Product factory constructions and frame details of buildings and structures
Detail-Practice: Dry Construction provides an overview of the most widely used dry construction systems, organized according to the building components wall, ceiling, and floor and their applications. The volume is conceived as a practical manual for design and planning. Dry construction in interior design employs "dry construction systems" in place of moisture-retaining materials such as concrete and plaster. Not only is this construction method cost-effective, since the full range of physical requirements, including thermal, cold, and sound insulation, fire safety, etc.
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These buildings are typically used for workshops, factories, industrial and distribution warehouses and retail and leisure. Whilst most single-storey buildings are relatively straightforward building projects, increasing levels of specialisation by steelwork contractors and other supply chain members have, in recent years, led to huge improvements in quality, cost and delivery performance of single storey steel buildings.
These improvements have been achieved through increasingly efficient use of the portal frame by design-and-build steelwork contractors, improved project planning , and active supply chain management by main contractors. This article deals specifically with single storey industrial buildings. Single storey buildings in other sectors are addressed in other articles, e. Snetterton Renewable Energy Centre, Norfolk. Dublin Waste to Energy project. Siemens wind turbine blade manufacturing facility, Hull.
Energy from Waste Facility, Ardley. Ince Biomass Energy Plant. Kent Renewable Energy, Sandwich. Magna Park Plot , Milton Keynes. Ardross Distillery, Alness. Wasdell Production Facility, Dundalk. Cranswick poultry facility, Eye, Suffolk. Williamsgate Water Treatment Works, Cumbria. Main articles: The case for steel , Sustainability , Cost of structural steelwork , Cost planning - Industrial buildings.
All clients commissioning buildings have a business case for doing so; they may be building it for their own use, to rent out, as an investment or to sell on. Although industrial buildings are one of the least complicated building forms, there are several criteria which can affect the value that the building brings to the clients and users alike. The attributes of steel construction are routinely used to optimise the business case for single-storey buildings. Early return on investment is particularly important for retail and logistics companies and therefore speed of construction is vital.
This can affect the design in many ways that are perhaps not immediately apparent. For example:. Structural steel components are pre-fabricated off-site by a steelwork contractor; any protective coatings that are required can be applied at this stage.
Site activity is primarily an assembly operation, bolting steelwork parts together, which leads to short construction programmes. The building can be made weathertight quickly, allowing the following on trades early access to commence their work. Change is now a fact of life for most UK businesses, with the likelihood of substantial evolution in the activities undertaken within their premises during their design lives.
The long spans and minimal use of internal columns that are easily and cost effectively achieved with steel construction offer the maximum opportunity for the building to be able to accommodate change efficiently. Steel buildings can be easily modified, strengthened and extended.
The facility to extend the structure at some future stage can be incorporated into the original design and construction details. The external envelope maybe renewed, upgraded or modified. The client may at some point wish to sell the building to an investment organisation. To facilitate this option, institutional criteria such as minimum height and more onerous imposed loads can be specified to maintain the asset value and provide flexibility for unknown future uses. Many buildings are constructed for owner occupation.
Where a building is let, full-repairing twenty-five year leases, where the tenant is responsible for maintenance, are being replaced by shorter ones, where the owner carries maintenance responsibility. Any situation where the owner, who originally specified the building, has responsibility for maintenance, encourages the choice of better quality materials with a longer life expectancy in order to reduce maintenance costs.
Increasingly, suppliers are providing guarantees and advice on necessary maintenance. Steel enables large spans to be constructed with relatively small construction depths.
The typical construction solution of an insulated external envelope supported on steel secondary members is a very well-developed solution, optimised over many years, leading to a structurally efficient and cost effective solution.
Lightweight, structurally efficient portal frame. Energy costs and the reduction of operational carbon emissions are becoming increasingly important and sustainability is now a key issue within the planning process. In future, it is likely that planning permission will be easier to obtain with sustainable, environmentally friendly, solutions. Many clients, potential clients and occupiers have sustainability policies against which their performance is monitored by shareholders and the public.
Steel can be recycled any number of times without loss of quality or strength. Steel building components are fabricated under factory-controlled conditions with minimal waste off-cuts are recycled as scrap.
As the site activity is mainly assembly, there is rarely any waste on site. Steel structures, particularly the relatively simple structures commonly used in single storey buildings, can be easily dissembled. The steel members may be reused in other structures — portal frames and similar structures are frequently dismantled and used at other locations. Recycling and reuse are key features of the circular economy. The Blue steel building in Leeds is shown before and after refurbishment to bring it up to current standards in terms of functionality and envelope performance.
In addition to re-cladding the building using composite steel panels , the height of the building was increased by 3m by introducing column splices as shown before re-erecting the original bracing , rafters and purlins ; a great example of adaptable and reusable steel buildings. The dominance of steel in this sector demonstrates the value for money that steel construction provides.
This is primarily due to the increasingly efficient use of the portal frame by design and build steelwork contractors, improved project planning , and active supply chain management by main contractors. Information on the cost of structural steelwork generally and cost planning for industrial buildings specifically is readily available.
Main article: Concept design , Trusses , Portal frames , Building envelopes. Single storey buildings are usually required to provide large open floor areas, with few internal structural columns , thus offering maximum flexibility in use and freedom for activities that involve moving plant and equipment inside the building.
These requirements are most often achieved by using a relatively light structural frame spanning from one side of the building to the other, clad with a weathertight envelope. The design of the structural framework and the envelope are closely linked. The schematic arrangement of a typical single storey building showing both the structural frame and the building envelope is provided.
