Production industrial flour confectionery
Confectionery is the art of making confections , which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exact definitions are difficult. Bakers' confectionery, also called flour confections , includes principally sweet pastries, cakes, and similar baked goods. Sugar confectionery includes candies usually called sweets in British English , candied nuts, chocolates, chewing gum, bubble gum, pastillage , and other confections that are made primarily of sugar. In some cases, chocolate confections confections made of chocolate are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How It's Made: Bread
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Contents - Previous - Next. The flour produced from the cassava plant, which on account of its low content of noncarbohydrate constituents might well be called a starch, is known in world trade as tapioca flour. It is used directly, made into a group of baked or gelatinized products or manufactured into glucose, dextrins and other products. Starchy foods have always been one of the staples of the human diet.
They are mostly consumed in starch-bearing plants or in foods to which commercial starch or its derivatives have been added. The first starch was probably obtained from wheat by the Egyptians for food and for binding fibres to make papyrus paper as early as B. Starches are now made in many countries from many different starchy raw materials, such as wheat, barley, maize, rice, white or sweet potatoes, cassava, sago palm and waxy xaize.
Althbugh they have similar chemical reactions and are usually interchangeable, starches from different sources have different granular structures which affect their physical properties. Starch and starch products are used in many food and nonfood industries and as chemical raw materials for many other purposes, as in plastics and the tanning of leather.
Nonfood use of starches - such as coating, sizings and adhesives - accounts for about 75 percent of the output of the commercial starch industry. In many industrial applications, there is competition not only among starches from various sources but also between starches and many other products. Resin glue has largely replaced starch in plywood because of its greater resistance to moisture; resin finishes are used in the textile industry and natural gums compete with starches in paper making.
Nevertheless, the continuous development of new products has enabled the starch industry to continue its expansion. The growth of the starch industry in the future appears to be very promising, providing the quality of products and the development of new products permit them to compete with the various substitutes.
The food industries are one of the largest consumers of starch and starch products. In addition, large quantities of starch are sold in the form of products sold in small packages for household cooking. Cassava, sago and other tropical starches were extensively used for food prior to the Second World War, but their volume declined owing to the disruption of world trade caused by the war.
Attempts were made to develop waxy maize as a replacement for normal noncereal starches; but the production of cassava starch has increased considerably in recent years. Unmodified starch, modified starch and glucose are used in the food industry for one or more of the following purposes:.
Although starch is the major constituent of flours, the art of' bread baking depends to a large extent on the selection of flour with the proper gluten characteristics. Starch is used in biscuit making, to increase volume and crispness. In Malaysia, cassava starch is used in sweetened and unsweetened biscuits and in cream sandwiches at the rate of percent in order to soften zyestexture.
The use of dextrose in some kinds of yeast-raised bread and bakery products has certain advantages as it is readily available lo the yeast and the resulting fermentation is quick and complete. It also imparts a golden brown colour to the crust and permits longer conservation.
In addition to the widespread use of dextrose and glucose syrup as sweetening agents in confectioneries. In confectioneries. Dextrose prevents crystallization in boiled sweets and reduces hvdroscopicity in the finished product. Recent advances in these industries include the partial replacement of sucrose by dextrose or sulfur-dioxide-free glucose syrup. This helps to maintain the desired percentage of solids in the products without giving excessive sweetness, thereby emphasizing the natural flavour of the fruit.
The tendency toward crystallization of sugars is also decreased. This product is used extensively in many parts of the world in powder or crystal form as a flavouring agent in foods such as meats, vegetables, sauces and gravies. The starch is usually hydrolyzed into glucose by boiling with hydrochloric or sulfuric acid solutions in closed converters under pressure. The glucose is filtered and converted into glutamic acid by bacterial fermentation.
The resulting glutamic acid is refined, filtered and treated with caustic soda to produce monosodium glutamate, which is then centrifuged and dried in drum driers.
The finished product is usually at least 99 percent pure. Caramel as a colouring agent for food, confectionery and liquor is extensively made of glucose rather than sucrose because of its lower cost. If invert sugar, dextrose or glucose is heated alone, a material is formed that is used for flavouring purposes; but if heated in the presence of certain catalysts, the coloration is greatly heightened, and the darker brown products formed can be used to colour many foodstuffs and beverages.
Uniform and controlled heating with uniform agitation is necessary to carry the caramellization to the point where all the sugar has been destroyed without liberating the carbon. In Kirchoff discovered that sugar could be produced by the acid hydrolysis of starch.
Glucose, or dextrose sugar, is found in nature in sweet fruits such as grapes and in honey. It is less sweet than sucrose cane or beet sugar and also less soluble in water; however, when used in combination with sucrose, the resulting sweetness is often greater than expected.
The commercial manufacture of glucose sugars from starch began during the Napoleonic Wars with England, when suppliers of sucrose sugar were cut off from France by sea blockade. Rapid progress was made in its production in the United States about the middle of the nineteenth century. At present, glucose is usually produced as a syrup or as a solid. The physical properties of the syrup vary with the dextrose equivalent DE and the method of manufacture.
