Industrial ware harsh silk fabrics
View Larger Map. Fairy Feather silk is thin to the point of transparency, as seen in this scarf. Fairy Feather is made from 8-denier silk microfibers that are only one-sixth as thick as a human hair about 50 deniers. This organdie an ultrathin, plain-woven, sheer fabric , woven on a loom from thousands of silk microfiber warp threads, is so light that it feels nearly weightless to the hand. The softness of such a thin cloth envelops the skin gently and surely.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Pros & Cons of Common Fabrics - Fibres & Fabrics Part 1
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The study of the history of clothing and textiles traces the development, use, and availability of clothing and textiles over human history. Clothing and textiles reflect the materials and technologies available in different civilizations at different times. The variety and distribution of clothing and textiles within a society reveal social customs and culture. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies, though it is not known exactly when various peoples began wearing clothes.
Anthropologists believe that animal skins and vegetation were adapted into coverings as protection from cold, heat and rain, especially as humans migrated to new climates.
Textiles can be felt or spun fibers made into yarn and subsequently netted , looped, knit or woven to make fabrics, which appeared in the Middle East during the late stone age. Sources available for the study of clothing and textiles include material remains discovered via archaeology ; representation of textiles and their manufacture in art; and documents concerning the manufacture, acquisition, use, and trade of fabrics, tools, and finished garments.
Scholarship of textile history, especially its earlier stages, is part of material culture studies. The development of textile and clothing manufacture in prehistory has been the subject of a number of scholarly studies since the late 20th century.
Evidence suggests that humans may have begun wearing clothing as far back as , to , years ago. Genetic analysis suggests that the human body louse , which lives in clothing, may only have diverged from the head louse some , years ago, which supports evidence that humans began wearing clothing at around this time.
These estimates predate the first known human exodus from Africa , although other hominid species who may have worn clothes — and shared these louse infestations — appear to have migrated earlier. Sewing needles have been dated to at least 50, years ago Denisova Cave , Siberia — and uniquely associated with a human species other than modern humans , i.
The oldest possible example is 60, years ago, a needlepoint missing stem and eye found in Sibudu Cave , South Africa. Other early examples of needles dating from 41,, years ago are found in multiple locations, e. Slovenia, Russia, China, Spain, and France. The earliest dyed flax fibres have been found in a prehistoric cave in Georgia and date back to 36, The 25,year-old Venus Figurine " Venus of Lespugue ", found in southern France in the Pyrenees, depicts a cloth or twisted fiber skirt.
Other figurines from western Europe were adorned with basket hats or caps, belts were worn at the waist, and a strap of cloth that wrapped around the body right above the breast.
Eastern European figurines wore belts, hung low on the hips and sometimes string skirts. Archaeologists have discovered artifacts from the same period that appear to have been used in the textile arts: BC net gauges, spindle needles, and weaving sticks. The first actual textile, as opposed to skins sewn together, was probably felt. In northern Eurasia , peat bogs can also preserve textiles very well. It was woven out of vegetable fibers and dates back to 8, B. From pre-history through the early Middle Ages, for most of Europe, the Near East and North Africa, two main types of loom dominate textile production.
These are the warp-weighted loom and the two-beam loom. The length of the cloth beam determined the width of the cloth woven upon it, and could be as wide as 2—3 meters. The second loom type is the two-beam loom. Throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, the fertile grounds of the Eurasian Steppe provided a venue for a network of nomadic communities to develop and interact.
The Steppe Route has always connected regions of the Asian continent with trade and transmission of culture, including clothing. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia , Persia , the Indian subcontinent, and Rome , and helped to lay the foundations for the modern world. The exchange of luxury textiles was predominant on the Silk Road , which linked traders, merchants, pilgrims , monks , soldiers, nomads and urban dwellers from China to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.
In Mesopotamia , the clothing of a regular Sumerian was very simple, especially in summer, in the winter wearing clothes made of sheep fur. Even wealthy men were depicted with naked torsos, wearing just some kind of short skirt, known as kaunakes , while women wore long dress to their ankles.
