Produce building electronic-piezoelectric devices
Y ou've probably used piezoelectricity pronounced " pee-ay-zo- electricity" quite a few times today. If you've got a quartz watch , piezoelectricity is what helps it keep regular time. If you've been writing a letter or an essay on your computer with the help of voice recognition software, the microphone you spoke into probably used piezoelectricity to turn the sound energy in your voice into electrical signals your computer could interpret. If you're a bit of an audiophile and like listening to music on vinyl, your gramophone would have been using piezoelectricity to "read" the sounds from your LP records. Piezoelectricity literally, "pressing electricity" is much simpler than it sounds: it just means using crystals to convert mechanical energy into electricity or vice-versa.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: how to make Piezoelectric Generator - PIEZO ELECTRICITY GENERATION - Piezo footstep power generator
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How Piezoelectricity Works
Although no charge or fee is required for using TeachEngineering curricular materials in your classroom, the lessons and activities often require material supplies. The expendable cost is the estimated cost of supplies needed for each group of students involved in the activity. Most curricular materials in TeachEngineering are hierarchically organized; i.
Some activities or lessons, however, were developed to stand alone, and hence, they might not conform to this strict hierarchy. Related Curriculum shows how the document you are currently viewing fits into this hierarchy of curricular materials. The ceramic piezoelectric element used in the activity. Piezoelectric materials have the unique and useful property of being able to transform mechanical energy into electrical energy, and vice versa.
This gives piezoelectric materials a wide range of potential applications from sensors and actuators to artificial muscles. One of the most interesting applications is in the field of energy harvesting, where piezoelectric materials are used to convert mechanical energy that is typically wasted into a source of electrical energy.
However, the technology of currently available piezoelectric materials and methods is unable to produce a sufficient amount of energy, so engineers are researching how to improve piezoelectric energy harvesting devices. Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K science, technology, engineering or math STEM educational standards. In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component s and energy flows in and out of the system are known.
Grades 9 - Do you agree with this alignment? Thanks for your feedback! Alignment agreement: Thanks for your feedback! Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields. View aligned curriculum. Cost note : Everything in this activity can be reused. One exception is the switch; the RadioShack switch has been tested and shown to work, while the SparkFun one has not.
Students learn about a fascinating electromechanical coupling called piezoelectricity that is being employed and researched around the world for varied purposes, often for creative energy harvesting methods. Students explore the use of a piezoelectric generator. Students are introduced to several key concepts of electronic circuits.
They learn about some of the physics behind circuits, the key components in a circuit and their pervasiveness in our homes and everyday lives.
Students learn that charge movement through a circuit depends on the resistance and arrangement of the circuit components. In one associated hands-on activity, students build and investigate the characteristics of series circuits.
In another activity, students design and build flashlights. Students are introduced to the technology of flexible circuits, some applications and the photolithography fabrication process. They are challenged to determine if the fabrication process results in a change in the circuit dimensions since, as circuits get smaller and smaller nano-circuits , this c Students should know the basics about electromechanical coupling, especially piezoelectricity and the use of piezoelectric materials for energy harvesting, as presented in the associated lesson, Piezoelectricity.
No electrical or wiring background is necessary, but is helpful. When you were little, did you ever wear shoes that would light up as you walk? Answer: Expect some students to answer yes. Does anyone know how those shoes work? If students paid attention during the associated lesson, hopefully they answer yes. This type of shoe has no batteries, so what is the power source? Listen to student responses. Piezoelectric materials are placed in the bottoms of the shoes, but they do not store any energy.
So from where does the energy come? Listen to student explanations. The energy comes from you! Whenever you walk, your movements are mechanical energy and some of that mechanical energy can be converted into electrical energy by piezoelectric materials.
In the case of the light-up shoes, that energy is used immediately to light-up some LEDs, which brings up an idea: What are the possibilities for storing that energy to use whenever we please? How much energy are we converting? We measure the voltage across the capacitor in our piezoelectric generators for two reasons.
The first is simply to make sure it is working. The second, more important reason, is because we can use this voltage to calculate the amount of energy stored in our capacitors using the equation:.