Dextrose equivalent is the total reducing sugars expressed as dextrose and calculated as a percentage of the total dry substance. Glucose is the common name for the syrup and dextrose for the solid sugar. Dextrose, sometimes called grape sugar, is the D-glucose produced by the complete hydrolysis of starch.
Two methods for starch hydrolysis are used today for the commercial production of glucose: acid hydrolysis and partial acid hydrolysis followed by an enzyme conversion.
Acidification is the conversion of starch into glucose sugar by acid hydrolysis. This operation is carried out in batches or a continuous process. The continuous process, which is replacing the batch process, involves feeding the mixture of starch slurry and hydrochloric acid into a tubular heat-exchanger.
The time and temperature of the process are adjusted to the desired DE in the end product. In the next step, neutralization, the acidified mixture is neutralized with sodium carbonate or soda ash to remove the free acid and bring the pH value to 5. Sodium chloride is formed in the syrup in small quantities as a result of the neutralization of the hydrochloric acid by the sodium carbonate and remains in solution.
Refining follows. Some solids - impurities, precipitated protein and coagulated fat - can be removed by centrifugal separation. Impurities will depend largely on the starch used and its purity. The solution is then passed through filters filter presses or candle-type ceramic filters. The clear brown filtrate is decolourized by passing it through tanks of activated carbon, which removes colours and other impurities from the solution by surface adsorption but has no effect on the sugar.
Refining can be done by ion-change resins instead of activated carbon or combined with it. A recent development is to refine the converted liquor by electrodialysis, and the final glucose syrup is very superior. Concentration is the final step. Glucose syrup is transported in drums or in bulk road or rail tanks.
It should not be stored in large quantities for long periods of time because its colour may deteriorate. In the acid-enzyme process the starch slurry is treated by acidification, neutralization and filtration as in the acid hydrolysis process and then is fed into the enzyme converter. The temperature and pH are adjusted to the optimum conditions and the enzyme is added with slow agitation.
The time of conversion depends on the initial dextrose equivalent obtained by acid hydrolysis, the type and strength of the enzyme and the final DE required. After the conversion has been completed, the enzyme is rendered inactive by raising the temperature and adjusting the pH, and the converted syrup is then refeed and concentrated in the same manner as in the acid-converted glucose syrup.
The use of certain enzymes results in DE values as high as which means a higher yield of dextrose from starch, or nearly complete conversion of starch into dextrose. When acid is used as the hydrolyzing agent, the DE of the conversion liquor, however, reaches only about 92 because a certain degree of polycondensation takes place and some of the yield of dextrose is lost owing to the acidity and high temperatures required for the conversion. At present most of the dextrose in commerce is prepared in the form of pure dextrose monohydrate by a combined acid-enzyme process.
The hot, thick glucose syrup with a concentration of percent dextrose is run from the evaporator into crystallizing pans. Crystal formation is largely controlled by the quantity of dextrins left with the glucose.
The separation of crystals from the syrup is carried out in centrifugal separators and the impurities are left in the mother liquor. Crystalline dextrose is then dried in rotary hot-air driers under vacuum and bagged in moisture-proof materials. Recrystallization of dextrose will yield practically percent pure dextrose crystals which are used as a pharmaceutical-grade sugar.
The starch used in the manufacture of glucose syrup must be as pure as possible with a low protein content particularly soluble protein. In this respect, cassava starch can be preferable to other starches.
There is an increasing interest in manufacturing glucose syrup directly from starchy roots or grains rather than from the separated starch in order to save on capital investments for the production and purification of starch from such raw materials.
The starch conversion industry glucose and dextrose is the largest single consumer of starch, utilizing about 60 percent of total starch production. Glucose syrup and crystalline dextrose compete with sucrose sugar and are used in large quantities in fruit canning, confectioneries, jams, jellies, preserves, ice cream, bakery products, pharmaceuticals, beverages and alcoholic fermentation.
The functional purpose of glucose and dextrose in the confectionery industry is to prevent crystallization of the sucrose; in the bakery products industry it is to supply fermentable carbohydrates; and in the ice-cream, fruit-preserves and similar industries it is to increase the solids without causing an undue increase in the total sweetness, thus emphasizing the natural flavour of the fruit, and also to prevent the formation of large ice crystals which mar the smooth texture.
In general, glucose and dextrose are used in the food industry as a partial or complete substitute for sucrose. The use of dextrose has increased in recent years in the food-processing industries. In many developing countries bread consumption is continually expanding and there is increasing dependence on imported wheat.
Most of these countries, however, grow staples other than wheat that can be used for bread. Some grow various starchy tubers such as cassava, yam or sweet potatoes and some others grow cereals such as maize, millet or sorghum. It would therefore be economically advantageous for those countries if imports of wheat could be reduced or even eliminated and the demand for bread could be met by the use of domestically grown products instead of wheat.
The Composite Flour Programme initiated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in was conceived primarily to develop bakery products from locally available raw materials, particularly in those countries which could not meet their wheat requirements. Although the bakery products obtained were of good quality, similar in some of their main characteristics to wheat-flour bread, the texture and palatability of the composite-flour bakery products were different from those made from wheat flour.
