Storage factory machine parts and products with coatings applied by thermal methods
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Teflon is the registered trade name of the highly useful plastic material polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE. PTFE is one of a class of plastics known as fluoropolymers. A polymer is a compound formed by a chemical reaction which combines particles into groups of repeating large molecules. Many common synthetic fibers are polymers, such as polyester and nylon. PTFE is the polymerized form of tetrafluoroethylene. PTFE has many unique properties, which make it valuable in scores of applications. It has a very high melting point, and is also stable at very low temperatures.
It can be dissolved by nothing but hot fluorine gas or certain molten metals, so it is extremely resistant to corrosion. It is also very slick and slippery. This makes it an excellent material for coating machine parts which are subjected to heat, wear, and friction, for laboratory equipment which must resist corrosive chemicals, and as a coating for cookware and utensils.
PTFE is used to impart stain-resistance to fabrics, carpets, and wall coverings, and as weatherproofing on outdoor signs. PTIZE has low electrical conductivity, so it makes a good electrical insulator. It is used to insulate much data communication cable, and it is essential to the manufacture of semi-conductors. PTFE is also found in a variety of medical applications, such as in vascular grafts. A fiberglass fabric with PTFE coating serves to protect the roofs of airports and stadiums.
PTFE can even be incorporated into fiber for weaving socks. The low friction of the PTFE makes the socks exceptionally smooth, protecting feet from blisters. PTFE was discovered accidentally in by a young scientist looking for something else. Roy Plunkett was a chemist for E. He had earned a PhD from Ohio State University in , and in when he stumbled upon Teflon, he was still only 27 years old. Plunkett's area was refrigerants. Many chemicals that were used as refrigerants before the s were dangerously explosive.
Du Pont and General Motors had developed a new type of non-flammable refrigerant, a form of Freon called refrigerant Refrigerant was tied up in an exclusive arrangement with General Motor's Frigidaire division, and at the time could not be marketed to other manufacturers.
Plunkett endeavored to come up with a different form of refrigerant that would get around Frigidaire's patent control. The technical name for refrigerant was tetrafluorodichloroethane. Plunkett hoped to make a similar refrigerant by reacting hydrochloric acid with a compound called tetrafluoroethylene, or TFE.
TFE itself was a little known substance, and Plunkett decided his first task was to make a large amount of this gas. The chemist thought he might as well make a hundred pounds of the gas, to be sure to have enough for all his chemical tests, and for toxicological tests as well. He stored the gas in metal cans with a valve release, much like the cans used commercially today for pressurized sprays like hair spray.
Plunkett kept the cans on dry ice, to cool and liquefy the TFE gas. His refrigerant experiment required Plunkett and his assistant to release the TFE gas from the cans into a heated chamber.
On the morning of April 6, , Plunkett found he could not get the gas out of the can. To Plunkett and his assistant's mystification, the gas had transformed overnight into a white, flaky powder.
The TFE had polymerized. Polymerization is a chemical process in which molecules combine into long strings. One of the best known polymers is nylon, which was also discovered by researchers at Du Pont. Polymer science was still in its infancy in the s.
Plunkett believed that TFE could not polymerize, and yet it had somehow done so. He sent the strange white flakes to Du Pont's Central Research Department, where teams of chemists analyzed the stuff. The polymerized TFE was curiously inert. It did not react with any other chemicals, it resisted electric currents, and it was extremely smooth and slick. Plunkett was able to figure out how the TFE gas had accidentally polymerized, and he took out a patent for the polymerized substance, polytetrafluoroethylene, or PTFE.
But it came into use in World War II, during the development of the atomic bomb. Making the bomb required scientists to handle large amounts of the caustic and toxic substance uranium hexafluoride. Du Pont provided PTFE-coated gaskets and liners that resisted the extreme corrosive action of uranium hexafluoride. Du Pont registered the trademark name Teflon for its patented substance in , and continued to work after the war on cheaper and more effective manufacturing techniques.
The company marketed Teflon after the war's end as a coating for machined metal parts. In the s, Du Pont began marketing cookware coated with Teflon. The slick Teflon coating resisted the stickiness of even scorched food, so cleaning the pans was easy.
The company marketed Teflon for a variety of other uses as well. Other related fluoropolymers were developed and marketed in ensuing decades, some of which were easier to process than PTFE. Du Pont registered another variant of Teflon in , Teflon AF, which is soluble in special solvents. A non-stick pan is composed of varying non-stick layers.
