Product industry constructions and frame details of buildings and structures
Construction , also called building construction , the techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures, primarily those used to provide shelter. Construction is an ancient human activity. It began with the purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the effects of climate. Constructed shelters were one means by which human beings were able to adapt themselves to a wide variety of climates and become a global species. Human shelters were at first very simple and perhaps lasted only a few days or months.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: steel structure construction process step by step in site / skelton frame#civiltechconstructions
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Construction , also called building construction , the techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures, primarily those used to provide shelter. Construction is an ancient human activity. It began with the purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the effects of climate. Constructed shelters were one means by which human beings were able to adapt themselves to a wide variety of climates and become a global species. Human shelters were at first very simple and perhaps lasted only a few days or months.
Over time, however, even temporary structures evolved into such highly refined forms as the igloo. Gradually more durable structures began to appear, particularly after the advent of agriculture , when people began to stay in one place for long periods.
The first shelters were dwellings, but later other functions, such as food storage and ceremony, were housed in separate buildings.
Some structures began to have symbolic as well as functional value, marking the beginning of the distinction between architecture and building.
The history of building is marked by a number of trends. One is the increasing durability of the materials used. Early building materials were perishable, such as leaves, branches, and animal hides. Later, more durable natural materials—such as clay, stone, and timber—and, finally, synthetic materials—such as brick , concrete , metals, and plastics —were used.
Another is a quest for buildings of ever greater height and span; this was made possible by the development of stronger materials and by knowledge of how materials behave and how to exploit them to greater advantage. A third major trend involves the degree of control exercised over the interior environment of buildings: increasingly precise regulation of air temperature, light and sound levels, humidity , odours, air speed, and other factors that affect human comfort has been possible. Yet another trend is the change in energy available to the construction process, starting with human muscle power and developing toward the powerful machinery used today.
The present state of construction is complex. There is a wide range of building products and systems which are aimed primarily at groups of building types or markets. The design process for buildings is highly organized and draws upon research establishments that study material properties and performance, code officials who adopt and enforce safety standards, and design professionals who determine user needs and design a building to meet those needs.
The construction process is also highly organized; it includes the manufacturers of building products and systems, the craftsmen who assemble them on the building site, the contractors who employ and coordinate the work of the craftsmen, and consultants who specialize in such aspects as construction management, quality control, and insurance.
Construction today is a significant part of industrial culture , a manifestation of its diversity and complexity and a measure of its mastery of natural forces, which can produce a widely varied built environment to serve the diverse needs of society.
This article first traces the history of construction, then surveys its development at the present time. For treatment of the aesthetic considerations of building design, see architecture.
For further treatment of historical development, see art and architecture, Anatolian ; art and architecture, Arabian ; art and architecture, Egyptian ; art and architecture, Iranian ; art and architecture, Mesopotamian ; art and architecture, Syro-Palestinian ; architecture, African ; art and architecture, Oceanic ; architecture, Western ; arts, Central Asian ; arts, East Asian ; arts, Islamic ; arts, Native American ; arts, South Asian ; arts, Southeast Asian.
The hunter-gatherers of the late Stone Age, who moved about a wide area in search of food, built the earliest temporary shelters that appear in the archaeological record.
Excavations at a number of sites in Europe dated to before 12, bce show circular rings of stones that are believed to have formed part of such shelters. They may have braced crude huts made of wooden poles or have weighted down the walls of tents made of animal skins, presumably supported by central poles. A tent illustrates the basic elements of environmental control that are the concern of construction. The tent creates a membrane to shed rain and snow; cold water on the human skin absorbs body heat.
The membrane reduces wind speed as well; air over the human skin also promotes heat loss. It controls heat transfer by keeping out the hot rays of the sun and confining heated air in cold weather. It also blocks out light and provides visual privacy. The membrane must be supported against the forces of gravity and wind; a structure is necessary. Membranes of hides are strong in tension stresses imposed by stretching forces , but poles must be added to take compression stresses imposed by compacting forces.
Indeed, much of the history of construction is the search for more sophisticated solutions to the same basic problems that the tent was set out to solve. The tent has continued in use to the present. The agricultural revolution , dated to about 10, bce , gave a major impetus to construction. People no longer traveled in search of game or followed their herds but stayed in one place to tend their fields.
Dwellings began to be more permanent. Archaeological records are scanty, but in the Middle East are found the remains of whole villages of round dwellings called tholoi , whose walls are made of packed clay ; all traces of roofs have disappeared.
In Europe tholoi were built of dry-laid stone with domed roofs; there are still surviving examples of more recent construction of these beehive structures in the Alps. In later Middle Eastern tholoi a rectangular antechamber or entrance hall appeared, attached to the main circular chamber—the first examples of the rectangular plan form in building.
Still later the circular form was dropped in favour of the rectangle as dwellings were divided into more rooms and more dwellings were placed together in settlements. The tholoi marked an important step in the search for durability; they were the beginning of masonry construction.
Evidence of composite construction of clay and wood , the so-called wattle-and-daub method, is also found in Europe and the Middle East. The walls were made of small saplings or reeds, which were easy to cut with stone tools. They were driven into the ground, tied together laterally with vegetable fibres, and then plastered over with wet clay to give added rigidity and weatherproofing.
The roofs have not survived, but the structures were probably covered with crude thatch or bundled reeds. Both round and rectangular forms are found, usually with central hearths. Heavier timber buildings also appeared in Neolithic New Stone Age cultures , although the difficulties of cutting large trees with stone tools limited the use of sizable timbers to frames.
