirds. It crystallizes in the face-centred cubic structure. All natural aluminum is the stable isotope aluminum Metallic aluminum and its oxide and hydroxide are nontoxic. Aluminum is slowly attacked by most dilute acids and rapidly dissolves in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

Concentrated nitric acid , however, can be shipped in aluminum tank cars because it renders the metal passive. Even very pure aluminum is vigorously attacked by alkalies such as sodium and potassium hydroxide to yield hydrogen and the aluminate ion. Because of its great affinity for oxygen, finely divided aluminum, if ignited, will burn in carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide with the formation of aluminum oxide and carbide, but, at temperatures up to red heat, aluminum is inert to sulfur.

Aluminum can be detected in concentrations as low as one part per million by means of emission spectroscopy. Aluminum can be quantitatively analyzed as the oxide formula Al 2 O 3 or as a derivative of the organic nitrogen compound 8-hydroxyquinoline. Ordinarily, aluminum is trivalent.

At elevated temperatures, however, a few gaseous monovalent and bivalent compounds have been prepared AlCl, Al 2 O, AlO. In aluminum the configuration of the three outer electrons is such that in a few compounds e. A number of aluminum compounds have important industrial applications. Alumina , which occurs in nature as corundum , is also prepared commercially in large quantities for use in the production of aluminum metal and the manufacture of insulators, spark plugs, and various other products.

Upon heating, alumina develops a porous structure, which enables it to adsorb water vapour. This form of aluminum oxide, commercially known as activated alumina, is used for drying gases and certain liquids. It also serves as a carrier for catalysts of various chemical reactions. Anodic aluminum oxide AAO , typically produced via the electrochemical oxidation of aluminum, is a nanostructured aluminum-based material with a very unique structure. AAO contains cylindrical pores that provide for a variety of uses.

It is a thermally and mechanically stable compound while also being optically transparent and an electrical insulator. The pore size and thickness of AAO can easily be tailored to fit certain applications, including acting as a template for synthesizing materials into nanotubes and nanorods.

Another major compound is aluminum sulfate , a colourless salt obtained by the action of sulfuric acid on hydrated aluminum oxide. The commercial form is a hydrated crystalline solid with the chemical formula Al 2 SO 4 3. It is used extensively in paper manufacture as a binder for dyes and as a surface filler.

Aluminum sulfate combines with the sulfates of univalent metals to form hydrated double sulfates called alums. The most important of such salts is aluminum potassium sulfate, also known as potassium alum or potash alum. These alums have many applications, especially in the production of medicines, textiles, and paints. The reaction of gaseous chlorine with molten aluminum metal produces aluminum chloride ; the latter is the most commonly used catalyst in Friedel-Crafts reactions —i.

It is one of several aluminum salts employed by the cosmetics industry. With hydrogen, aluminum forms aluminum hydride , AlH 3 , a polymeric solid from which are derived the tetrohydroaluminates important reducing agents. Lithium aluminum hydride LiAlH 4 , formed by the reaction of aluminum chloride with lithium hydride, is widely used in organic chemistry—e.

Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Occurrence, uses, and properties Compounds. Aluminum chemical element. See Article History.

Read More on This Topic. They are characterized as a group by having three…. Element Properties atomic number 13 atomic weight Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. They are characterized as a group by having three electrons in the outermost parts of their atomic structure.

Boron, the lightest…. Since aluminum has about one-third the density of steel, its substitution for steel in automobiles would seem to be a sensible approach to reducing weight and thereby increasing fuel economy and reducing harmful emissions. Such substitutions cannot be made, however, without due consideration of…. The fluorine industry is intimately related to the production of aluminum. Alumina aluminum oxide, Al 2 O 3 can be reduced to metallic aluminum by electrolysis when fused with a flux consisting of sodium fluoroaluminate Na 3 AlF 6 , usually called cryolite.

After starting the process, the cryolite is…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About. Royal Society of Chemistry - Aluminium Webelements.

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Most Common Uses of Aluminum. No other metal can compare to Aluminum when it comes to its variety of uses. Some uses of aluminum may not be immediately obvious; for example, did you know aluminum is used in the manufacturing of glass?

Building accounts for almost a quarter of all the aluminium used in Europe. Aluminium is a relatively young metal, first extracted in The stunning Art Deco-inspired Empire State Building in New York was the first building to use anodised aluminium components back in Industrial production for civil applications only really began in the s and saw the first aluminium curtain walling system. Extruded aluminium can be made in an almost infinite range of sections, and designers can integrate multiple functions into a single profile.