TFE is synthesized from fluorspar, hydrofluoric acid, and chloroform. These ingredients are combined under high heat, an action known as pyrolosis. TFE is a colorless, odorless, nontoxic gas which is, however, extremely flammable. It is stored as a liquid, at low temperature and pressure. The polymerization process uses a very small amount of other chemicals as initiators. Various initiators can be used, including ammonium persulfate or disuccinic acid peroxide.
The other essential ingredient of the polymerization process is water. PTFE can be produced in a number of ways, depending on the particular traits desired for the end product. Many specifics of the process are proprietary secrets of the manufacturers. There are two main methods of producing PTFE. One is suspension polymerization.
The grains can be further processed into pellets which can be molded. In the dispersion method, the resulting PTFE is a milky paste which can be processed into a fine powder. Both the paste and powder are used in coating applications.
Teflon con be used on a wide variety of cookware. Quality control measures take place both at the primary PTFE manufacturing facility and at plants where further processing steps, such as coatings, are done. In the primary manufacturing facility, standard industrial procedures are followed to determine purity of ingredients, accuracy of temperatures, etc.
End products are tested for conformance to standards. For dispersion PTFE, this means the viscosity and specific gravity of the dispersion is tested. Other tests may be performed as well.
Because Teflon is a trademarked product, manufacturers who wish to use the brand name for parts or products made with Teflon PTFE must follow quality control guidelines laid down by Du Pont.
In the case of nonstick cookware manufacturers, for example, the cookware makers adhere to Du Pont's Quality Certification Program, which requires that they monitor the thickness of the PTFE coating and the baking temperature, and carry out adhesion tests several times during each shift.
Though PTFE itself is non-toxic, its manufacture produces toxic byproducts. These include hydrofluoric acid and carbon dioxide. Work areas must be adequately ventilated to prevent exposure to gases while PTFE is being heated, or when it cools after sintering. Doctors have documented a particular illness called polymer fume fever suffered by workers who have inhaled the gaseous byproducts of PTFE manufacturing.
Some waste created during the manufacturing process can be reused. Because PTFE was at first very expensive to produce, manufacturers had high incentive to find ways to use scrap material.
Waste or debris generated in the manufacturing process can be cleaned and made into fine powder. This powder can be used for molding, or as an additive to certain lubricants, oils, and inks. Used PTFE parts should be buried in landfills, not incinerated, because burning at high temperatures will release hydrogen chloride and other toxic substances.
One study released in claimed that PTFE also degrades in the environment into one substance that is toxic to plants. This is trifluoroacetate, or TFA. While current levels of TFA in the environment are low, the substance persists for a long time.
So TFA pollution is possibly a concern for the future. Ebnesajjad, Sina. Friedel, Robert, and Alan Pilon. Gorman, J. Toggle navigation.
Made How Volume 7 Teflon Teflon. Periodicals Friedel, Robert, and Alan Pilon. Angela Woodward. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur.
Nanotechnology is helping to considerably improve, even revolutionize, many technology and industry sectors: information technology, homeland security, medicine, transportation, energy, food safety, and environmental science, among many others. Described below is a sampling of the rapidly growing list of benefits and applications of nanotechnology. Many benefits of nanotechnology depend on the fact that it is possible to tailor the structures of materials at extremely small scales to achieve specific properties, thus greatly extending the materials science toolkit.
Paint is used to decorate, protect and prolong the life of natural and synthetic materials, and acts as a barrier against environmental conditions. Paints may be broadly classified into Decorative paints, applied on site to decorate and protect buildings and other objects, and Industrial coatings which are applied in factories to finish manufactured goods such as cars. The binder resin and solvent together are sometimes known as the vehicle. The binder may be dissolved as a solution or carried as a dispersion of microscopically small particles in a liquid.
Guide to Manufacturing Processes for Plastics
Teflon is the registered trade name of the highly useful plastic material polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE. PTFE is one of a class of plastics known as fluoropolymers. A polymer is a compound formed by a chemical reaction which combines particles into groups of repeating large molecules. Many common synthetic fibers are polymers, such as polyester and nylon. PTFE is the polymerized form of tetrafluoroethylene. PTFE has many unique properties, which make it valuable in scores of applications. It has a very high melting point, and is also stable at very low temperatures. It can be dissolved by nothing but hot fluorine gas or certain molten metals, so it is extremely resistant to corrosion. It is also very slick and slippery.
Paint is the most commonly used material to protect steel. Paint systems for steel structures have developed over the years to comply with industrial environmental legislation and in response to demands from bridge and building owners for improved durability performance. Previous five and six coat systems have been replaced by typically three coat alternatives, and the latest formulations have focussed on application in even fewer numbers of coats, but with increasing individual film thickness. The protective paint systems usually consist of primer , undercoat s and finish coats. The binder is the film forming component in the paint.
