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Production product means of mechanization and automation of managerial and engineering work

Production product means of mechanization and automation of managerial and engineering work

Automation, robotics, algorithms and artificial intelligence AI in recent times have shown they can do equal or sometimes even better work than humans who are dermatologists , insurance claims adjusters , lawyers , seismic testers in oil fields , sports journalists and financial reporters , crew members on guided-missile destroyers , hiring managers , psychological testers , retail salespeople , and border patrol agents. Moreover, there is growing anxiety that technology developments on the near horizon will crush the jobs of the millions who drive cars and trucks, analyze medical tests and data , perform middle management chores , dispense medicine , trade stocks and evaluate markets , fight on battlefields , perform government functions , and even replace those who program software — that is, the creators of algorithms. People will create the jobs of the future, not simply train for them, and technology is already central. It will undoubtedly play a greater role in the years ahead. Jonathan Grudin.

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Production and Economics in Engineering

Automation, robotics, algorithms and artificial intelligence AI in recent times have shown they can do equal or sometimes even better work than humans who are dermatologists , insurance claims adjusters , lawyers , seismic testers in oil fields , sports journalists and financial reporters , crew members on guided-missile destroyers , hiring managers , psychological testers , retail salespeople , and border patrol agents.

Moreover, there is growing anxiety that technology developments on the near horizon will crush the jobs of the millions who drive cars and trucks, analyze medical tests and data , perform middle management chores , dispense medicine , trade stocks and evaluate markets , fight on battlefields , perform government functions , and even replace those who program software — that is, the creators of algorithms.

People will create the jobs of the future, not simply train for them, and technology is already central. It will undoubtedly play a greater role in the years ahead.

Jonathan Grudin. Multiple studies have documented that massive numbers of jobs are at risk as programmed devices — many of them smart, autonomous systems — continue their march into workplaces. Since that expert canvassing, the future of jobs has been at the top of the agenda at many major conferences globally. Several policy and market-based solutions have been promoted to address the loss of employment and wages forecast by technologists and economists. A key idea emerging from many conversations, including one of the lynchpin discussions at the World Economic Forum in , is that changes in educational and learning environments are necessary to help people stay employable in the labor force of the future.

At the same time, recent IT advances offer new and potentially more widely accessible ways to access education. This survey noted that employment is much higher among jobs that require an average or above-average level of preparation including education, experience and job training ; average or above-average interpersonal, management and communication skills; and higher levels of analytical skills, such as critical thinking and computer skills.

A central question about the future, then, is whether formal and informal learning structures will evolve to meet the changing needs of people who wish to fulfill the workplace expectations of the future. Some 1, responded to the following question, sharing their expectations about what is likely to evolve by In the next 10 years, do you think we will see the emergence of new educational and training programs that can successfully train large numbers of workers in the skills they will need to perform the jobs of the future?

It is important to note that many respondents listed human behaviors, attributes and competencies in describing desirable work skills. A diversifying education and credentialing ecosystem : Most of these experts expect the education marketplace — especially online learning platforms — to continue to change in an effort to accommodate the widespread needs.

Some predict employers will step up their own efforts to train and retrain workers. Many foresee a significant number of self-teaching efforts by jobholders themselves as they take advantage of proliferating online opportunities. Respondents see a new education and training ecosystem emerging in which some job preparation functions are performed by formal educational institutions in fairly traditional classroom settings, some elements are offered online, some are created by for-profit firms, some are free, some exploit augmented and virtual reality elements and gaming sensibilities, and a lot of real-time learning takes place in formats that job seekers pursue on their own.

A considerable number of respondents to this canvassing focused on the likelihood that the best education programs will teach people how to be lifelong learners. Accordingly, some say alternative credentialing mechanisms will arise to assess and vouch for the skills people acquire along the way. A focus on nurturing unique human skills that artificial intelligence AI and machines seem unable to replicate : Many of these experts discussed in their responses the human talents they believe machines and automation may not be able to duplicate, noting that these should be the skills developed and nurtured by education and training programs to prepare people to work successfully alongside AI.

These respondents suggest that workers of the future will learn to deeply cultivate and exploit creativity, collaborative activity, abstract and systems thinking, complex communication, and the ability to thrive in diverse environments. Still others spoke of more practical needs that could help workers in the medium term — to work with data and algorithms, to implement 3-D modeling and work with 3-D printers, or to implement the newly emerging capabilities in artificial intelligence and augmented and virtual reality.

