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Space fabrication the equipment is cryogenic, compressor, refrigeration, autogenous, gas purificatio

Space fabrication the equipment is cryogenic, compressor, refrigeration, autogenous, gas purificatio

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Increased Reliability with the Panasonic VIP Series Ultra-Low Freezer Dual Compressor

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. III Survey of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space This chapter provides the essential foundation for subsequent discussion of microgravity phenomena and the determination of related research needs important for HEDS.

That foundation consists of rather detailed descrip- tions and assessments of the various technologies that seem most important for HEDS systems. In the committee's view, these are the types of technologies that must operate reliably and efficiently in the various space environ- ments of interest. Two important considerations were involved in the selection of technologies for discussion. First, it was clear that this report could not usefully embark on studies of systems and mission architectures, with their specific design problems, based on premature mission assumptions.

Secondly, the range of technologies identified needed to be broad enough to cover reasonable possibilities for incorporation into future systems but did not have to cover all conceivable possibilities. Therefore, this report emphasizes technologies that have a wide range of potential applications and that are expected to be significantly influenced by gravity level.

In this chapter, the technologies selected for discussion are grouped according to their probable functions in the HEDS program. Since some are quite well developed already, while others exist only as concepts, the level of detail varies considerably.

Systems to serve HEDS functions are identified first, followed by their components or subsystems. Especially at the subsystem level, microgravity concerns are identified and summarized in a table for each function.

Tables III. However, the phenomena are not treated in detail, nor are relevant research issues described. Rather, in Chapter IV, the identified microgravity concerns are related to physical phenomena, and physical research areas are identified that may provide the knowledge base needed to design systems and components that will be reliable and effective in the microgravity environments of interest.

Advanced, high-efficiency power generation and storage will be required for deep-space missions, lunar and planetary bases, and extended human exploration. Because the electrical power technology requirements for spacecraft are similar to the requirements for the extended human occupation of the Moon or Mars when energy demand is not constant they are discussed together.

Space propulsion is, of course, the dominant and limiting power-generation requirement for HEDS. However, due to the wide range of systems that must be considered, propulsion is discussed separately in Section III. Many of the means of power generation applicable to spacecraft and station power discussed in this section are also applicable to propulsion. For the purpose of the present discussion, the primary energy sources for conversion to electrical power on a spacecraft are the following: 1 solar radiation, 2 chemical and electrochemical, and 3 nuclear radioisotope thermoelectric generators RTGs , dynamic isotope power DIP sources and fission and fusion power.

The choice of energy source and power-generation system and subsystem is dictated largely by the mission require- ments. These energy sources can be utilized in open or closed thermodynamic systems. A closed-cycle system is one in which a working fluid is heated, does work, and is recycled Figure III. The electric power generated requires a power management and distribution system that includes regulators, converters, control circuits, etc. Figure III. Energy storage devices may also be required, since some energy sources e.

Small versus large power needs and autonomous versus manual control are additional factors. The fact that electrical power generation and onboard propulsion subsystems can account for one-half to three-fourths of the mass of the typical Earth-orbiting satellite or planetary spacecraft provides the motivation to reduce their mass, which would allow more of the spacecraft's mass to be devoted to payload.

The desire to reduce costs and maintain reliable performance has led to the consideration of both some old and some new technologies for electric power generation; these technologies are reviewed and discussed in detail in Brandhorst et al.

For a Brayton cycle, the heat source is a heat exchanger where heat from the source is added to the working gas, and the heat sink is also a heat exchanger i. For a Rankine cycle, the heat source is a boiler where the working fluid is boiled, and the heat sink is a heat exchanger i. Because fluid flow and transport phenomena are affected by gravity, a full understanding of the phenomena is needed for the design of the systems and for their safe and efficient operation in microgravity or reduced-gravity environments.

In the literature Bennett, the former is referred to as static and the latter as dynamic. The solar cell arrays used on most spacecraft usually consist of a large number of cells that convert a fraction of the solar radiation incident on them to electricity by means of the photoelectric effect.

On the recent Mars Pathfinder mission, the lander, the Sojourner, and the cruise system were all powered by gallium-arsenide solar cells. Recent discussions of the advances in solar cell technology are available Landis et al. The former method simply requires thermoelectric elements placed at the focus of a concentrator. While simple to construct, the power density is low and the system has not been used by NASA to power a spacecraft.

