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The transport sector encompasses industries that are involved in the transportation of goods and passengers throughout the world. This sector is structurally complex and vitally important to economies locally, nationally and globally. The transport sector is vitally important to the economic viability of nations.
Transportation plays a key role in economically important factors such as employment, utilization of raw and manufactured goods, investment of private and public capital and generation of tax revenues. In the United States alone, the Department of Transportation reported that in , there were approximately 7. The transport sector is also a major consumer of raw materials and finished goods in most industrialized countries. Capital investment utilizing public and private funds to purchase trucks, ships, airplanes, terminals and other equipment and facilities easily exceeds hundreds of billions of dollars in industrialized countries.
The transport sector also plays a major role in generating revenues in the form of taxes. In industrialized countries, transport of passengers and freight is often heavily taxed Sampson, Farris and Shrock ; Gentry, Semeijn and Vellenga Typically these taxes take the form of fuel taxes on gasoline and diesel fuels, and excise taxes on freight bills and passenger tickets, and easily exceed hundreds of billions of dollars annually.
In the early stages of the transport sector, geography greatly influenced what was the dominant mode of transportation. As advances were made in construction technology, it became possible to overcome many of the geographical barriers that limited the development of the transport sector. As a result, the modes of transport that have dominated the sector evolved in accordance with the technology available.
Initially, water travel over the oceans was the primary mode of transport of freight and passengers. As large rivers were navigated and canals were built, the volume of inland transport over the waterways increased significantly. In the late nineteenth century, transport over railways began to emerge as the dominant mode of transport. Rail transport, because of its ability to overcome natural barriers such as mountains and valleys through the use of tunnels and bridges, offered flexibility that waterways could not provide.
Furthermore, unlike transport over waterways, transport over the rails was virtually unaffected by winter conditions. Many national governments recognized the strategic and economic advantages of rail transport. Consequently, rail companies were awarded governmental financial assistance to facilitate the expansion of rail networks.
In the early twentieth century, the development of the combustion engine combined with the increased use of motor vehicles enabled road transport to become an increasingly popular mode of transport. As the highway and throughway systems were developed, road transport enabled door-to-door deliveries of goods.
This flexibility far surpassed that of railways and waterways. Eventually, as advances were made in road construction and improvements were made to the internal combustion engine, in many parts of the world road transport became faster than rail transport. Consequently, road transport has become the most used mode of transport of goods and passengers.
The transport sector continued to evolve with the advent of airplanes. The use of airplanes as a means to transport freight and passengers began during the Second World War. Initially, airplanes were primarily used to transport mail and soldiers.
However, as aircraft construction was perfected and an increasing number of persons learned to operate airplanes, air transport grew in popularity. Today, air transport is a very fast, reliable mode of transport. However, in terms of total tonnage, air transport handles only a very small percentage of freight.
Information on the structure of rail systems in industrialized countries is generally reliable and comparable ILO Similar information on road systems is somewhat less reliable. Information on the structure of waterways is reliable, having not changed substantially in the past few decades. However, similar information regarding developing countries is scarce and unreliable.
European countries developed economic and political blocs that have had a significant impact on the transport sector. In Europe, road transport dominates the movement of freight and passengers. Trucking, with a heavy emphasis on less-than-trailer-load freight, is conducted by small national and regional carriers.
This industry is heavily regulated and highly fractured. However, several European countries are working diligently to increase the efficiency of rail transport and are promoting intermodal transport.
In the United States, the primary mode of transport is over the roadways. The Department of Transportation, Office of Motor Carriers, reported in that there were over , firms operating medium and heavy trucks DOT This included large companies that transport their own products, smaller private firms, and for-hire truckload and less-than-truckload common and contract carriers.
These companies operate a total of 1. The rail systems in the United States have declined, due primarily to the loss of Class 1 status of some rail lines, and due to the abandonment of less profitable lines. In the industrialized nations of the Pacific Rim, there is great variability of the rail and road systems, due mainly to the different levels of industrialization of the respective countries.
In Japan, the transport sector is heavily dominated by road transport, which accounts for Approximately 8. Developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America typically suffer from inadequate transport systems. There is significant work underway to improve the systems, but a lack of hard currency, skilled workers and equipment inhibits the growth.
Transport systems have grown significantly in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. The Middle East in general has experienced growth in the transport sector, with countries such as Kuwait and Iran leading the way. It should be noted that due to the large size of the countries, sparse populations and arid climatic conditions, unique problems are encountered that limit the development of transport systems in this region.
