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Manufacture industry fish catch

Manufacture industry fish catch

With capture fishery production relatively static since the late s, aquaculture has been responsible for the continuing impressive growth in the supply of fish for human consumption. NOTE: Excludes aquatic mammals, crocodiles, alligators and caimans, seaweeds and other aquatic plants. In , 88 percent of the total fish production million out of million tonnes was for direct human consumption. This share has increased significantly in recent decades, as it was 67 percent in the s. In fact annual growth rate of food fish consumption has surpassed that of meat consumption from all terrestrial animals, combined. Global total capture fisheries production was

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Good Manufacturing Practice

With capture fishery production relatively static since the late s, aquaculture has been responsible for the continuing impressive growth in the supply of fish for human consumption. NOTE: Excludes aquatic mammals, crocodiles, alligators and caimans, seaweeds and other aquatic plants. In , 88 percent of the total fish production million out of million tonnes was for direct human consumption.

This share has increased significantly in recent decades, as it was 67 percent in the s. In fact annual growth rate of food fish consumption has surpassed that of meat consumption from all terrestrial animals, combined. Global total capture fisheries production was World total marine catch was As in , Alaska pollock Theragra chalcogramma again surpassed anchoveta as the top species in , with the highest catches since However, preliminary data for showed a significant recovery of anchoveta catches.

Skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis ranked third for the seventh consecutive year. All the most valuable species groups with significant production — lobsters, gastropods, crabs and shrimps, with an estimated average value by group of USD 8 to USD 3 per tonne — marked a new catch record in Total global catch in inland waters was In , 16 countries, mostly in Asia, produced almost 80 percent of these catches. The continuously increasing trend of inland fisheries production may be misleading, however, as some of the increase can be attributed to improved reporting and assessment at the country level and may not be entirely due to increased production.

Alaska pollock is the top caught species in Anchoveta catches comes in second and skipjack tuna ranked third. The fraction of fish stocks that are within biologically sustainable levels has exhibited a decreasing trend, from In contrast, the percentage of stocks fished at biologically unsustainable levels increased from 10 percent in to In , maximally sustainably fished stocks formerly termed fully fished stocks accounted for While the proportion of underfished stocks decreased continuously from to , the maximally sustainably fished stocks decreased from to , and then increased to In , among the 16 major statistical areas, the Mediterranean and Black Sea Area 37 had the highest percentage The promotion, regulation and monitoring of responsible fishing practices, through robust fisheries management and governance frameworks, are essential for the sustainability of fisheries resources in both coastal areas and high seas.

The principles of responsible fisheries management have been prescribed in a number of international ocean and fisheries instruments. However, states do not always satisfactorily fulfil their duties in line with such instruments and IUU fishing often occurs, undermining national, regional and global efforts to manage fisheries sustainably.

It is not enough for states to detect IUU fishing; they must strengthen fisheries laws and regulations and be able to take effective action against perpetrators to deter non-compliance. Although states need to improve performance and implement port state measures, there have been important achievements in the fight against IUU fishing. Global aquaculture production including aquatic plants in was The first-sale value, re-estimated with newly available information for some major producing countries, is considerably higher than previous estimates.

The total production included With 5. For the first time aquaculture provides 53 percent of fish for human consumption. Also, the disparity in the level of sectoral development and uneven production distribution remain great among the countries within the regions and across the world.

The share of unfed species in total aquatic animal production decreased gradually from to , shrinking by 10 percentage points to Global production of farmed aquatic plants, overwhelmingly dominated by seaweeds, grew in output volume from The most recent official statistics indicate that The proportion of those employed in capture fisheries decreased from 83 percent in to 68 percent in , while the proportion of those employed in aquaculture correspondingly increased from 17 to 32 percent.

In , 85 percent of the global population engaged in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors was in Asia, followed by Africa 10 percent and Latin America and the Caribbean 4 percent. The trends in the number of people engaged in the fisheries and aquaculture primary sectors vary by region. Europe and North America have experienced the largest proportional decreases in the number of people engaged in both sectors, with particular decreases in capture fishing. In contrast, Africa and Asia, with higher population growth and increasing economically active populations in the agriculture sector, have shown a generally positive trend for the number of people engaged in capture fishing and even higher rates of increase in those engaged in aquaculture.