The king wore a tunic, a coat that reached to his knees, with a belt in the middle. Over time, the development of the craft of wool weaving has led to a great variety in clothing. Thus, towards the end of the 3rd millennium BC and later the men wore a tunic with short sleeves and even over the knees, with a belt over which the rich wore a wool cloak. Women's dresses featured more varied designs: with or without sleeves, narrow or wide, usually long and without highlighting the body .
The Statue of Ebih-Il ; c. We do not know what the people who constituted the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the earliest civilizations of the world, actually wore. Any cloth that might have been worn has long since disintegrated and we have not yet been able to decipher the Indus script. However, historians and archaeologists have managed to piece together some bits of information from clues found in sculptures and figurines.
Terracotta figurines uncovered at Mehrgarh show a male figure wearing what is commonly interpreted to be a turban; female figurines depict women with elaborate headdress and intricate hairstyles.
One of the most important recovered figurines is that of the "Priest King" from the site of Mohenjo-daro. It is not only important because scholars have called it a representation of an assumed authority or head of state but also because of what it is wearing, however, it was recently discovered to be an interpretation of a wealthy trader. The calmly seated Priest-King is depicted wearing a shawl with floral patterns.
So far, this is the only sculpture from the Indus Valley to show clothing in such explicit detail. However, it does not provide any concrete proof to legitimize the history of clothing in the Harappan times. Harappans may even have used natural colours to dye their fabric. Research shows that the cultivation of indigo plants genus: Indigofera was prevalent.
Another important sculpture is of a dancing girl, also excavated from Mohenjo-daro. She is depicted with no clothing other than a number of bangles upon her arm.
Lal  has managed draw parallels between the dancing girl and women today in parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
He notices how contemporary women continue wearing those bangles even today. Harappans may not have left any evidence of what clothing or textiles they had at that time but they did leave remains of jewellery and beads in large amounts.
For instance, the graves of Harappans have yielded various forms of jewellery such as neckpieces, bracelets, rings, and head ornaments. Multiple beads of varying shapes and sizes have also been recovered. This jewellery incorporates various materials such as gold, bronze, terracotta, faience, and shells; imported materials including turquoise and lapis lazuli were used too. This suggests that the Harappans might have engaged in long-distance trade.
Long, slender carnelian beads were highly prized by the Harappans. Harappans were also experts in manufacturing microbeads, which have been found in various locations from hearths and graves. These beads were extremely hard to work with and needed extra precision to produce. A special drill has been found both at Lothal and Chanhudaro.
Chanhudaro was a centre exclusively devoted to craft production. Painting on wooden panel discovered by Aurel Stein in Dandan Oilik , depicting the legend of the princess who hid silk worm eggs in her headdress to smuggle them out of China to the Kingdom of Khotan; 7th to 8th century; British Museum London.
Evidence exists for production of linen cloth in Ancient Egypt in the Neolithic period, c. Cultivation of domesticated wild flax , probably an import from the Levant , is documented as early as c. Other bast fibers including rush , reed , palm , and papyrus were used alone or with linen to make rope and other textiles. Evidence for wool production in Egypt is scanty at this period. Spinning techniques included the drop spindle, hand-to-hand spinning, and rolling on the thigh; yarn was also spliced.
Linen bandages were used in the burial custom of mummification , and art depicts Egyptian men wearing linen kilts and women in narrow dresses with various forms of shirts and jackets, often of sheer pleated fabric. Illustration from the book Ancient Egyptian, Assyrian, and Persian costumes and decorations.
The earliest evidence of silk production in China was found at the sites of Yangshao culture in Xia, Shanxi , where a cocoon of bombyx mori , the domesticated silkworm, cut in half by a sharp knife is dated to between and BC. Fragments of primitive looms are also seen from the sites of Hemudu culture in Yuyao, Zhejiang , dated to about BC. Under the Shang Dynasty, Han Chinese clothing or Hanfu consisted of a yi , a narrow-cuffed, knee-length tunic tied with a sash, and a narrow, ankle-length skirt, called shang , worn with a bixi , a length of fabric that reached the knees.