Anonymous scientific editor. About a third of respondents expressed no confidence in training and education evolving quickly enough to match demands by Some of the bleakest answers came from some of the most respected technology analysts. They are also struggling with basic issues like identification of individuals taking the courses.

Several respondents argued that job training is not a primary concern at a time when accelerating change in market economies is creating massive economic divides that seem likely to leave many people behind. Most participants in this canvassing wrote detailed elaborations explaining their positions, though they were allowed to respond anonymously.

Their well-considered comments provide insights about hopeful and concerning trends. These findings do not represent all possible points of view, but they do reveal a wide range of striking observations.

Respondents collectively articulated five major themes that are introduced and briefly explained in the page section below and then expanded upon in more-detailed sections. Some responses are lightly edited for style or due to length. The following section presents a brief overview of the most evident themes extracted from the written responses, including a small selection of representative quotes supporting each point. These experts envision that the next decade will bring a more widely diversified world of education and training options in which various entities design and deliver different services to those who seek to learn.

They expect that some innovation will be aimed at emphasizing the development of human talents that machines cannot match and at helping humans partner with technology. They say some parts of the ecosystem will concentrate on delivering real-time learning to workers, often in formats that are self-taught.

Commonly occurring ideas among the responses in this category are collected below under headings reflecting subthemes. Educators have always found new ways of training the next generation of students for the jobs of the future, and this generation will be no different. Justin Reich. College education which will still favor multi-year, residential education will need to be more focused on teaching students to be lifelong learners, followed by more online content, in situ training, and other such [elements] to increase skills in a rapidly changing information world.

As automation puts increasing numbers of low- and middle-skill workers out of work, these models will also provide for certifications and training needs to function in an increasingly automated service sector. We will also see what might be called on-demand or on-the-job kind of training programs. We kind of have to, as with continued automation, we will need to retrain a large portion of the workforce.

I strongly believe employers will subscribe to this idea wholeheartedly; it increases the overall education of their workforce, which benefits their bottom line. Nevertheless, I am a big believer in the college experience, which I see as a way to learn what you are all about, as a person and in your field of study. The confidence in your own self and your abilities cannot be learned in a short course. It takes life experience, or four years at a tough college. At a good college, you are challenged to be your best — this is very resource-intensive and cannot be scaled at this time.

Our established systems of job training, primarily community colleges and state universities, will continue to play a crucial role, though catastrophically declining public support for these institutions will raise serious challenges. One potential future would be for those universities to abandon the idea that they have faculty teaching their own courses and instead consist entirely of a cadre of less well paid teaching assistants who provide support for the students who are taking courses online.

A few respondents said already established institutions cannot be as fully successful as new initiatives. They take too long to teach impractical skills and knowledge not connected to the real world, and when they try to tackle critical thinking for a longer time scale, they mostly fail. The sprouts of the next generation of learning tools are already visible. Within the decade, the new shoots will overtake the wilting vines, and we will see all sorts of new initiatives, mostly outside these schooling, academic and training institutions, which are mostly beyond repair.

People will shift to them because they work, because they are far less expensive and because they are always available. In the hopefully near future, we will not segregate schooling from work and real-world thinking and development. And, again, the experience of being a student, now confined to grade school, secondary school and university, will expand to include workers, those looking for work, and those who want or need to retrain — as well as what we now think of as conventional education.

Via simulation, gaming, digital presentations — combined with hands-on, real-world experience — learning and re-education will move out of books and into the world. The more likely enhancement will be to take digital enhancements out into the world — again, breaking down the walls of the classroom and school — to inform and enhance experience. Some respondents expressed confidence in the best of current online education and training options, saying online course options are cost-effective, evolving for the better, and game-changing because they are globally accessible.

Already, today there are quite effective online training and education systems, but they are not being implemented to their full potential. Edward Friedman. These applications will become more widely used with familiarity that is gained during the next decade. Also, populations will be more tech-savvy and be able to make use of these systems with greater personal ease. In addition, the development of virtual reality, AI assistants and other technological advances will add to the effectiveness of these systems.

There will be a greater need for such systems as the needs for new expertise in the workforce [increase] and the capacity of traditional education systems proves that it is not capable of meeting the need in a cost-effective manner.

These career changes will require retooling, training and education. The adult learners will not be able to visit physical campuses to access this learning; they will learn online. I anticipate the further development and distribution of holoportation technologies such as those developed by Microsoft using HoloLens for real-time, three-dimensional augmented reality.

