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Materials processing , the series of operations that transforms industrial materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or products. Materials processing by hand is as old as civilization; mechanization began with the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, and in the early 19th century the basic machines for forming, shaping, and cutting were developed, principally in England.
Since then, materials-processing methods, techniques, and machinery have grown in variety and number. The cycle of manufacturing processes that converts materials into parts and products starts immediately after the raw materials are either extracted from minerals or produced from basic chemicals or natural substances. Metallic raw materials are usually produced in two steps. First, the crude ore is processed to increase the concentration of the desired metal; this is called beneficiation.
Typical beneficiation processes include crushing, roasting, magnetic separation, flotation , and leaching. Second, additional processes such as smelting and alloying are used to produce the metal that is to be fabricated into parts that are eventually assembled into a product. In the case of ceramic materials, natural clay is mixed and blended with various silicates to produce the raw material. Plastic resins are produced by chemical methods in powder, pellet, putty , or liquid form.
Synthetic rubber is also made by chemical techniques, being produced, as is natural rubber, in such forms as slabs, sheeting, crepe, and foam for fabricating into finished parts. The processes used to convert raw materials into finished products perform one or both of two major functions: first, they form the material into the desired shape; second, they alter or improve the properties of the material.
Forming and shaping processes may be classified into two broad types—those performed on the material in a liquid state and those performed on the material in a solid or plastic condition.
The processing of materials in liquid form is commonly known as casting when it involves metals, glass , and ceramics; it is called molding when applied to plastics and some other nonmetallic materials. Most casting and molding processes involve four major steps: 1 making an accurate pattern of the part, 2 making a mold from the pattern, 3 introducing the liquid into the mold, and 4 removing the hardened part from the mold.
A finishing operation is sometimes needed. Materials in their solid state are formed into desired shapes by the application of a force or pressure. The material to be processed can be in a relatively hard and stable condition and in such forms as bar, sheet, pellet, or powder, or it can be in a soft, plastic, or puttylike form. Solid materials can be shaped either hot or cold. Processing of metals in the solid state can be divided into two major stages: first, the raw material in the form of large ingots or billets is hot-worked, usually by rolling , forging , or extrusion , into smaller shapes and sizes; second, these shapes are processed into final parts and products by one or more smaller scale hot or cold forming processes.
After the material is formed, it is usually further altered. Although removal processes are applied to most types of materials, they are most widely used on metallic materials. Material can be removed from a workpiece by either mechanical or nonmechanical means.
There are a number of metal-cutting processes. In almost all of them, machining involves the forcing of a cutting tool against the material to be shaped. The tool, which is harder than the material to be cut, removes the unwanted material in the form of chips.
Thus, the elements of machining are a cutting device, a means for holding and positioning the workpiece, and usually a lubricant or cutting oil. There are four basic noncutting removal processes: 1 in chemical milling the metal is removed by the etching reaction of chemical solutions on the metal; although usually applied to metals, it can also be used on plastics and glass, 2 electrochemical machining uses the principle of metal plating in reverse, as the workpiece, instead of being built up by the plating process, is eaten away in a controlled manner by the action of the electrical current, 3 electrodischarge machining and grinding erodes or cuts the metal by high-energy sparks or electrical discharges, 4 laser machining cuts metallic or refractory materials with an intense beam of light from a laser.
The term as used here includes welding , brazing , soldering , and adhesive and chemical bonding. In most joining processes, a bond between two pieces of material is produced by application of one or a combination of three kinds of energy: thermal, chemical, or mechanical. A bonding or filler material, the same as or different from the materials being joined, may or may not be used. The properties of materials can be further altered by hot or cold treatments, by mechanical operations, and by exposure to some forms of radiation.
The property modification is usually brought about by a change in the microscopic structure of the material. Both heat-treating, involving temperatures above room temperature, and cold-treating, involving temperatures below room temperature, are included in this category.
