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Product building general-Purpose Wired Communications Equipment

Product building general-Purpose Wired Communications Equipment

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What Is a Wireless Network?

Download PDF Version. The history of telecommunications services abounds with innovations. All of these leaps in technology involved getting more service, and better service, per hour of labor.

The measurement of output per hours worked, known as labor productivity , is one of the best ways to study innovation. Since the late 20th century, it has become standard to talk about the telecommunications industry as two subindustries: wired and wireless. Wired carriers move voices, data, text, and sound and video programming along electrified wires or optical fibers. Wireless carriers move the same types of information, but use electromagnetic energy on the microwave or radio spectra.

The U. Meanwhile, the shifts in dominant technologies used by wireless carriers have been so frequent, so pervasive, and so transformative that they are numbered. The industry standard was still analog radio signals 1G until the arrival of second generation 2G digital signals technology in the early s. Wireless carriers are beginning to roll out 5G. Both industries have seen strong labor productivity growth since However, since around , the paths have diverged: new production processes have enabled wireless to increase productivity in a more compelling fashion.

This Beyond the Numbers article will examine the history and sources of labor productivity growth in the telecommunications industries. First, we will compare these growth rates to those of other industries.

Next, we will compare the labor productivity trends of wired telecommunications to wireless, and determine the most important services provided by each industry.

Lastly, we will try to uncover what unique facets of the wireless telecommunications industry are responsible for its past and present advantage in productivity growth as compared to wired telecommunications. The wired and wireless telecommunications industries are both standout performers in the field of labor productivity growth statistics over the past 31 years. Wireless telecommunications ranks second highest in labor productivity growth over the — period, surpassed only by a manufacturing industry, computer and peripheral equipment NAICS Notably, communications equipment manufacturing NAICS ranks 13th in productivity growth over the period — Telecommunications industries use, and benefit from, technological improvements in communications equipment and digital equipment.

Therefore, we expect to see some similarities in the productivity trends with the industries that manufacture such equipment. Likewise, the manufacture of information and communications technology ICT equipment is dependent on the supply of its components, particularly semiconductors.

The semiconductors and other electronic components industry NAICS posted the third-fastest growing productivity. Table 1 lists the cumulative productivity growth of the telecommunications industries from through , along with selected manufacturers of ICT products. Rapid increases in semiconductor processing speed in the mids drove productivity growth in the industries that are most reliant on information and communications technology.

In turn, these investments in informational capital drove efficiency improvements in many other industries, lifting productivity growth in the broader U. The information revolution may have lifted productivity in information and communications technology ICT -producing and ICT-using industries, but the effect on productivity growth was not permanent for some.

Chart 1 shows that the wired industry, like the ICT manufacturing industries pictured, experienced a post slowdown in productivity growth. While productivity growth occurred, the growth rates converged closer to the average of the nonfarm business sector.

At the same time, the wireless industry continued to achieve rapid productivity growth. In fact, the rate of growth nearly tripled between and The year was a turning point in many ways for telecommunications. First, the turn of the millennium is a reasonable dividing point for productivity analysis comparisons because a business cycle began in Specifically, changes in regulations and technology in the late s resulted in a massive expansion—in the number of firms, employment, and capital investments.

When the bubble burst, dot-coms and telecommunication companies alike experienced a wave of consolidation. This period also saw a break in the productivity trends of the two main telecommunications industries. Before the year , the rapid expansion of the wireless industry did not result in a notably faster rate of productivity growth.

Chart 2 shows that although wireless had much faster growth in output and hours worked than the wired industry, labor productivity growth for the wireless industry was only a little faster during the — period. Recall that productivity is the ratio of output to hours worked. The industry output index measures the amount of services produced. In the wired industry, output peaked in Chart 2 shows that the wired industry actually produced less output in than it did in Conversely, output for the wireless industry has continued to multiply, growing at an average annual rate of The number of hours worked peaked in the wired industry in the year At that time, spending on cell phone services was slightly more than one-third of what was spent on landlines.

By , cellular expenditures exceeded landline expenditures. Although hours worked fell in wireless too, large increases in output meant that productivity increased very fast.

On the whole, the wired and wireless industries displayed similarities in hours worked during the post period. Chart 3 shows that hours worked in the wired industry have declined almost every year since the peak in For wireless, hours worked grew mostly until , then began a steep descent that continued well after the Great Recession ended in The output of telecommunications carriers is a somewhat abstract concept to grasp.