Bread made of nonglutenous flour has the crust and crumb structure of cake rather than bread and may not be considered acceptable by people who are accustomed to conventional bread.
The light, evenly structured bread made of wheat flour and the characteristic soft crumb are due to the swelling properties of wheat-flour gluten in water. If pure starch from another cereal or tuber is used, the product is considerably more rigid and its texture is irregular because gases are insufficiently retained in the dough.
Therefore, when starches that do not contain gluten-forming proteins are used, a swelling or binding agent must be added during the preparation of the dough to bind the starch granules i. Efforts have been made in many countries to produce bread by conventional methods from wheat flour to which other flours such as cassava flour were added.
It was generally found that the upper limit of such an addition was about 10 percent as the quality of the resultant bread was rapidly impaired beyond this limit of nonwheat flour content. However, recent experiments have shown that it is possible to increase the level of the nonwheat flour considerably without too great a change in the bread characteristics, provided certain bread improvers such as calcium stearyl lactylate are added or a relatively high percentage of fat and sugar is used.
Bread of acceptable quality was obtained by the use of 30 percent of either cassava or corn maize starch and 70 percent wheat noun.
Solutions for the confectionery and baking industry, grain processing, pasta production
From February , an exhibition will be held in Moscow, where confectionery raw materials will be presented. These days, you can master the updated lines for the pastry chef and choose for yourself a suitable supplier of confectionery raw materials. Technologists are always on the lookout for and consider the raw materials for bakery production, due to which they can surprise their customers by improving the features of the invented cookies. The popularity of the master and the demand for his masterpieces will depend on the recipe being created.
The instructions set out the technological modes of production for each group and subgroup of products, taking into account the equipment of enterprises with technological equipment. The technological production scheme for each group and sub-groups of products are presented in the following form. Biscuit This type of product includes flour confectionery of various shapes, with low humidity and a significant amount of sugar and fat. There are two types of cookies - sugar and lingering. Sugar cookies - brittle and porous are made from plastic, easy-to-roll dough.
Flour Confectionery Manufacture
Over the past period, the laboratory in the baking industry on the basis of semi-finished products from melons watermelons, melon, pumpkin, squash developed 4 technologies, 8 recipes and 2 recommendations for bread, bakery and pasta. Based on composite mixtures of grain cereals wheat, rye, corn, buckwheat and soybeans: developed 2 technologies, 11 recipes and 1 recommendation for bakery and pasta. Developed preparation technologies: long cookies with use of an enzyme preparation 1 recommendation ; sugar cookies with use of an emulsifier 1 recommendation for improvement of quality of products, production tests are carried out. Developed technological instructions for crispy bread. Clinical studies of the drink "Folium Vit", developed 15 technological instructions, 29 formulations and 6 recommendations. Production technology of hearth bread "Almurt-Nan", "Shyrganak-Nan", pan bread "Teralmurt-Nan", national cake "Shyryndy" and "Saibysdy", 1 form of elbow product from wheat flour using composite mixtures of vegetable raw materials pear, sea buckthorn, Jerusalem artichoke, sea buckthorn, carrot. The technology of using fruit and berries sea buckthorn, apple, apricots and medicinal raw materials for production of confectionery products sugar cookies "Alma" and "Kunsary" raw carrots "Shyryn", "Nagyz". A complex improver for the production of bakery products Complex bread improver has been developed.
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The Secret of Success
Electric Flour Sieve Electric Sieve designed for sifting, cleaning, and aeration the flour that results to high quality of bread because air incorporation in the flour would be caused to better fermentation and long lasting of bread. Dough Bowl The company provides various types of Dough Bowl as per requirements of the customers, available in different sizes and shapes. These Bowls are equipped with wheeled stands for keeping and carrying dough. It is best place for resting dough outside the mixer.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How Its Made: Flour
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Contents - Previous - Next. The flour produced from the cassava plant, which on account of its low content of noncarbohydrate constituents might well be called a starch, is known in world trade as tapioca flour. It is used directly, made into a group of baked or gelatinized products or manufactured into glucose, dextrins and other products.
Flour is a finely ground powder prepared from grain or other starchy plant foods and used in baking. Although flour can be made from a wide variety of plants, the vast majority is made from wheat. Dough made from wheat flour is particularly well suited to baking bread because it contains a large amount of gluten, a substance composed of strong, elastic proteins.
The principles of baking bread have been established for thousands of years. The basic ingredients are flour, yeast, salt and water. BFP is a traditional method. Ingredients are mixed together to form a dough and left to ferment for up to three hours.
Взрывной волной Сьюзан внесло в кабинет Стратмора, и последним, что ей запомнилось, был обжигающий жар. ГЛАВА 106 К окну комнаты заседаний при кабинете директора, расположенной высоко над куполом шифровалки, прильнули три головы. От раздавшегося взрыва содрогнулся весь комплекс Агентства национальной безопасности. Лиланд Фонтейн, Чед Бринкерхофф и Мидж Милкен в безмолвном ужасе смотрели на открывшуюся их глазам картину.
Тридцатью метрами ниже горел купол шифровалки. Поликарбонатная крыша еще была цела, но под ее прозрачной оболочкой бушевало пламя.
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