These teaching tools will enable highly sophisticated interactions and engagement with students at a distance. They will further fuel the scaling of learning to reach even more massive online classes.

As these tools evolve over the next decade, the academics we work with expect to see radical change in training and workforce development, which will roll into although probably against a longer timeline more traditional institutions of higher learning.

Many respondents said real-world, campus-based higher education will continue to thrive during the next decade. They said a residential university education helps build intangible skills that are not replicable online and thus deepens the skills base of those who can afford to pay for such an education, but they expect that job-specific training will be managed by employers on the job and via novel approaches.

The most important skills to have in life are gained through interpersonal experiences and the liberal arts. Frank Elavsky. Traditional four-year and graduate programs will better prepare people for jobs in the future, as such an education gives people a general understanding and knowledge about their field, and here people learn how to approach new things, ask questions and find answers, deal with new situations, etc.

Special skills for a particular job will be learned on the job. These skills are imperative to focus on, as the future is in danger of losing these skillsets from the workforce.

Many people have gained these skills throughout history without any kind of formal schooling, but with the growing emphasis on virtual and digital mediums of production, education and commerce, people will have less and less exposure to other humans in person and other human perspectives.

But this does not mean that alternative means and paths of learning and accreditation would not be useful as … complementary to the traditional system that has limitations as well. Will training for skills most important in the jobs of the future work well in large-scale settings by ? Respondents in this canvassing overwhelmingly said yes, anticipating that improvements in such education would continue.

However, many believe the most vital skills are not easy to teach, learn or evaluate in any education or training setting available today. These skills, interestingly, are the skills specific to human beings that machines and robots cannot do … Tiffany Shlain. There will be an increasing economic incentive to develop mass training that better unlocks this value. Functions requiring emotional intelligence, empathy, compassion, and creative judgment and discernment will expand and be increasingly valued in our culture.

These skills, interestingly, are the skills specific to human beings that machines and robots cannot do, and you can be taught to strengthen these skills through education. I look forward to seeing innovative live and online programs that can teach these at scale. A mindset of persistence and the necessary passion to succeed are also critical. Some who are pessimistic about the future of human work due to advances in capable AI and robotics mocked the current push in the U.

An anonymous program director for a major U. The jobs of the future will not need large numbers of workers with a fixed set of skills — most things that we can train large numbers of workers for, we will also be able to train computers to do better. Among the many other skills mentioned were: process-oriented and system-oriented thinking; journalistic skills, including research, evaluation of multiple sources, writing and speaking; understanding algorithms, computational thinking , networking and programming; grasping law and policy; an evidence-based way of looking at the world; time management; conflict resolution; decision-making; locating information in the flood of data; storytelling using data; and influencing and consensus building.

This will include open, online learning experiences e. We will identify opportunities to build a digital version of the apprenticeship learning models that have existed in the past. Alternative credentials and digital badges will provide more granular opportunities to document and archive learning over time from traditional and nontraditional learning sources.

Where machines could replace humans—and where they can’t (yet)

NCBI Bookshelf. In , Delmar S. It had been increasingly applied across the US, Europe and Britain throughout the inter-war period in a range of manufacturing contexts, including the production of textiles, cigarettes, the chemical industry and other processes where very large outputs were required. However, in the post-war period, the issue of automation and its impact, not only on the lives of individual industrial workers, but also on the psychosocial foundations of the nation as a whole, became a subject of widespread debate. Contemporary observers noted the speed and extent of change that accompanied the implementation of automated production systems within a host of new industries and raised anxieties about the possible short and long-term effects on health.

Industrial Press Inc. Assembly Automation : A Management Handbook.

Industrial automation is the use of control systems, such as computers or robots, and information technologies for handling different processes and machineries in an industry to replace a human being. It is the second step beyond mechanization in the scope of industrialization. Earlier the purpose of automation was to increase productivity since automated systems can work 24 hours a day , and to reduce the cost associated with human operators i. However, today, the focus of automation has shifted to increasing quality and flexibility in a manufacturing process.