By Prof. Madhuri K. Rathi, Mr. Ajinkya K. Patil Amrutvahini College of Engineering, Sangamner. Abstract The aluminium element was discovered years ago. After an initial period of technological development, aluminium alloys were used in many structural applications, including the civil engineering field. Aluminium is the second most widely specified metal in building after steel, and is used in all sectors from commercial building to domestic dwelling. This paper contains complete overview of use of aluminium in building construction. How it is beneficial in modern age building construction.

Aluminium applications

The ability to build upwards in dense urban environments demands materials that are lightweight without sacrificing durability. Aluminum can be found in iconic structures such as the Empire State Building, though its exceptional economy makes it a great option for practically any construction and location. Interested in building with aluminum? Pennex Aluminum Company can help.

Aluminum Al , also spelled aluminium , chemical element , a lightweight, silvery-white metal of main Group 13 IIIa, or boron group of the periodic table. Because of its chemical activity, aluminum never occurs in the metallic form in nature, but its compounds are present to a greater or lesser extent in almost all rocks , vegetation, and animals.

We can thank Aluminium for the changing image of modern cities and towns: the clarity of lines, the feverish desire to grow skyward, the beauty, functionality and environmental compatibility of present-day megalopolises. The glass faces of office skyscrapers are supported by lightweight and sturdy Aluminium frames. Entertainment, trade and exhibition centres literally rest on Aluminium frameworks.

Building & Construction

Aluminum was first used in quantity for building and construction in the s. The applications were primarily oriented toward decorative detailing and art deco structures. The breakthrough came in , when major structures within the Empire State Building were built with aluminum including interior structures and the famous spire.


Base metals are nonferrous, meaning they contain no iron. This sector of the commodities market includes copper, aluminum, nickel, lead, zinc, and tin. There are several exchanges around the world that offer contracts in these metals but the hub of international trading is the London Metals Exchange LME. While futures exchanges offer standardized contracts for specific months the LME is a forward exchange, the most actively traded contracts on the exchange are not monthly, rather they are for delivery 90 days forward. Base metals are the building blocks of society.

Use of Aluminium In Building Construction

Durable Aluminium building products are made from alloys that are weather-proof, corrosion-resistant and immune to the harmful effects of UV rays, ensuring optimal performance over a very long lifetime. Strong The use of aluminium in buildings assists architects meet performance specifications while minimising expenditure on foundations. Alloyed aluminium can be as strong as steel at only a third of the weight. Almost all aluminium used in construction is recycled. Like many industries today, the building and construction industry is faced with many environmental challenges.

Aluminum is the most abundant metallic element in Earth's crust and the most The metal and its alloys are used extensively for aircraft construction, building metal and the manufacture of insulators, spark plugs, and various other products.

About Us. Since the Institute have been developing high-strength aluminium alloys for marine applications. Demand for these alloys arose in connexion with need for creation of high-speed fleet and dynamically-supported ships — hydrofoil and air-cushion ships. As aluminium alloys used for sea-going ships shall have high corrosion resistance and good weldability the aircraft-grade aluminum developed specially for riveted not welded aircraft structures with low corrosion resistance in sea water was not suited to shipbuilding.

Laboratory of structural aluminium alloys

Woldman's Engineering Alloys. Annotation New edition of a reference that presents the values of properties typical for the most common alloy processing conditions, thus providing a starting point in the search for a suitable material that will allow, with proper use, all the necessary design limitations to be met strength, toughness, corrosion resistance and electronic properties, etc. The data is arranged alphabetically and contains information on the manufacturer, the properties of the alloy, and in some cases its use.

Aluminum Building Wire Installation and Terminations

United States. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Subcommittee on Mines and Mining. Trang

Aluminum has been a popular material for architects for close to a century, prized for its versatility and strength. Its history as a building material is an interesting look at how a metal that was barely understood quickly revolutionized not only architecture, but many other industries as well.

Decades of innovation with new coatings and treatments have made our architectural products incomparable in their aesthetics, versatility and efficiency. Aluminum building and construction materials are ideal for groundbreaking and demanding design. Novelis aluminum has proven itself in numerous projects, making our architectural products the material of choice for daring and distinctive design and construction. Many of the skylines around the world feature our aluminum facades and aluminum roofing.

Building and Construction

Это все равно что вычитать апельсины из яблок, - сказал Джабба.  - Гамма-лучи против электромагнитной пульсации. Распадающиеся материалы и нераспадающиеся. Есть целые числа, но есть и подсчет в процентах. Это полная каша.

Aluminum Alloy Material Price

Мне кажется, я должен вам сказать… что это не случайный набор букв. Все на подиуме воскликнули: - Что. В голосе Беккера слышались извиняющиеся нотки: - Простите, но это определенно осмысленные слова. Они выгравированы очень близко одно к другому и на первый взгляд кажутся произвольным набором букв, но если присмотреться повнимательнее, то… становится ясно, что надпись сделана по-латыни.

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