Especially with bundled service plans or unlimited voice and text plans. In the early 20th century, the telecommunications industry—which meant wired—consisted of fixed i. Under the old Standard Industrial Classification SIC system, wired and wireless telecommunications services were not classified as separate industries.

Wireless telecommunications, which are classified separately from radio and television broadcasting, were, until the s, more the subject of scientific research than of major economic activity. By the time NAICS was introduced in , it was clear that wired and wireless services were distinct economic phenomena deserving of analysis.

In recent years, continuing improvements to Census Bureau revenues data and BLS deflators data have allowed us to get an increasingly more detailed view of what services the wired and wireless industries provide. Chart 4 breaks down the shares of major current sources of revenue for both telecommunications industries.

In , this figure was Internet access services contributed 28 percent. Television revenues—which include cable and satellite programming and pay-per-view—made up another 27 percent. The remaining For the wireless industry, telephony retained a Thanks to the rise of smartphones and other mobile devices, connecting to the web is also now a key function of wireless service: internet access accounted for another The rest of the revenue sources contributed The impact of the internet on both industries is enormous.

An illustrative example is the change in spending on two different types of services that transmit information and conduct commerce over long distances: mail letter-size, not parcels delivered by the U. Postal Service, and access to the internet.

Chart 5 depicts the relative lack of U. Since then, this difference has continued to widen. Initially, most expenditures on internet access came from dial-up or DSL services associated with wired telephone lines.

But by , Businesses benefit from productivity increases because such growth restrains labor costs. Consumers, in turn, often benefit from improvements in service quality and from downward pressure on prices. Improvements in the design and manufacture of communications equipment are essential, but providing reliable, affordable connections between devices is the job of telecommunications carriers.

What are the underlying causes of their productivity gains? One way labor productivity can grow is from an increase in the quantity and quality of capital per worker. Capital means the productive resources such as equipment, structures, and software that firms use for more than 1 year.

In recent years, telecommunications industries have given us new ways to work, play, and connect with people. This requires a vast array of physical assets—from desktop equipment to the 9,mile long TAT fiber-optic cable between New Jersey and Europe.

If firms get more productive use out of capital, this reduces the need for labor. Consider all the tasks that are now done by computers, or what a single truck driver can do in place of dozens of mule drivers. Because of a lack of asset-specific data for the wired or wireless telecommunications industries, BLS does not produce capital services measures at this level of industry detail.

Charts 6A and 6B show that both industries bulked up on equipment investments in the last few years of the 20th century, only to pull back after the bursting of the telecom bubble in the early s. The pullback was more severe in the wired industry. Equipment investments bounced back in both industries thereafter. In the wireless industry, investments in structures kept growing until , after which spending plummeted and never fully recovered.

The fact that wireless output was able to grow with substantially less investment in structures demonstrates such an efficiency gain. This might sound counter-intuitive. Or at least a proliferation of small cell sites? Certainly, to a point. The early s ACES data suggest that wireless companies were investing a lot into building out their nationwide networks, but may have largely achieved this by Note that the steep decline in structures investment began in —before the Great Recession.

Table 2 sheds some light on the changing relationship between deployment of new cell sites and the BLS output index for the wireless industry. Therefore, the national stock of cell sites multiplied quickly—and at a much faster rate than industry output.

Cellular companies had to establish good network coverage, first, to attract customers. From to , as dollar investments in structures peaked, the rate of annual increase in cell sites However, output now grew at a faster rate than cell sites.

Wired communication

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Computer networking has become an integral part of business today. Individuals, professionals and academics have also learned to rely on computer networks for capabilities such as electronic mail and access to remote databases for research and communication purposes. Networking has thus become an increasingly pervasive, worldwide reality because it is fast, efficient, reliable and effective. Just how all this information is transmitted, stored, categorized and accessed remains a mystery to the average computer user.

Communication Networks

The NEMA Building Systems Division promotes safety, performance, and energy efficiency through the interconnectivity of individual components with electrical, mechanical, and lighting systems. Division products increase the comfort and productivity of the people in commercial, government, and industrial facilities. Automated systems are possible because of controllers, sensors, and software that aggregate data, analyze use, diagnose problems, predict maintenance, and improve performance. The shift from conventional relationships to collaborative ones reflects and encourages innovation in design, technology, sustainability, and life safety. The NEMA High-Performance Buildings Council HPBC promotes the adoption of high-performance technologies and systems that increase the energy efficiency, safety, resilience, sustainability, productivity, and security of federal, commercial, and multi-family residential buildings. Member Products. Product Description. Product Overview. Product Resources. Gliebe Try the Rule as a Workplace Strategy.