An overview of railroad and road systems for selected countries and world regions is shown in figure Figure However, as per capita income increases, the impact of the sector on total employment decreases.
The overall number of workers in the transport industries has declined steadily since the s. This loss of workforce in the sector is due to several factors, especially technological advances that have automated many of the jobs related to the construction, maintenance and operation of transport systems.
In addition, many countries have passed legislation which deregulated many transport-related industries; this has ultimately resulted in the loss of jobs. Workers who are currently employed in transport-related industries must be highly skilled and competent.
Due to the rapid advances in technology experienced in the transport sector, these workers and prospective workers must receive continual training and retraining. The transportation and warehousing industry is fraught with challenges to worker health and safety. Those involved in loading and unloading of cargo and in storing, stacking and retrieving materials are prone to musculoskeletal injuries, slips and falls due to uncertain, irregular or slippery work surfaces and being struck by falling objects.
See figure Those operating and maintaining vehicles and other machinery are not only vulnerable to such injuries but also to the toxic effects of fuels, lubricants and exhaust fumes. If ergonomic principles are not heeded in the design of seats, pedals and instrument panels, drivers of trains, planes and motor vehicles those used in warehousing as well on roads will not only be subject to musculoskeletal disorders and undue fatigue, but will also be prone to operating mishaps that can lead to accidents.
Teamsters Union. Since much of the work is done out-of-doors, transportation and warehousing workers are also subject to extremes of weather such as heat, cold, rain, snow and ice, which can not only make the work more arduous but also more dangerous.
Aviation crews must adjust to changes in barometric pressure. Noise is a perennial problem for those operating or working near noisy vehicles and machinery. Perhaps the most pervasive hazard in this industry is work stress. It has many sources:. Adjusting to work hours. Many workers in this industry are burdened by the necessity of adjusting to changing shifts, while flight crews who travel long east-west or west-east distances must adjust to changes in circadian body rhythms; both of these factors may cause drowsiness and fatigue.
The danger of functional impairment due to fatigue has led to laws and regulations stipulating the number of hours or shifts that may be worked without a rest period. These are generally applicable to aviation flight crews, railroad train crews and, in most countries, drivers of road buses and trucks. Many of the last group are independent contractors or work for small enterprises and are frequently forced by economic pressures to flout these regulations.
There are always emergencies dictated by problems with traffic, weather or accidents which require exceeding the work hours limits. Most passenger and a good part of freight transport is guided by timetables stipulating departure and arrival times. The necessity of keeping to schedules which often allow too little leeway is often a very potent stressor for the drivers and their crews.
Dealing with the public. Meeting the sometimes unreasonable and often forcefully expressed demands of the public can be a significant source of stress for those dealing with passengers at terminals and ticket offices and en route. Drivers of road transport must contend with other vehicles, traffic regulations and diligent highway traffic officers. Accidents, whether due to equipment failure, human error or environmental conditions, place the transportation industry at or near the top of listings of occupational fatalities in most countries.
Many employees in the transportation industry work alone with little or no human contact e. If problems arise, there may be difficulty and delays in getting help. And, if they are not kept busy, boredom may lead to a drop in attentiveness that can presage accidents.
Working alone, especially for those driving taxis, limousines and delivery trucks, is an important risk factor for felonious assaults and other forms of violence.
Being away from home. Transportation workers are frequently required to be away from home for periods of days or weeks in the maritime industry, for months.
In addition to the stress of living out of a suitcase, strange food and strange sleeping accommodations, there is the reciprocal stress of separation from family and friends. Most industrialized countries require transportation workers, especially drivers and operating crew members, to take periodic medical examinations to verify that their physical and mental capacities meet the requirements established by regulations.
Visual and hearing acuity, colour vision, muscular strength and flexibility and freedom from causes of syncope are some of the factors tested for. Accommodations, however, make it possible for many individuals with chronic disorders or disabilities to work without danger to themselves or others. In the United States, for example, employers are mandated by the federal Americans With Disabilities Act to provide such accommodations. Prescription and over-the-counter medications taken for a variety of disorders e.
The health and safety of workers in the transportation and warehousing industry are critical considerations, not only for the workers themselves but also for the public being transported or involved as bystanders. Safeguarding health and safety, therefore, is the joint responsibility of the employers, the employees and their unions and governments on all levels. Christine Proctor, Edward A.
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This recipe, while it may seem straightforward, threw me for a loop. I roasted 7 heads of cauliflower until I got it just right. The International Fair of Innovative Industrial Solutions Warsaw Industry Week is primarily a contracting event, addressed to business representatives.