Where E is the energy stored in the capacitor, C is the capacitance and V is the voltage measured across the capacitor. When using this equation, make sure the units are correct. We want the voltage to be in volts V. Then, the units of energy will be joules J or equivalently, in watt-seconds W-s.
To calculate how much energy is stored for each tap or press on the piezo element, measure the voltage before V 0 and the voltage after the tap V 1 , and then use the following equation:. When performing these calculations, we find that very little energy is stored, generally around 0.
As a comparison, a cell phone battery stores around 18, joules. Since this piezoelectric generator is so inefficient, engineers are working on two main approaches to improve its energy harvesting capabilities:. The second idea is the driving motivation for most piezoelectric energy-harvesting research work today. Some ideas include placing the materials under sidewalks and roads, or in clothing. Figure 1. Wiring diagram for a piezoelectric generator. If using the SparkFun switch, a simple rocker switch, notice that it has two wires coming from it.
Hook up this switch by following these steps:. In the piezoelectric element, a positive voltage is produced when pressed and an opposite, negative voltage when released.
This type of power is needed for the capacitor and LED. In this activity it is used to measure DC voltage. Piezoelectricity Lesson Review: Quickly review with students the material covered in the associated lesson.
Ask: What is the piezoelectric effect? What causes piezoelectricity on the atomic level? What are some tested and conceptual applications? If you did not assign the lesson's Piezoelectricity Quiz , this is also a suitable place for it, or review the quiz answers with the class.
Energy Calculations Example: Cell Phone: Once you have given students the equation to calculate the amount of energy stored in a capacitor, see if they can figure out how long it will take to charge a cell phone that requires 18, joules of energy.
These calculations are already done in the How to Build a Piezoelectric Generator Presentation , but have students give it a try before giving the answers. Worksheet : Assign students to complete the Energy Harvesting Worksheet. Questions 1 and 2a require access to their generators. If only one multimeter is available, work through questions 1 and 2a as a class.
For question 4, students brainstorm ways that they could use their piezoelectric generators that would be more efficient than just tapping it. Some examples include putting it under your shoe or under sidewalks.
Review their answers to gauge their depth of comprehension. The most common problem encountered in this activity is making sure that all components have current flowing in the correct direction. Often, if the circuit is not working, something just needs to be turned around. If the capacitor does not appear to be storing any energy when tapping the piezo element, check that the switch is in the correct starting position.
If the capacitor is charging, but flipping the switch does not drop the charge or light the LED, then not enough energy has been stored yet. Piezoelectricity: walk, jump, dance, and generate electricity! Posted August 1, Accessed April 29, This digital library content was developed by the University of Houston's College of Engineering, based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under GK grant no.
DGE Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Why Teach Engineering in K? Find more at TeachEngineering. Quick Look. Activity dependency indicates that this activity relies upon the contents of the TeachEngineering document s listed.
Print this activity. Activities Associated with this Lesson Most curricular materials in TeachEngineering are hierarchically organized; i. Subscribe to our newsletter. Educators Share Experiences.
Summary Students learn how to build simple piezoelectric generators to power LEDs. To do this, they incorporate into a circuit a piezoelectric element that converts movements they make mechanical energy into electrical energy, which is stored in a capacitor short-term battery.
Once enough energy is stored, they flip a switch to light up an LED.
Piezoelectric devices for ocean energy: a brief survey
Piezo what? The word piezoelectric originates from the Greek word piezein, which literally means to squeeze or press. Piezoelectricity is found in a ton of everyday electronic devices, from quartz watches to speakers and microphones.
Piezoelectric materials directly convert strain energy into electric energy and vice versa and are commonly used in sensing and actuating applications. They have been employed in mediums frequently undergoing vibrations, allowing harnessing of power at a small scale. Ideas of using the piezoelectric effect as a power take-off mechanism for ocean energy emerged in the s and are still at a developing stage. This article overviews recent development on the application of the piezoelectric processes to the ocean field and provides a building block for future research work of ocean engineers who are interested in such possibilities. A brief discussion on the selection of the piezoelectric materials for different ocean-engineering applications is presented.