Moreover, solar power will be of limited value for deep-space missions and may be unreliable at extraterrestrial sites, e. Indeed the use of photovoltaic solar cell arrays will be restricted to spacecraft that do not travel beyond the Mars orbit. This is the case primarily because the solar irradiation insolation decreases as a square of the distance from the Sun. The need for moving components and the reliability of parts of solar dynamic systems are some of the viability issues that have not yet been addressed.

The energy collected can then be stored in a thermal energy storage device for use when insolation is not available. The component technologies for active power conversion for both the Brayton and Rankine cycles are fully mature. However, waste heat rejection in Brayton and Rankine thermodynamic power-generation cycles is of major concern, because space radiators represent a significant portion of the weight of the system.

NASA's Glenn Research Center has performed the first full-scale demonstration of a complete space-configured 2-kW solar active system based on the Brayton cycle in a relevant space environment. In summary, solar power systems may not be feasible for many deep-space missions, lunar and planetary bases, and extended human exploration missions or for powering high-thrust, high-efficiency propulsion systems NRC, Chemical Power Systems Power systems based on chemical energy sources include batteries and fuel cells.

Storable chemical reactants e. Considerable technology relevant to this application is available from the Apollo program. The principal unknown in using chemical reactants to produce electric power is the ability of the spacecraft systems to tolerate the effects of any chemical effluents that are released.

Although chemical energy sources appear attractive because they offer rapid response, as Figure III. Also, as can be seen from Figure III.

Stored chemical energy could be used to meet short-duration peak or emergency power demand, but for long-duration missions, solar or nuclear energy sources with energy conversion technologies based on a Brayton or Rankine cycle power-generation system would be the most suitable.

In a typical fuel cell, gaseous fuels are fed continuously to the anode negative electrode compartment and an oxidant, e. The electrochemical reactions take place at the electrodes to produce an electric direct current. The fuel cell theoretically has the capability of producing electrical energy for as long as the fuel and oxidant are fed to the electrodes. In reality, degradation or malfunction of components limits the practical operating life of fuel cells.

Besides directly producing electricity and having the capacity to serve as energy storage devices, fuel cells also produce heat and water. The heat can be utilized effectively for the generation of additional electricity or for other purposes, depending on the temperature. A practical consideration for fuel cells is their compatibility with the available fuels and oxidants. For HEDS missions, at least four applications of fuel cells are possible: 1 electric power generation in a space vehicle or at an extraterrestrial site, 2 surface transport on Mars or the Moon, 3 production of oxygen O2 from carbon dioxide CO2 on Mars, and 4 production of potable water for life support.

One of the main attractive features of fuel cell systems is the expected high fuel-to-electricity efficiency and the fact that they can also be used as storage devices. This efficiency, which runs from 40 to 60 percent based on. Courtesy of Gary L. Bennett, Metaspace Enterprises. In addition, high-temperature fuel cells produce high-grade heat, which is available for cogeneration applications. Because fuel cells operate at near-constant efficiency, independent of size, small fuel cells are nearly as efficient as large ones.

Thus, fuel cell power plants can be configured in a wide range of electrical power levels from watts to megawatts. Fuel cells are quiet and operate with virtually no noxious emissions, but they are sensitive to certain fuel contaminants, e. Thus, the contaminants must be minimized in the fuel gas. The physicochemical and thermomechanical properties of materials used for the cell components e.

The properties of the electrolyte are especially important. The operating temperature of high-temperature fuel cells is determined by the melting point for MCFCs or the ionic-conductivity requirements for SOFCs of the electrolyte. The operating temperature dictates the type of fuel that can be utilized. Interfacial and transport flow, heat, mass, charge phenomena in the membranes porous media under reduced or microgravity conditions are also important issues in the design and safe operation of fuel cell systems.

Since sustained fusion has not yet been demonstrated in a laboratory and no reactors are likely to be available even for terrestrial applications until well into the twenty-first century, this type of nuclear reactor is not considered. Suffice it to summarize that since , the United States has flown 44 radioisotope thermoelectric generators RTGs and one nuclear fission reactor see below using thermoelectric conversion to provide power for 25 space systems.