Thermal treatment is a process in which the temperature of the material is raised or lowered to alter the properties of the original material. Most thermal-treating processes are based on time-temperature cycles that include three steps: heating, holding at temperature, and cooling. Although some thermal treatments are applicable to most families of materials, they are most widely used on metals. There are two broad groups of finishing processes, those in which a coating, usually of a different material, is applied to the surface and those in which the surface of the material is changed by chemical action, heat, or mechanical force.
The first group includes metallic coating, such as electroplating; organic finishing, such as painting; and porcelain enameling. Materials processing. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.
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Computers in Industry
Discover how the evolving concept of Process Optimization as a Service offers a way to ensure long-term success of your plant. Side streams constitute the resulting biomass generated during production processes, much of which is still treated as waste. GEA is engaged with key partners in the EU to develop new ways to valorize fruit and vegetable residues by turning them into much sought-after functional proteins and other bioactive ingredients for use across diverse applications. GEA has been providing complete end-to-end production lines to the cheese manufacturing industry for decades. Drawing on our global experience, industry know-how and engineering expertise we bring together the very best in automated cheese production techniques and equipment. Nutritional Formula requires the best in processing equipment to meet strict requirements to product quality and safety. GEA has developed a complete range of components, technologies and integrated lines for the production of ketchup. Offering consistent and repeatable processing, our optimized ketchup manufacturing solutions deliver high quality, homogenous products with a long shelf-life. Using advanced data-driven and machine learning technologies, GEA OptiPartner increases the efficiency and productivity with full visibility of process.
FrymaKoruma is an experienced specialist in machines and systems for the production of liquid to semi-solid food — from the rough grinding of fruit and vegetables, the emulsification of sauces to the production of mustard or mayonnaise. We are specialists in the development of liquid and semi-solid cosmetics, from the finest grinding of dye particles to the homogenization of creams and lotions. From the dispersion of powders in liquids to the production of medical gels and ointments, we have the knowledge and experience to meet the high demands made of pharmaceutical products. We offer tailored processing systems for the production of paints and varnishes and for intermediate or final chemical products with consistently high product quality.
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Re- engineer your vision for how to leverage technology for competitive advantage. From system selection and implementation best practices to process development and system optimization. See how CapStone's new-generation laser technology and control capabilities deliver breakthrough productivity. Wafer processing and memory repair solutions that apply optimized laser technology for high-volume production without sacrificing yieldSEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The Paper Making Process
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The main objective of the Agro-processing Multi-service Facility in Central Farm is to provide training and technical assistance for the creation and expansion of small and medium sized agro-processing enterprises. The Agro- processing Unit focuses on product research and development for the transformation of local produce into value added agricultural products as well as the transfer of technology for agri- business development to improve income generation and food security. The main objective was to enhance food processing technology and the application of food science concepts in Belize. By , the ROC, Taiwan Technical Mission had already introduced equipment to be used for product research and training in food processing techniques, but the space to set up all the equipment was limited. As a result of this, an extension to the agro- processing building was constructed.
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Processing lines, machines and plants for the food production and processing on the highest technological and technical level are the basis for your success. These companies own strong brands in food processing, pharmaceutical, and health-care technologies. We connect all processing steps for your specific applications like mayonnaise, chocolate, hummus, chili sauce, purees, etc.! Contact us! For this we use Google Analytics.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. As the formal health care system has become increasingly stressed, patients are being released from hospitals and other health care facilities still needing care. As a consequence, both laypeople and professional caregivers are making use of a wide variety of technologies, some of them quite complex, in noninstitutional settings to manage their own health, assist others with health care, or receive assistance with health management. These technologies provide support not only for care related to acute and chronic medical conditions but also for disease prevention and lifestyle choices.
Materials processing , the series of operations that transforms industrial materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or products. Materials processing by hand is as old as civilization; mechanization began with the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, and in the early 19th century the basic machines for forming, shaping, and cutting were developed, principally in England. Since then, materials-processing methods, techniques, and machinery have grown in variety and number. The cycle of manufacturing processes that converts materials into parts and products starts immediately after the raw materials are either extracted from minerals or produced from basic chemicals or natural substances.