Powder coating is a type of coating that is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. Unlike conventional liquid paint which is delivered via an evaporating solvent, powder coating is typically applied electrostatically and then cured under heat. The powder may be a thermoplastic or a thermoset polymer. It is usually used to create a hard finish that is tougher than conventional paint.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. The purpose of applying the coating may be decorative, functional, or both. The coating itself may be an all-over coating, completely covering the substrate, or it may only cover parts of the substrate. An example of all of these types of coating is a product label on many drinks bottles- one side has an all-over functional coating the adhesive and the other side has one or more decorative coatings in an appropriate pattern the printing to form the words and images.
Biologics are bacterial and viral vaccines, antigens, antitoxins and analogous products, serums, plasmas and other blood derivatives for therapeutically protecting or treating humans and animals. Bulks are active drug substances used to manufacture dosage- form products, process medicated animal feeds or compound prescription medications. Diagnostic agents assist the diagnosis of diseases and disorders in humans and animals. Diagnostic agents may be inorganic chemicals for examining the gastrointestinal tract, organic chemicals for visualizing the circulatory system and liver and radioactive compounds for measuring the function of organ system. Drugs are substances with active pharmacological properties in humans and animals. Drugs are compounded with other materials, such as pharmaceutical necessities, to produce a medicinal product.
Heat and Control recently experienced an IT security incident that has impacted portions of our network and disrupted our business operations. We help you offer your customers better products by engineering and building customized process and packaging lines featuring start to finish integration. Our solutions set the standard for yield, efficiency, and safety across a wide range of food, pharmaceutical, and other industries. Whatever your production needs, we can meet them with precision and passion. We design equipment specifically for bakery food products, such as bagels, donuts, breakfast pastries, fruit-filled pies, cookies, crackers, and pretzels. Rely on the same company that designs and builds the processing line to also supply operating and data management controls and information tools. We provide user-friendly controls systems that focus on achieving automation efficiency.
Packaged candy and snacks ranked second, with More than , coin-operated vending machines were produced and shipped in More than half , were refrigerated units vending canned and bottled soft drinks. Vending accounts for a significant portion of the sales and profits of beverage bottlers and snack makers.
Industrial Rust Prevention
With continued miniaturization of electronics and their circuitry, the necessity of conformal coating has skyrocketed. And choosing the ideal type of coating and application method for your application is crucial. But weeding through the vast amount of information online is daunting. You can also check out our selection of conformal coatings.
Innovation Powered by Passion & Expertise
State sales and use tax exemptions are available to taxpayers who manufacture, fabricate or process tangible personal property for sale. Texas sales and use tax exempts tangible personal property that becomes an ingredient or component of an item manufactured for sale, as well as taxable services performed on a manufactured product to make it more marketable. The exemption also applies to tangible personal property that makes a chemical or physical change in the product being manufactured and is necessary and essential in the manufacturing process. Some items, such as hand tools, are excluded from the exemption.
A cold store is any building or part of a building used for storage at temperatures controlled by refrigeration at -1WIC or lower. The spoilage of fish due to protein denaturation, fat changes and dehydration can all be slowed down by reducing the storage temperature. The FAO Code of Practice for Frozen Fish recommends that frozen fish products should be stored at temperatures appropriate for the species, type of product and intended time of storage. Spoilage by bacterial action in any practical sense is completely arrested at this temperature and the rate at which other undesirable changes proceed is greatly reduced. Since it is not always possible to guarantee that a product will stay in storage no longer than originally intended, it is generally safer to use the lower recommended temperature.
Materials processing , the series of operations that transforms industrial materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or products. Materials processing by hand is as old as civilization; mechanization began with the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, and in the early 19th century the basic machines for forming, shaping, and cutting were developed, principally in England. Since then, materials-processing methods, techniques, and machinery have grown in variety and number. The cycle of manufacturing processes that converts materials into parts and products starts immediately after the raw materials are either extracted from minerals or produced from basic chemicals or natural substances. Metallic raw materials are usually produced in two steps. First, the crude ore is processed to increase the concentration of the desired metal; this is called beneficiation. Typical beneficiation processes include crushing, roasting, magnetic separation, flotation , and leaching.
7. COLD STORES
Chemistry is the Science Behind Sustainability — the products, technologies and innovations enabled by the chemical industry are essential to a sustainable future. ACC is investing in research to improve understanding of how chemicals impact health and the environment. The agency continues meet key TSCA deadlines and requirements, and marks another milestone in that process. Learn more.