It is estimated that in , overall, women accounted for nearly 14 percent of all people directly engaged in the fisheries and aquaculture primary sector, as compared with an average of The could be partially ascribed to decreased sex-disaggregated reporting.

The total number of fishing vessels in the world in was estimated to be about 4. The fleet in Asia was the largest, consisting of 3. In Africa and North America the estimated number of vessels declined from by just over 30 and by nearly 5 , respectively. For Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean and Oceania the numbers all increased, largely as a result of improvements in estimation procedures.

Globally, the number of engine-powered vessels was estimated to be 2. Motorized vessels represented 61 percent of all fishing vessels in , down from 64 percent in , as the number of non-motorized vessels increased, probably because of improved estimations.

In , about 86 percent of the motorized fishing vessels in the world were in the length overall LOA class of less than 12 m, the vast majority of which were undecked, and those small vessels dominated in all regions. On the contrary, the largest vessels, classified as those with LOA greater than 24 m made up about 2 percent of the total fleet. Primary production of the global ocean is expected to decline by 6 percent by and by 11 percent in tropical zones. Diverse models predict that by , the total global fish catch potential may vary by less than 10 percent depending on the trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions, but with very significant geographical variability.

While impacts will be predominately negative in many fisheries-dependent tropical regions, opportunities will also arise in temperate regions. Recent projections also reveal decreases in both marine and terrestrial production in almost 85 percent of coastal countries analysed, varying widely in their national capacity to adapt Blanchard et al.

These findings underline the importance of responding to climate change in a coordinated manner across all food systems, to ensure opportunities are maximized and negative impacts reduced, and to secure food and livelihood provision.

Impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture Synthesis of current knowledge, adaptation and mitigation options. In , of the million tonnes of total fish production, about 88 percent or over million tonnes were utilized for direct human consumption. In , the greatest part of the 12 percent used for non-food purposes about 20 million tonnes was reduced to fishmeal and fish oil 74 percent or 15 million tonnes , while the rest 5 million tonnes was largely utilized as material for direct feeding in aquaculture and raising of livestock and fur animals, in culture e.

Live, fresh or chilled is often the most preferred and highly priced form of fish and represents the largest share of fish for direct human consumption, 45 percent in , followed by frozen 31 percent , prepared and preserved 12 percent and cured dried, salted, in brine, fermented smoked 12 percent. Freezing represents the main method of processing fish for human consumption; it accounted for 56 percent of total processed fish for human consumption and 27 percent of total fish production in Major improvements in processing as well as in refrigeration, ice-making and transportation have allowed increasing commercialization and distribution of fish in a greater variety of product forms in the past few decades.

However, developing countries still mainly use fish in live or fresh form 53 percent of the fish destined for human consumption in , soon after landing or harvesting from aquaculture. Loss or wastage between landing and consumption decreased, but still accounts for an estimated 27 percent of landed fish.

The value of world trade in fish and fish products has grown significantly, with exports rising from USD 8 billion in to USD billion in In , about 35 percent of global fish production entered international trade in various forms for human consumption or non-edible purposes.

The share of fish and fish products for human consumption alone has shown an upward trend, from 11 percent in to 27 percent in The 59 million tonnes live weight equivalent of total fish and fish products exported in represent a percent increase over , and the increase is more than percent if only trade in fish for human consumption is considered.

During the same period, world trade in fish and fish products also grew significantly in value terms, with exports rising from USD 8 billion in to USD billion in , at an annual growth rate of 8 percent in nominal terms and 4 percent in real terms.

The rapid rate of expansion of international trade in fish and fish products over recent decades has taken place in the context of a broader process of globalization, a large-scale transformation of the world economy driven by trade liberalization and technological advancements.

Developing countries play a key role in this trade and during the past 40 years, the growth rate of exports from developing countries has increased faster than from developed ones.

In and, according to preliminary figures, also in , developing country exports made up approximately 54 percent of the total value and about 59 percent of the total quantity in live weight equivalent of exports of fish and fish products.

China is the main fish producer and since has also been the largest exporter of fish and fish products, although they represent only 1 percent of its total merchandise trade.