For example, the Cassini spacecraft was developed and launched in October on a mission to investigate Saturn and its rings, satellites, and magnetosphere.

It is powered by three RTGs. It is not sensitive to gravity; however, it is currently limited to relatively low power levels see Figure III. A ground-test twin of the flight version of SNAP-I OA operated unattended for over a year, demon- strating the feasibility of the fission nuclear reactor.

All of the reactors used thermoelectric elements to convert thermal energy to electricity. Fission nuclear reactors can be characterized as having a very good power-to-weight ratio. An example of a reactor designed for space use is the reactor that was being worked on for SP Jointly undertaken by the Department of Energy DOE , the Department of Defense DOD , and NASA, the SP program had the goal of developing a space nuclear reactor technology that could support a range of projected missions, including nuclear electric propulsion and planetary surface operations.

Several systems were designed for a power output of kWe and incorporated a high-temperature, liquid-metal-cooled reactor. One design concept used an inert-gas Brayton cycle with a turbine generator, while another was designed for use with an advanced thermoelectric converter. Most of the nuclear component development had been completed on SP before the project was cancelled in Currently the United States has no useful space nuclear reactor program, even though recent studies continue to show AIAA, ; NRC, ; Friedensen, that human exploration of the Moon and Mars will require this technology.

To quote a recent National Research Council report , p. However, the committee could not ignore the fact that space nuclear power will be a key enabling technology for future space activities that will not be able to rely on solar power. The storage methods may be chemical primary and secondary rechargeable- batteries, and primary and regenerative fuel cells , electrical capacitors , mechanical flywheels, gravitational liquid or solid , or thermal latent or sensible heat.

The design and performance of storage systems are judged on lifetime, reliability, safety, efficiency, and specific energy. For example, the two principal systems that are being used or being considered are nickel-based and lithium-based batteries.

In summary, great progress is being made by both NASA and DOD on a range of battery technologies that promise improvements by a factor of 10 in specific energy over the old nickel-cadmium batteries.

Proceedings 10 Cryo

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. III Survey of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space This chapter provides the essential foundation for subsequent discussion of microgravity phenomena and the determination of related research needs important for HEDS.

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June D. It is known that normal hydrogen is a mixture of two gases referred to as ortho hydrogen and para hydrogen, and that the equilibrium concentration of ortho hydrogen and para hydrogen varies with temperature. At temperatures above about F. It is also known that ortho hydrogen conversion is an exothermic reaction, releasing about B. The percentage of liquid hydrogen that is lost by vaporization is a function of the ortho hydrogen composition of the liquid hydrogen at the time ortho hydrogen conversion begins, such as the time liquid hydrogen is introduced into a storage vessel, and a function of the degree of completeness of conversion of ortho hydrogen to para hydrogen, that is, the storage period.

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The present invention relates to a kind of refrigerant cycle apparatus employing the refrigerant circulation of steam compression type, can be effectively applied in vehicle. Conventionally, there is known the heat pump cycle of the multistage boost type boosted with making the refrigerant multistage in order to the cycle efficiency COP improving heat pump cycle refrigerant circulation of steam compression type. Such as, patent documentation 1 the corresponding USP5 of JPA, , in, be disclosed so-called gas injection circulation gasinjectioncycle the energy saver formula refrigerant circulation possessing following compressor, described compressor has the inhalation port port , the ejection port of ejection refrigerant and the middle pressure side mouth that makes middle the compression refrigerant inflow in circulation and conflux with the refrigerant of boost process that suck refrigerant. The compressor of this kind of gas injection circulation utilizes and makes low pressure refrigerant boost to the low band side compression stroke of middle compression refrigerant and make middle compression refrigerant boost to these 2 compression strokes of high band side compression stroke of high-pressure refrigerant, refrigerant is boosted two benches. So, be appropriate value by the pressure adjusting of the middle compression refrigerant will flowed into from middle pressure side mouth, just can improve the compression efficiency of compressor, realize the raising of cycle efficiency. In addition, the gas injection circulation of patent documentation 1 is applicable to air conditioner for vehicles, when carrying out the heating of car indoor as air-conditioning object space, make the high-temperature high-pressure refrigerant sprayed from compressor utilize side H Exch indoor condenser interchange of heat with the wind pushing air blowed to car indoor, the wind pushing air as interchange of heat subject fluid is heated. In addition, can give play to by the temperature utilizing side H Exch by wind pushing air be elevated to for car indoor heat the normal operation of the heating efficiency of necessary target temperature time, adjustment makes, from the valve opening of the high band side expansion valve utilizing the refrigerant decompression of flowing out the H Exch of side, to reach maximum to make cycle efficiency.