Clothing of the elite was made of silk in vivid primary colours. The earliest evidence of spinning in Thailand can be found at the archaeological site of Tha Kae located in Central Thailand. Here, archaeologists discovered 90 fragments of spindle whorl dated from 3rd century BC to 3rd century AD. And the shape of these finds indicate the connections with south China and India.
This culture is defined by pottery decorated with cord patterns. In a shell mound in the Miyagi Prefecture, dating back about 5,, some cloth fragments were discovered made from bark fibers. Some pottery pattern imprints depict also fine mat designs, proving their weaving techniques.
The depictions also show clothing with patterns that are embroidered or painted arched designs, though it is not apparent whether this indicates what the clothes look like or whether that simply happens to be the style of representation used. The pottery also shows no distinction between male and female garments. This may have been true because during that time period clothing was more for decoration than social distinction, but it might also just be because of the representation on the pottery rather than how people actually dressed at the time.
Since bone needles were also found, it is assumed that they wore dresses that were sewn together. Next was the Yayoi period, during which rice cultivation was developed. This led to a shift from hunter-gatherer communities to agrarian societies which had a large impact on clothing. According to Chinese literature from that time period, clothing more appropriate to agriculture began to be worn. For example, an unsewn length of fabric wrapped around the body, or a poncho-type garment with a head-hole cut into it.
This same literature also indicates that pink or scarlet makeup was worn but also that mannerisms between people of all ages and genders were not very different. However, this is debatable as there were probably cultural prejudices in the Chinese document.
There is a common Japanese belief that the Yayoi time period was quite utopian before Chinese influence began to promote the use of clothing to indicate age and gender.
From to AD was the Yamato period, and here much of the clothing style can be derived from the artifacts of the time. The tomb statues haniwa especially tell us that the clothing style changed from the ones according to the Chinese accounts from the previous age. The statues are usually wearing a two piece outfit that has an upper piece with a front opening and close-cut sleeves with loose trousers for men and a pleated skirt for women.
Silk farming had been introduced by the Chinese by this time period but due to silk's cost it would only be used by people of certain classes or ranks. The following periods were the Asuka to AD and Nara to AD when Japan developed a more unified government and began to use Chinese laws and social rankings.
These new laws required people to wear different styles and colors to indicate social status.
What is Taffeta? The Origins, Benefits And How It’s Made
The study of the history of clothing and textiles traces the development, use, and availability of clothing and textiles over human history. Clothing and textiles reflect the materials and technologies available in different civilizations at different times. The variety and distribution of clothing and textiles within a society reveal social customs and culture. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies, though it is not known exactly when various peoples began wearing clothes. Anthropologists believe that animal skins and vegetation were adapted into coverings as protection from cold, heat and rain, especially as humans migrated to new climates.
One of the most popular plastics available today, Nylon was first patented in by. Nylon is a thermoplastic made from petrochemicals. It is a semi-crystalline plastic, that it has both amorphous unstructured as well as crystalline structured regions. When heat is applied it does not begin to slowly melt like amorphous resins, rather it stays firm until it reaches its melting point and then melts all at once. Nylon is a tough material that is difficult to tear and exhibits excellent abrasion resistance.
History of clothing and textiles
Even as China revalues it's currency, workers gain salary increases and shipping costs rise, we continue to price our silks as low as possible so you all can still afford them. There are a few things you should know about our fabrics If you'd rather speak with a human, please call toll-free from anywhere in the U. All Rights Reserved. Your discount is figured on the total number of cotton and rayon items we ship, not how many of each type, style or size. Mix and match them to get the best discount. If you have any questions at all please contact us toll free at no buttons, just humans.