Behind China, Norway is the next largest exporter of fish and fish products. Viet Nam, with exports of USD 7. Since , the average annual increase in global apparent food fish consumption 3. In per capita terms, food fish consumption has grown from 9. Preliminary estimates for and point to further growth to about The expansion in consumption has been driven not only by increased production, but also by a combination of many other factors, including reduced wastage, better utilization, improved distribution channels and growing demand, linked with population growth, rising incomes and urbanization.

Fish contributes significantly to the human diet in terms of high-quality, easily-digestible animal proteins and helps fight micronutrient deficiencies. Globally, fish and fish products provide an average of only about 34 calories per capita per day. However more than as an energy source, the dietary contribution of fish is significant in terms of high-quality, easily digested animal proteins and especially in fighting micronutrient deficiencies.

Fish proteins are essential in the diet of some densely populated countries where the total protein intake is low, and are particularly important in diets in Small Island Developing States SIDS.

Of the global total of million tonnes in , Asia consumed more than two-thirds million tonnes at Oceania and Africa consumed the lowest share. Production: Based on the assumption of higher demand and technological improvements, total world fish production capture plus aquaculture, excluding aquatic plants is expected to continue to expand over the course of the projection period to reach million tonnes in This represents a growth of 18 percent over , or 30 million tonnes at a lower annual growth rate 1.

The major growth in production is expected to originate from aquaculture, which is projected to reach million tonnes in , with growth of 37 percent over Prices: The sector is expected to enter a decade of higher prices in nominal terms. Factors driving this tendency include income, population growth and meat prices on the demand side; and the potential slight decline in capture fisheries production as a result of policy measures in China, the slowdown in growth of aquaculture production and cost pressure from some crucial inputs e.

In real terms, adjusted for inflation, it is assumed that all prices will decline slightly over the projection period but will remain high. As aquaculture is expected to represent a higher share of world fish supply, aquaculture could have a stronger impact on price formation in the sector overall both production and trade.

Consumption: A growing share of fish production is expected to be destined for human consumption around 90 percent. The driving force behind this increase will be a combination of rising incomes and urbanization, linked with the expansion of fish production and improved distribution channels. World food fish consumption in is projected to be 20 percent or 30 million tonnes live weight equivalent higher than in In per capita terms, world fish consumption is projected to reach In Africa, per capita fish consumption is expected to decrease by 0.

Trade: Fish and fish products will continue to be highly traded. It is projected that about 31 percent of total fishery production will be exported in 38 percent if trade within the European Union is included , in the form of different products for human consumption or non-edible purposes, traded at various stages of processing.

In quantity terms, world trade of fish for human consumption is expected to grow by 24 percent in the projection period and to reach more than 48million tonnes in live weight equivalent in

Raw Material

The fisheries that have evolved under these two pressures represent new challenges for sustainable fisheries management in the region. Recognising the potential effects of declines in the marine capture fisheries, many governments in the region have turned to aquaculture as a means to increase fish supply, provide employment and generate foreign income. World aquaculture production of fish, crustaceans and molluscs reached Aquaculture by China - the largest producer - amounted to

The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization as including recreational , subsistence and commercial fishing , and the harvesting, processing , and marketing sectors.

Fish used for the production of fishmeal and oil may be divided into three categories:. Raw material from whole capture fish caught for fishmeal production are mainly small bony, oily short-lived, fast-growing fish where there is little or no demand for human consumption. The by-products such as fish trimmings from the processing sector is increasingly used as a valueble source for the production of fishmeal and fish oil. Many of the criticisms of the management of stocks are unfounded as the source fisheries are amongst the best managed globally, and these are naturally renewable resources that support global protein production.

Fishing industry

Никто не знает, как поведет себя общество, узнав, что группы фундаменталистов дважды за прошлый год угрожали ядерным объектам, расположенным на территории США. Ядерное нападение было, однако, не единственной угрозой. Только в прошлом месяце благодаря ТРАНСТЕКСТУ удалось предотвратить одну из самых изощренных террористических акций, с которыми приходилось сталкиваться агентству.

Некая антиправительственная организация разработала план под кодовым названием Шервудский лес. Его целью была Нью-Йоркская фондовая биржа, а замыслом - перераспределение богатства. За шесть дней члены группы установили в зданиях вокруг биржи двадцать семь взрывобезопасных легкоплавких контейнеров. Одновременный подрыв этих тщательно замаскированных устройств должен был создать магнитное поле такой мощности, что вся информация на магнитных носителях - жестких дисках компьютеров, в постоянных запоминающих устройствах, в резервных файлах и даже на гибких дисках - оказалась бы стерта.