The transport sector encompasses industries that are involved in the transportation of goods and passengers throughout the world. This sector is structurally complex and vitally important to economies locally, nationally and globally. The transport sector is vitally important to the economic viability of nations. Transportation plays a key role in economically important factors such as employment, utilization of raw and manufactured goods, investment of private and public capital and generation of tax revenues. In the United States alone, the Department of Transportation reported that in , there were approximately 7.
The 2016 Trailers Update
Search form Search. Abrasive powder or grain on a base of paper board etc. Abrasive powder or grain on a base of textile materials, manufacturing. Accessories and parts for general purpose machinery, manufacturing. Accessories and parts for pleasure and sporting boats, manufacturing. Accessories and parts of all types of machinery for apparel production, manufacturing. Accessories and parts of all types of machinery for leather production, manufacturing.
Despite the warnings of deadly contaminants on board, multinational SBM Offshore allowed a heavily polluted gas tanker to be demolished on an Indian beach in The tanker contained high concentrations of mercury. A specialized bureau warned SBM that workers could inhale mercury fumes during demolition, leading to lasting neurological damage or even death. From discussions with those directly involved, e-mails, and confidential documents obtained by ZEMBLA, it appears SBM attempted to conceal the presence of mercury in order to avoid millions of euros in cleanup costs.
And even many of those would be accommodated by some of the trailers offered by specialty builders around the country. Bread-and-butter loads — literally or figuratively — are carried by vans and reefers that account for the big majority of the trailer population on roads and in the yards of terminals and shipping points. A common goal among manufacturers of various trailer types is constant improvement through weight reduction, increased durability and lower maintenance, and greater hauling efficiency.
Mayo, Ireland. Editor: Jarlath Sweeney - editor fleet. Disclaimer: Fleet Transport Magazine management can accept no responsibility for the accuracy of contributed articles or statements appearing in this magazine and any views or opinions expressed are not necessarily those of Fleet Transport management, save where otherwise indicated. No responsibility for loss or distress occasioned to any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by the authors, contributors, Editors or publishers.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Military tech: The invisible tank PL-01 unveiled; Super-human strength armor suit - Compilation
Completed quarter hours towards a BA Degree. Major areas of study are Criminal Justice. Journey-level painter. Drove Tractor Trailer Tankers and various type Tractor Trailers in combat and war zones in Iraq, while working flexible work schedules. Operated materials handling equipment and military vehicles with a DVWR greater than 26, lbs.
GMC CCKW 2½-ton 6x6 truck
That evolution has been chronicled over the years in our annual top 3PLs special feature, as we have charted such trends as the increasing emphasis and reliance on technology, the constant march toward transparency and, most recently, the increasing pace of acquisitions and consolidations. This year, as we pieced together our list of great 3PLs, we were struck by two things: How increasingly global the global marketplace has become and how holistic 3PLs serving that marketplace strive to be. Keeping in mind that the vast majority of companies presented here could bounce between several of the categories, we present drum roll, please …. Throughout its more than 70 years in business, Bender Group has approached its mission with the nimble energy of a small business suffused with innovative and technology-based logistics solutions to help companies of all sizes simplify their supply chains from manufacturing source to end user. As an omni-channel fulfillment provider, it offers nationwide delivery to 99 percent of the U. Its retail expertise not only saves time and money but because the company is expert in grasping the requirements from front-end integration to out-the-door compliance, its investments in both direct integrations and connections with leading industry EDI providers allow customers to focus on growing their businesses within current channels and expand, without restriction, into new channels. Materialogic provides the hub to integrate your key e-commerce components; sophisticated tools that allow clients to manage their inventory to maximize turns while reducing out of stock occurrences, freeing up resources to grow and market while providing more control and visibility over fulfillment activities. It also provides immediate access to its business infrastructure that it can scale immediately to handle a rapid influx of orders from various selling sites, giving clients the confidence that every order gets out of the door on time and accurately.
When completing form T, Statement of Business or Professional Activities , form T, Statement of Fishing Activities , or form T, Statement of Farming Activities , you have to enter an industry code that corresponds to your main business activity. If your business has more than one activity, use the code that most closely describes your main business activity. For example, you might operate a bookstore in which you sell postage stamps. If none of the generalized industry codes closely describes your main business activity, you can get a suitable code from the complete list of North American Industry Classification System codes NAICS maintained by Statistics Canada. If you are filing your return electronically, you have to use the industry codes from your tax preparation software.
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