Art Silk Fabric
In writing this little book the author believes he is supplying a want which most Students and Dyers of Cotton Fabrics have felt—that of a small handbook clearly describing the various processes and operations of the great industry of dyeing Cotton. The aim has not been to produce a very elaborate treatise but rather a book of a convenient size, and in order to do so it has been necessary to be brief and to omit many matters that would rightfully find a place in a larger treatise, but the author hopes that nothing of importance has been omitted. The most modern processes have been described in some detail; care has been taken to select those which experience shows to be thoroughly reliable and to give good results. There is scarcely any subject of so much importance to the bleacher, textile colourist or textile manufacturer as the structure and chemistry of the cotton fibre with which he has to deal. By the term chemistry we mean not only the composition of the fibre substance itself, but also the reactions it is capable of undergoing when brought into contact with various chemical substances—acids, alkalies, salts, etc.
What's the number one prerequisite to building a high-quality wardrobe? Exactly: You need to be able to recognize a quality garment when you see one. You need to be able to tell the difference between a durable, well-crafted piece and one that looks pretty on the rack but won't last more than half a season. You need to know a which properties distinguish high-quality garments from low-quality ones, and b how to recognize these properties when you're out shopping.
Varanasi Silk Weaving Centre
So what do camels, goats and buffalos do, you may ask and you forgot soy. Related post: What is Silk and How is it made. You have to take into account other silk fabrics made from Spiders and Mussles.
Do you know that hemp has a longer, stronger fiber than most plant fibers on the planet. There are hundreds if not thousands of years worth of evidence to demonstrate the validity of hemp textiles to be strong, durable , long-lasting , anti-microbial , anti-bacterial , resistance to mold and fungus and also have been shown to protect from UV rays. We provide quality hemp fabric and several blends of hemp and sustainable textiles. Many of these fabrics are used by designers such as Ralph Lauren, Versace, Volkswagen VW motor company and many others. Because of our relationships with the farmers in China we are able to offer wholesale pricing while maintaining quality goods, as China has been growing and manufacturing hemp for over 5, years.
Available in both traditional tie and glorious bow ties. Looking for a Pink Blouse? Laos: textile related shops. Some cleaning methods are harsher than others. Support independent creators There's no Etsy warehouse - just millions of people selling the things they love.
Conseguir libro impreso. An Economic History of the Silk Industry, Giovanni Federico. Cambridge University Press , 19 mar. An Economic History of the Silk Industry, , first published in , is an ambitious historical analysis of the development of a major commodity.
Kawamata, Fukushima: The World’s Thinnest Silk Wins a Global Following
The requirements for a fabric or material to be considered sustainable are many. While there are ways to ensure you only buy sustainable materials — like GOTS certification — sometimes if transparency is poor, it comes down to the consumer asking the right questions. Strap on your unsustainable polyester seatbelts for the Otter guide to sustainable fabrics.
How Sustainable is That Fabric You’re Wearing?
We are constantly bombarded by images of celebrities at weddings; on the red carpet and at awards shows, looking resplendent in their flowing gowns and dresses. Many a times, the fabric used for these luxurious creations is taffeta, a crisp, stiff fabric with a slight sheen to it. While the name might not be as common as cotton, silk, georgette, chiffon and velvet, taffeta is an important fabric for fashion, soft furnishings and other household accessories.
Varanasi Silk Weaving Centre. Best Saree Shops and Manufacturers in Varanasi. It developed as a silk weaving centre during the Mughal period and is still one of the major silk weaving centres in India. As a silk weaving village it was established in the 17th century by Momai Tamuli Barbarua, a great administrator of the Ahom king during reign of King Swargadeo Pratap Singha
Немец называл эту женщину… Беккер слегка потряс Клушара за плечи, стараясь не дать ему провалиться в забытье. Глаза канадца на мгновение блеснули. - Ее зовут… Не отключайся, дружище… - Роса… - Глаза Клушара снова закрылись. Приближающаяся медсестра прямо-таки кипела от возмущения. - Роса? - Беккер сжал руку Клушара. Старик застонал. - Он называл ее… - Речь его стала невнятной и едва слышной.
Она закрыла лицо руками. Дэвид не мог прийти в. - Но, Сьюзан… я думал… - Он взял ее за дрожащие плечи и повернул к. И тогда он увидел, что Сьюзан вовсе не плакала.