Does It Matter If China Beats the US to Build a 5G Network?

Download PDF Version. The history of telecommunications services abounds with innovations. All of these leaps in technology involved getting more service, and better service, per hour of labor. The measurement of output per hours worked, known as labor productivity , is one of the best ways to study innovation.

The Interactive Resource Center is an online learning environment where instructors and students can access the tools they need to make efficient use of their time, while reinforcing and assessing their understanding of key concepts for successful understanding of the course.

Information technology is revolutionizing products. Once composed solely of mechanical and electrical parts, products have become complex systems that combine hardware, sensors, data storage, microprocessors, software, and connectivity in myriad ways. Information technology is revolutionizing products, from appliances to cars to mining equipment.

Productivity trends in the wired and wireless telecommunications industries

A wireless local-area network LAN uses radio waves to connect devices such as laptops and mobile phones to the Internet and to your business network and its applications. When you connect to a Wi-Fi hotspot at a cafe, a hotel, an airport lounge, or another public place, you're connecting to that business's wireless network. A wired network uses cables to connect devices, such as laptop or desktop computers, to the Internet or another network.

Facility managers paying attention to the influx of Building Internet of Things IoT devices and systems know that we live in an increasingly wireless world. But for any specific building project involving facility automation and information technology, to wire or not to wire sensors and controls for smart building systems is a difficult question. Generally speaking, wired systems offer wider coverage ranges, can handle large data volumes, and are extremely reliable — plus individual devices may be slightly less expensive. However, wired devices are more costly to install, less flexible and frequently cannot make information available anywhere in the space. While wireless options are a little more expensive than their hard-wired counterparts, their reliability has greatly improved over the past few years.

How Smart, Connected Products Are Transforming Competition

Many utility industry operators are looking for new ways to maximize their investment in communication networks while ensuring reliable, secure data transmission. There is a variety of communications solutions, the two most common being wireless technology and wired options-such as copper and fiber-optic cable. While both have a place in utility market applications, such as distribution automation, we are beginning to see an increase in the use of wireless technology. There are many factors contributing to this increase-including cost savings, flexibility and power consumption. When looking at the big picture, a utility operator will discover each technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. Many feel the most reliable option for a communication network is the traditional wired approach. On the other hand, with so many different types of wireless technologies, the decision making does not stop once an operator chooses wireless.

product that complies with all the applicable UL requirements, in a particular application. suitability of UL Certified, Listed, Classified, or Verified wire and cable for use in a communication equipment, Listed Communication Cable Assemblies Table 1 — Building Wires and Cables, including some industrial cables.

Or at least that's what both the US government and the wireless industry say. The report echoed a leaked National Security Council document that suggested the US government consider building a 5G network. If China dominates the telecommunications network industry, the document said, it "will win politically, economically, and militarily. Democrats are worried too.

5 Wireless Options for High-Performance Building Systems

The Federal Communications Commission proposed two measures this week to stop US carriers from using technology from the two companies. The first would ban carriers from using money from the Universal Service Fund, an FCC-managed program that offers subsidies to low-income households, to buy equipment from Huawei, ZTE, or other companies deemed to pose a national security risk. The second, which is still in its earliest stages, would require carriers that receive money from the Universal Service Fund to remove existing Huawei and ZTE equipment from their networks and suggests the government may help those carriers buy replacement equipment.

Huawei’s Gear Might Have to Go, FCC Tells US Telecom Firms

Wired communication refers to the transmission of data over a wire -based communication technology. Examples include telephone networks , cable television or internet access , and fiber-optic communication. Also waveguide electromagnetism , used for high-power applications, is considered as wired line. Local telephone networks often form the basis for wired communications that are used by both residential and business customers in the area.

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Chapter 7. Telecommunications, the Internet, and Information System Architecture. The electronic transmission of information over distances, called telecommunications, has become virtually inseparable from computers: Computers and telecommunications create value together. Components of a Telecommunications Network. Telecommunications are the means of electronic transmission of information over distances.

Wired vs. Wireless Technologies for Communication Networks in Utility Markets

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