TYPES OF AUTOMATION - Production and Operations Management

Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since As automation technologies such as machine learning and robotics play an increasingly great role in everyday life, their potential effect on the workplace has, unsurprisingly, become a major focus of research and public concern. In fact, as our research has begun to show, the story is more nuanced. While automation will eliminate very few occupations entirely in the next decade, it will affect portions of almost all jobs to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the type of work they entail. Automation, now going beyond routine manufacturing activities, has the potential, as least with regard to its technical feasibility, to transform sectors such as healthcare and finance, which involve a substantial share of knowledge work. These conclusions rest on our detailed analysis of 2,plus work activities for more than occupations. The full results, forthcoming in early , will include several other countries, 1 1. Last year, we showed that currently demonstrated technologies could automate 45 percent of the activities people are paid to perform and that about 60 percent of all occupations could see 30 percent or more of their constituent activities automated, again with technologies available today. In this article, we examine the technical feasibility, using currently demonstrated technologies, of automating three groups of occupational activities: those that are highly susceptible, less susceptible, and least susceptible to automation.

What is Industrial Automation?

Mechanization is used to achieve high volume, detailed organization of material flow, careful control of quality standards, and division of labor. Labor costs are often lower for mass-produced products. This cost savings is from the automated assembly line production processes requiring fewer workers. Further, assembly of mass-produced products is at a quicker rate due to increased automation and efficiency. This rapid assembly aids the prompt distribution and marketing of an organization's products with the potential to create a competitive advantage and higher profits.

Automation , the application of machines to tasks once performed by human beings or, increasingly, to tasks that would otherwise be impossible.

Graduates of the Bachelor's degree programme are professionally well prepared to tackle specified problems in practice. They will be able to address challenges of technological and metrological nature, tasks related to the choice of material and its processing, operation, quality management, energetics, standardization, economics, management, ecology, work safety. The structure of the programme allows students to gain the basics of theoretical disciplines within the so-called Basic studies which are a necessary starting point for continuing professional studies.

The Future of Jobs and Jobs Training

Operations Management. Peter Jones , Peter Robinson. Oxford University Press , 18 thg 12, - trang. See - Understand - Discuss - PracticeOperations Management makes it easy to:- identify the relevance of operations in the real-world;- understand the theory underlying the subject;- discuss and think critically about operations;- consolidate learning through practice.

Mechanization is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery. In an early engineering text a machine is defined as follows:. Every machine is constructed for the purpose of performing certain mechanical operations, each of which supposes the existence of two other things besides the machine in question, namely, a moving power, and an object subject to the operation, which may be termed the work to be done. Machines, in fact, are interposed between the power and the work, for the purpose of adapting the one to the other. In some fields, mechanization includes the use of hand tools.

Advantages and disadvantages of automation

The operations in the sequence are usually simple. It is the integration and coordination of many such operations into one piece of equipment that makes the system complex. The typical features of fixed automation are:. The economic justification for fixed automation is found in products with very high demand rates and volumes. The high initial cost of the equipment can be spread over a very large number of units, thus making the unit cost attractive compared to alternative methods of production. Examples of fixed automation include mechanized assembly and machining transfer lines.

The goal of operations management is effective and efficient use of resources The compelling need for technology and automation is partly the result of cost effective production systems and operations (Garsombke and Garsombke, ). of a new technology, which may take the form of a product, process or service.

In order to retain a certain level of production in Norway, suppliers to the Norwegian maritime industry need to lower their production costs. Automation is generally an effective way of achieving this in standardized high-volume, low variety production. However, manufacturing companies in the Norwegian maritime industry typically supply capital-intensive, advanced and customized products in low volumes. In this engineer-to-order production situation, manual labor is traditionally preferred over automation. Nonetheless, such companies increasingly automate parts of their production.

Implications of automation in engineer-to-order production: a case study

This volume of selected articles is being released in light of the new economic, social and environmental challenges Europe and the United States have been faced with following the end of the Cold War and in the evolving era of globalization. National security, immigration and the provision of health and other key social services call for a radically different outlook in terms of policy discussions. The contributors of this book focus on seven key policy issues and challenges that currently affect the United States and Europe: income distribution, the gender pay gap, crime and security, unemployment, health care, the demographic question and environmental regulation.

Where machines could replace humans—and where they can’t (yet)

At Productivity, we know that change can often be overwhelming and frightening. Our experts are here to prove that there are a multitude of benefits when you upgrade to automation. Click here to download PDF.

Advantages commonly attributed to automation include higher production rates and increased productivity, more efficient use of materials, better product quality, improved safety , shorter workweeks for labour, and reduced factory lead times. Higher output and increased productivity have been two of the biggest reasons in justifying the use of automation.

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Mechanization

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  1. Dair

    This information is not true