There are essentially three layers to the structure:. The cladding will also normally include ancillary components such as windows, rooflights, vents and gutters. In most cases both building length and building width are much larger than the height of the building. Single-bay and multi-bay buildings can be used depending on the overall size of the building. A multi-bay portal frame is shown.
The vast majority of single storey, steel framed buildings are portal frames. These were first widely used in the s. During the s and early s they developed rapidly to become the predominant form of single storey construction. Using plastic design techniques first developed at Cambridge University, for spans up to about 50m portal frames are the most economical solution available.
Large column-free areas can be achieved at relatively low cost. Portal frames typically use hot-rolled beams and columns for the roof rafters and supporting columns, although cold formed sections may be adequate for some small span structures.
Portal frames come in a variety of different shapes and sizes , with flat and pitched roofs. The schematic arrangement of a typical single storey portal frame building is shown. A small number of steelwork contractors offer portal frames made wholly from plates, often to form a tapered rafter section, which more closely follows the load profile on the steel member.
The extra fabrication cost involved is offset by savings in the material content of the resultant frame. However, overall this form of frame has not been successful in the UK, mainly due to the efficiency of steelwork contractors offering parallel flange beam solutions. Sophisticated computer software is widely available to design portal frames to the optimum efficiency.
These programs use plastic or elastoplastic design techniques, and can handle multi-span frames with varying geometries and multiple load cases. Lattice trusses. The main alternative to portal frames is lattice construction. Lattice trusses are generally more expensive than portal frames for routine applications and spans.
However, for certain applications they will offer the best framing solution, such as: for very large spans greater than 50m , for production facilities needing heavy plant suspended from the roof area, or where deflection criteria are particularly critical. Trusses are a triangulated assembly of members usually either rolled or structural hollow sections. The internal members can be angles, beams or hollow sections , depending on the design loads, configuration and fabrication costs.
Trusses are usually planar and will generally require bracing of some form to provide stability. As an alternative, three-dimensional trusses can be created.
Trusses typically have a greater depth than single beams or plate girders. The deflection of a truss is modest, and can be controlled, making them especially suitable when significant loads have to be supported from the roof structure, or when a flat or nearly flat roof is to be provided.
The weight of a trussed roof structure per unit area of roof is, in general, less than that of single beam girders, but the fabrication costs are higher. Trusses may be exposed in the completed structure, which may increase the fabrication costs if, for example, hollow sections are used for the members. In a cable-stayed structure, tensile members wire ropes or bars are provided to give intermediate support to members such as roof beams , thus allowing those members to be reduced in size.
The stays need to be supported by columns or masts and those members need to be anchored or braced with other stays. The bracing arrangement is usually very conspicuous and the aesthetics of the building must be considered carefully. An example of a cable stayed building structure is shown. As most of the structure is outside of the building, maintenance costs can be high for this form of construction.
Care must be taken in detailing the waterproofing where the stays pass through the envelope. Column positions may be restricted to suit the layout of equipment inside the building, such as racking in a warehouse, or machinery in a production unit.
A good understanding of the costs of portal frames and the impact of different span and bay centre options is crucial to achieve an optimum building layout. Good advice can be obtained from steelwork contractors specialising in single storey buildings. With increasing spans the unit structural cost falls gradually to a minimum at a span of around m.
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By using the astron. For more information, or to change your cookie settings, click here. Not only offices and commercial buildings , but also industrial halls and production halls vary according to individual needs. For example, an industrial bakery needs a completely different building to a printing company or a car supplier. Optimal work processes are only possible if the industrial hall has been optimally designed to meet the individual requirements.
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Building Structures. James Ambrose. Construction Details From Architectural Graphic Standards Eighth Edition Edited by James Ambrose A concise reference tool for the professional involved in the production of details for building construction, this abridgement of the classic Architectural Graphic Standards provides indispensable guidance on standardizing detail work, without having to create the needed details from scratch. An ideal "how to" manual for the working draftsperson, this convenient, portable edition covers general planning and design data, sitework, concrete, masonry, metals, wood, doors and windows, finishes, specialties, equipment, furnishings, special construction, energy design, historic preservation, and more.
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Construction , also called building construction , the techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures, primarily those used to provide shelter. Construction is an ancient human activity. It began with the purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the effects of climate. Constructed shelters were one means by which human beings were able to adapt themselves to a wide variety of climates and become a global species.
In structural engineering , a pre-engineered building PEB is designed by a PEB supplier or PEB manufacturer, to be fabricated using best suited inventory of raw materials available from all sources and manufacturing methods that can efficiently satisfy a wide range of structural and aesthetic design requirements. Within some geographic industry sectors these buildings are also called pre-engineered metal buildings PEMB or, as is becoming increasingly common due to the reduced amount of pre-engineering involved in custom computer-aided designs, simply engineered metal buildings EMB. During the s, standardized engineering designs for buildings were first marketed as PEBs. In pre-engineered buildings, the I beams used are usually formed by welding together steel plates to form the I section. The I beams are then field-assembled e.
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Modular buildings and modular homes are prefabricated buildings or houses that consist of repeated sections called modules. Installation of the prefabricated sections is completed on site. Prefabricated sections are sometimes placed using a crane. The modules can be placed side-by-side, end-to-end, or stacked, allowing a variety of configurations and styles. After placement the modules are joined together using inter-module connections, also known as inter-connections. The inter-connections tie the individual modules together to form the overall building structure.
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