Именно это она и хотела узнать. За годы работы в АНБ до нее доходили слухи о неофициальных связях агентства с самыми искусными киллерами в мире - наемниками, выполняющими за разведывательные службы всю грязную работу. - Танкадо слишком умен, чтобы предоставить нам такую возможность, - возразил Стратмор. Сьюзан испытала от этих слов странное облегчение. - У него есть охрана.

А то ты не знаешь.

У нас только настоящие андалузские красавицы. - Рыжие волосы, - повторил Беккер, понимая, как глупо выглядит. - Простите, у нас нет ни одной рыжеволосой, но если вы… - Ее зовут Капля Росы, - сказал Беккер, отлично сознавая, что это звучит совсем уж абсурдно.

Это странное имя, по-видимому, не вызвало у женщины каких-либо ассоциаций.

Они ничего не питают, ни к чему не относятся, никуда не ведут и обычно удаляются в процессе окончательной проверки и антивирусной обработки. Джабба взял в руки распечатку. Фонтейн молча стоял .

Две эти команды разделяло меньше одной минуты, но она была уверена, что разговаривала с коммандером больше минуты. Сьюзан просмотрела все команды. То, что она увидела, привело ее в ужас. С интервалом в три минуты была зарегистрирована вторая серия команд запирания-отпирания.

Согласно регистру, кто-то открывал ее компьютер, пока ее не было в комнате.

Быть может, смерть Танкадо в публичном месте была необходимостью, однако публика возникла чересчур. Халохот был вынужден скрыться, не успев обыскать убитого, найти ключ. А когда пыль осела, тело Танкадо попало в руки местной полиции. Стратмор был взбешен. Халохот впервые сорвал задание, выбрав неблагоприятные время и место. Получить ключ было необходимо, но Стратмор отлично понимал, что посылать глухого киллера в севильский морг было бы настоящим самоубийством.

И тогда он стал искать иные возможности. Так начал обретать форму второй план.

Catching, handling and storing seafood with care can maximise the quality and potentially storage, which is why we have tailored Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guides for use by fishermen. UK Scallop Industry Good Practice Guide.

Компьютер издал звуковой сигнал. Никто не мог даже пошевелиться. Спустя три мучительные секунды все еще ничего не произошло.

Вам нужно знать только одно: он будет найден. - Откуда такая уверенность. - Не я один его ищу. Американская разведка тоже идет по следу.

Джабба схватил калькулятор и начал нажимать кнопки. - А что это за звездочка? - спросила Сьюзан.  - После цифр стоит какая-то звездочка. Джабба ее не слушал, остервенело нажимая на кнопки.

Мы должны немедленно вырубить электроснабжение. Немедленно.

В комнате творилось нечто невообразимое. Техники обнимали друг друга, подбрасывая вверх длинные полосы распечаток. Бринкерхофф обнимал Мидж. Соши заливалась слезами. - Джабба, - спросил Фонтейн, - много они похитили.

Значит, это не Дэвид. Сьюзан почувствовала, что у нее перехватило дыхание. Она лишь хотела знать, что человек, которого она любит, в безопасности. Стратмор, в свою очередь, тоже сгорал от нетерпения, но подругой причине. Если Дэвид и дальше задержится, придется послать ему на помощь кого-то из полевых агентов АНБ, а это было связано с риском, которого коммандер всеми силами хотел избежать.

- Коммандер, - сказал Чатрукьян, - я уверен, что нам надо проверить… - Подождите минутку, - сказал Стратмор в трубку, извинившись перед собеседником. Он прикрыл микрофон телефона рукой и гневно посмотрел на своего молодого сотрудника.

В тридцати футах от них, скрытый за стеклом односторонней видимости Грег Хейл стоял у терминала Сьюзан. Черный экран. Хейл бросил взгляд на коммандера и Сьюзан, затем достал из кармана бумажник, извлек из него крохотную каталожную карточку и прочитал то, что было на ней написано.

Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни.

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  1. Jugami

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