These frames were usually rectangular in plan, with a central row of columns to support a ridgepole and matching rows of columns along the long walls; rafters were run from the ridgepole to the wall beams. The lateral stability of the frame was achieved by burying the columns deep in the ground; the ridgepole and rafters were then tied to the columns with vegetable fibres. The usual roofing material was thatch : dried grasses or reeds tied together in small bundles, which in turn were tied in an overlapping pattern to the light wooden poles that spanned between the rafters.
Horizontal thatched roofs leak rain badly, but, if they are placed at the proper angle, the rainwater runs off before it has time to soak through. Primitive builders soon determined the roof pitch that would shed the water but not the thatch. Many types of infill were used in the walls of these frame houses, including clay, wattle and daub , tree bark favoured by American Woodland Indians , and thatch. In Polynesia and Indonesia , where such houses are still built, they are raised above the ground on stilts for security and dryness; the roofing is often made of leaves and the walls are largely open to allow air movement for natural cooling.
Another variation of the frame was found in Egypt and the Middle East, where timbers were substituted for bundles of reeds. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Construction building. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Buildings, like all economic products, command a range of unit prices based on their cost of production and their value to the consumer. In aggregate , the total annual value of building construction in the various national economies is substantial. In in the United States , for example, it was about 10 percent of the gross domestic product , a proportion that is roughly applicable for the world economy as a whole.
The professionals at our factories are qualified in their fields, whether that be welding, assembling, surface treatment or coating. We have a strict quality control system, which ensures the safety, quality and efficiency of our production. Read more about our frame production plants Read more about certifications and declarations. The new headquarters of financial services group DnB NOR in downtown Oslo, has an exceptional appearance as a result of their honeycombed and multi-portal structures. A steel frame enables the construction of versatile premises that blend architecturally into the cityscape.
Design and build frame contracting
These buildings are typically used for workshops, factories, industrial and distribution warehouses and retail and leisure. Whilst most single-storey buildings are relatively straightforward building projects, increasing levels of specialisation by steelwork contractors and other supply chain members have, in recent years, led to huge improvements in quality, cost and delivery performance of single storey steel buildings. These improvements have been achieved through increasingly efficient use of the portal frame by design-and-build steelwork contractors, improved project planning , and active supply chain management by main contractors. This article deals specifically with single storey industrial buildings. Single storey buildings in other sectors are addressed in other articles, e. Snetterton Renewable Energy Centre, Norfolk. Dublin Waste to Energy project.
Modern building practices
Она совершила судорожный рывок влево и вроде бы закружилась в воздухе, а затем снова прильнула к центру лестницы. Халохот сделал стремительный прыжок. Вот. На ступенях прямо перед Халохотом сверкнул какой-то металлический предмет. Он вылетел из-за поворота на уровне лодыжек подобно рапире фехтовальщика.
Мы уж думали, вы все погибли. Сьюзан посмотрела на него отсутствующим взглядом.
Попытка переделать Цифровую крепость - дело серьезное и хлопотное. Я не хотел тебя впутывать. - Я… понимаю, - тихо сказала она, все еще находясь под впечатлением его блистательного замысла.
Да, - сказала девушка. - Я до чертиков боюсь прокалывать уши. ГЛАВА 70 Дэвид Беккер почувствовал, что у него подкашиваются ноги. Он смотрел на девушку, понимая, что его поиски подошли к концу.
Конечно, чтобы придать своему плану правдоподобность, Танкадо использовал тайный адрес… тайный ровно в той мере, чтобы никто не заподозрил обмана.
Он сам был своим партнером. Никакой Северной Дакоты нет и в помине. Энсей Танкадо - единственный исполнитель в этом шоу. Единственный исполнитель.
Нет! - взорвался Джабба. - Это плохо. Это очень и очень плохо. - Спокойствие, - потребовал Фонтейн. - На какие же параметры нацелен этот червь.
- Итак, если Танкадо хотел, чтобы мы обнаружили его почту, зачем ему понадобился секретный адрес. Сьюзан снова задумалась. - Может быть, для того, чтобы вы не заподозрили, что это приманка.
Может быть, Танкадо защитил его ровно настолько, чтобы вы на него наткнулись и сочли, что вам очень повезло.
Агент, сидевший за рулем, повернув голову, бросил через плечо: - Есть какие-нибудь следы нашего человека. Глаза его партнера не отрывались от картинки на большом мониторе, установленном под крышей мини-автобуса. - Никаких.
- У ТРАНСТЕКСТА есть автоматический выключатель. В случае перегрева он выключится без чьей-либо помощи. - Вы сумасшедший, - с презрением в голосе ответил Хейл.
Он вспомнил факультетские заседания, лекции - все то, что заполняло девяносто процентов его жизни.
Пассажир в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, вглядевшись сквозь стеклянную стену аэровокзала, понял, что прибыл вовремя. Он увидел светловолосую девушку, помогающую Дэвиду Беккеру найти стул и сесть. Беккера, по-видимому, мучила боль. Он еще не знает, что такое настоящая боль, подумал человек в такси.
Девушка вытащила из кармана какой-то маленький предмет и протянула его Беккеру.
Ну, на самом деле. Все было совсем не. - Да вы не стесняйтесь, сеньор. Мы служба сопровождения, нас нечего стесняться. Красивые девушки, спутницы для обеда и приемов и все такое прочее. Кто дал вам наш номер. Уверен, наш постоянный клиент.
- Быть может, он не знал, что бомбы были одинаковые. - Нет! - отрезала Сьюзан. - Он стал калекой из-за этих бомб.