CN102745039B - Refrigerant cycle apparatus - Google Patents

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronics, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the authors. Published by Icaris Ltd. Holho 8 00 Praha 8 Czech Republic www. Bondarenko V.

The problem with many ULT freezers is that their manufacturers use standard air conditioner compressors which are not intended to maintain ultra-low temperatures. When an air conditioner compressor is used to cool temperatures beyond its intended design limit, the compressor is stressed and runs too hot.

Cardiac arrhythmias are characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm, less than 60 beats per minute, more than beats per minute, or irregularly. Arrhythmia Improper functioning of the electrical systems regulating the heart can cause arrhythmia. Arrhythmias are of various types, including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia.

US3095274A - Hydrogen liquefaction and conversion systems - Google Patents

This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Johnson nasa.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Calcium chloride is an example of a solid absorbent, while solutions of lithium chloride, lithium bromide, and the ethylene glycols are examples of liquid absorbents. It may possess a surface through which energy is transmitted to the transfer fluid; however, the transfer fluid itself can be the absorber.

Cryogenic Safety

This book describes the current state of the art in cryogenic safety best practice, helping the reader to work with cryogenic systems and materials safely. It brings together information from previous texts, industrial and laboratory safety polices, and recent research papers. Case studies, example problems, and an extensive list of references are included to add to the utility of the text. This book is designed to be useful to everyone affected by cryogenic hazards regardless of their expertise in cryogenics. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide.

Most of the equipment used in the industry and particularly in the nuclear activity Design, fabrication, and testing of a helium-cooled module for the ITER divertor Data on the performance of the make-up gas cryogenic purifier is also given. The refrigerator turbomachinery, 13 expanders and three cold compressors, has.

- Отпусти. - Чатрукьян был совсем мальчишка. Ради всего святого, зачем вы это сделали. Чтобы скрыть свою маленькую тайну.

Cryogenic Engineering: Fifty Years of Progress

- Старался спрятать концы в воду, скрыть собственный просчет. А теперь не может отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ и включить резервное электропитание, потому что вирус заблокировал процессоры. Глаза Бринкерхоффа чуть не вылезли из орбит.

ГЛАВА 20 Городская больница располагалась в здании бывшей начальной школы и нисколько не была похожа на больницу. Длинное одноэтажное здание с огромными окнами и ветхое крыло, прилепившееся сзади. Беккер поднялся по растрескавшимся ступенькам.

Внутри было темно и шумно.

Keine Ursache. Беккер вышел в коридор.

Бринкерхофф кивнул. Это было одним из крупнейших достижений Стратмора. С помощью ТРАНСТЕКСТА, взломавшего шифр, ему удалось узнать о заговоре и бомбе, подложенной в школе иврита в Лос-Анджелесе.

Послание террористов удалось расшифровать всего за двадцать минут до готовившегося взрыва и, быстро связавшись по телефону с кем нужно, спасти триста школьников.

- А знаешь, - Мидж без всякой нужды перешла на шепот, - Джабба сказал, что Стратмор перехватил сообщение террористов за шесть часов до предполагаемого времени взрыва.

Но я хочу иметь копию. Я хочу открыть этот проклятый файл и ознакомиться с созданной Танкадо программой. Сьюзан была столь же любопытна, как и ее шеф, но чутье подсказывало ей, что расшифровка алгоритма Цифровой крепости неразумна, какой бы интерес это ни представляло.

В данный момент эта чертова программа надежно зашифрована и абсолютно безопасна. Но как только шифр будет взломан… - Коммандер, а не лучше ли будет… - Мне нужен ключ! - отрезал .

Стратмор только сделал вид, что звонил по телефону. Глаза Хейла расширились. Слова Сьюзан словно парализовали его, но через минуту он возобновил попытки высвободиться.

- Он убьет .

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  1. Kazragami

    In it something is. Thanks for the help in this question, I too consider, that the easier the better …