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Please contact us if you would like to receive a quote for a custom piezoelectric element or standard product, to discuss your piezo related project, or if you have any questions about our products and services. Custom piezoelectric disc, ring, or plate. Standard product with a catalog number. Special Request. What do cell phones, diesel fuel injectors, acoustic guitar pickups, grill igniters, ultrasonic transducers, vibration sensors, certain printers, and musical greeting cards all have in common? Besides being electronic devices, all of these applications utilize piezoelectricity in some way. Dating all the way back to and the groundbreaking work of brothers Pierre and Jacques Curie, the piezoelectric effect refers to the ability of specific materials — such as quartz, tourmaline, topaz and Rochelle salt — to produce an electric charge when subjected to mechanical stress. No piezoelectric effect explanation would be complete without a brief discussion of what piezoelectric devices are as well. Today, thanks to the additional development of manmade piezo materials — including piezoelectric ceramics — the applications of piezoelectricity in electronic devices are growing at an exciting pace. In these cases, a hammer strikes a piece of piezo material, which then produces enough current to create a spark that ignites the flammable gas in its presence.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials such as crystals , certain ceramics , and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins  in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure and latent heat. The piezoelectric effect results from the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and electrical states in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry. For example, lead zirconate titanate crystals will generate measurable piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by about 0. Conversely, those same crystals will change about 0.
Ничего, - выдавила. Но это было не .
Но коммандер поймал ее взгляд и нахмурился. Значит, это не Дэвид. Сьюзан почувствовала, что у нее перехватило дыхание. Она лишь хотела знать, что человек, которого она любит, в безопасности.
Простите, что я на вас накричала. Я так испугалась, увидев. - Не стоит, - удивился Беккер - Я зашел куда не следовало.
Пятнадцать секунд спустя экран ожил. Сначала изображение на экране было смутным, точно смазанным сильным снегопадом, но постепенно оно становилось все четче и четче.
Это была цифровая мультимедийная трансляция - всего пять кадров в секунду. На экране появились двое мужчин: один бледный, коротко стриженный, другой - светловолосый, с типично американской внешностью. Они сидели перед камерой наподобие телеведущих, ожидающих момента выхода в эфир. - Это что еще за чертовщина? - возмутился Джабба.
Тогда откуда же пришла команда на ручное отключение. - рассердилась. Недовольно поморщившись, Сьюзан закрыла окно экранного замка, но в ту долю секунды, когда оно исчезало с экрана, она заметила нечто необычное. Снова открыв окно, Сьюзан изучила содержащуюся в нем информацию. Какая-то бессмыслица.
Вначале был зарегистрирован нормальный ввод замка, в тот момент, когда она выходила из помещения Третьего узла, однако время следующей команды отпирания показалось Сьюзан странным. Две эти команды разделяло меньше одной минуты, но она была уверена, что разговаривала с коммандером больше минуты.
Сьюзан просмотрела все команды.
Хорошая новость. Звонок из Соединенных Штатов. Он улыбнулся.
Какое вам дело? - холодно произнес американец. - Когда мистер Беккер найдет ключ, он будет вознагражден сполна. ГЛАВА 22 Дэвид Беккер быстро подошел к койке и посмотрел на спящего старика. Правое запястье в гипсе.
Внезапно она встала. В голосе ее прозвучала удивительная решимость: - Мы должны установить с ним контакт. Должен быть способ убедить его не выпускать ключ из рук.
Да… и… - слова застревали у нее в горле. Он убил Дэвида.
Это пугало Хейла. Он понимал, что времени у него. Агенты могут появиться в любую минуту. Собрав все силы, Хейл, сильнее обхватив Сьюзан за талию, начал пятясь подниматься по лестнице.
Она встала на ноги и расправила платье. - Все обошлось. Сьюзан огляделась. Третий узел был пуст, свет шел от работающих мониторов. Их синеватое свечение придавало находящимся предметам какую-то призрачную расплывчатость. Она повернулась к Стратмору, оставшемуся за дверью.
Зачем АНБ вся эта рухлядь. Вернулся лейтенант с маленькой коробкой в руке, и Беккер начал складывать в нее вещи. Лейтенант дотронулся до ноги покойного. - Quien es.