Production spreads and mixtures melted vegetable-creamy and vegetable-fat
Lipid Technologies and Applications. Frank D. Gunstone , Fred B. CRC Press , 13 mai - pagini. Discusses the nature of lipids, their major sources, and role in nutrition.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Hydrogenation: transform liquid oil into solid fat
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Effect of Using Different Kinds and Ratios of Vegetable Oils on Ice Cream Quality Characteristics
Margarine is a spreadable vegetable fat that has been developed to serve as an alternative for butter. It has a similar taste to the animal product and can replace it in almost any recipe. It is usually found as either a spread with a soft texture or as sticks similar to butter. It is widely available in almost any store and usually much cheaper than real butter. Margarine has become increasingly important all around the world, especially since vegetable fats were thought to be much healthier than the ones of animal origin, which suddenly made margarine very popular.
He prepared it for the first time in but didn't initially name it margarine. He developed it at the request of Napoleon III, since the emperor wanted a cheap butter alternative for the poorer citizens and the armed forces. Margarine is produced from a mixture of water and refined vegetable oils, although some milk might also be included. Butter is exclusively prepared from milk fat. It is also known as oleomargarine, or under the popular name "oleo" in some areas of the USA.
The structure of margarine is an emulsion of water in fat, where small drops of water are mixed with fats in crystalline form, similar to the one of butter. Margarine can be consumed in many ways, it is a versatile food that replaces butter in most recipes.
It is commonly spread on bread or used as a baking ingredient for doughnuts, pastries or cookies. Spreadable margarine is a very popular breakfast food, where it is added to many products such as toast bread, English muffin, bagels or biscuits.
One of the most common uses is as a topping in melted form for fresh popcorn. When melted, it is also added on green cooked vegetables or baked potatoes.
It is used as a cooking ingredient in many recipes, especially desserts like cakes, casseroles or pie crusts. Several types of vegetable oils can serve as raw material for margarine and a combination is generally used. The most popular are corn oil and soybean oil, which are favoured by most producers. It all starts with the hydrogenation of the oil and then more hydrogen is added to the mix.
This addition allows margarine to become solid and resemble the texture of real butter. Margarine is easier spreadable than butter, especially after refrigeration, because the oils in its composition are less affected by low temperatures.
Since it contains no animal fats and the overall fat content tends to be lower, margarine was considered for a very long time to be a healthier alternative for butter. However, some of the unsaturated fats present in the vegetable oils turn into saturated fats during the process of hydrogenation, which are dangerous for health.
Producers have responded by lowering the percentage of these saturated fats in the composition, in order to adapt to the requirements of a modern healthy diet. The modern production method of margarine is to start with a mixture of fats and vegetable oils, and then emulsify it.
Skimmed milk is sometimes added to the mix, which goes through hydrogenation, fractionation or interesterification. The final step is to achieve a texture similar to butter by cooling the mixture in order to make it solid. While fats of animal and vegetal origin are quite similar, their melting points are different and depend on the structure of the fatty acids components and whether carbon-carbon double bonds are present.
The melting point becomes lower if the number of such bonds is higher. A fat is considered to be oil if it is liquid at normal temperatures. The industrial process to hydrogenate natural oil is to inject oxygen into it, in special conditions, using nickel as a reaction catalyst. As a result, the structure of the fat becomes harder, as the melting point increases and it turns solid. The scientific explanation for this behaviour is complex and related to the saturated molecules having stronger van der Waals' forces compared to the unsaturated ones.
The process needs to be precisely controlled, since saturated fats are dangerous for human health. In order to counter this, their amount must be limited to the minimum required for a proper structure and texture of the product.
There is no way to avoid the presence of hydrogenated fats in margarine produced in this traditional method. It is still used today but new techniques have also been developed.
It is possible to alter the process by using palladium and other metal catalysts instead of nickel. A downside of the classic hydrogenation procedure is the presence of trans-fats in margarine. These molecules are considered to be very dangerous for heart health. The high temperature required for hydrogenation turns some of the molecules with carbon-carbon double bonds into trans-fats, due to the so-called partial hardening, which is an unfinished hydrogenation process.
Modern margarine production tries to reduce the amount of trans-fats as much as possible, in order to make it a healthier food item. This can be achieved by avoiding hydrogenation completely, using palm oil , coconut oil and other vegetal oils with a tropical origin. These are already in a partial solid state naturally. Numerous types of fats, of both animal and vegetal origin, can be used to produce margarine.
Salt , skimmed milk and emulsifier agents are usually added to the mix. The amount of fats and water depends on the purpose of the margarine, since it can be used to cooking, baking or as a spread. Vegetable oils are produced by pressing the raw seeds and then refining the liquid. Solid fats are then added to change the texture, or a hydrogenation process can be required to make the oils solid. Various ingredients are added to the mix, these include skimmed milk powder, water, citric acid and nutrients such as vitamins or carotenoids.
Preservatives are required to increase the shelf life of margarine, while lecithin and other emulsifiers make sure that water is evenly distributed in the oil mix. The final step is to heat up the composition in order to blend the ingredients, and then cool it back. Products with a softer texture tend to be healthier than block margarine, since they contain less hydrogenated fats. There are many types of margarine but three types are the most common.
Spreadable products are popular for breakfast and they have a high content of mono- or polyunsaturated fats, which give them a soft texture. They are usually produced from sunflower , safflower , rapeseed, olive , soybean or cottonseed oils. Hard blocks of margarine are considered less healthy are tend to be colorless, since they are used for baking or cooking purposes. Finally, some products are available in a bottle and are used as toppings in various dishes.
It consists of a variable combination of saturated and unsaturated fats. The actual percentages depend on the raw material. Margarine made from tropical oils such as palm kernel oil or coconut oil has more saturated fats than products made from canola or sunflower oil.
Another bioactive compounds found in margarine is an omega-3 fatty acid named ALA alpha-lineolic acid. It is beneficial for human health because it has an anti-inflammatory effect and reduces the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. It is possible to increase the amount of healthy omega-3 fatty acids in margarine by adding fish oil or flax seed oil to the mix.
Many commercial margarine brands also have plant sterol in their composition. This is added to make them healthier, since it is known to reduce blood cholesterol. Some of the fats in margarine become saturated in the industrial process of hydrogenation, or turn into trans-fats. These are considered to be especially unhealthy, since they increase the risk of heart conditions, cancer and other chronic diseases. The main problem caused by trans-fats is the reduced intake of good cholesterol HDL and increased level of bad one LDL.
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Fats in Spreadable Products
Chandan , Arun Kilara , Nagendra P. Coverage includes fluid milk products; cultured milk and yogurt; butter and spreads; cheese; evaporated and condensed milk; dry milks; whey and whey products; ice cream and frozen desserts; refrigerated desserts; nutrition and health; new product development strategies; packaging systems; and nonthermal preservation technologies; safety and quality management systems; and dairy laboratory analysis. Chandan, Ph. He has served on the faculty of Michigan State University and has taught dairy technology courses for seven years. Arun Kilara , Ph.
Fats in Food Products pp Cite as. The fat spreads market shows considerable regional variations on a global basis. Until recently the microstructure of volume market spreads has been that of emulsions mainly of a fat continuous nature with dispersed aqueous drops. The structure of the product is dominated by the crystallisation characteristics of the fat crystal size, shape and intercrystalline bonding. The stability of the product emulsion is significant during manufacture and spreading and also influences the perceived performance of the products especially those of the reduced fat type, which should predominantly invert to an oil in water emulsion on the palate.
Specific oils and shortenings for food manufacturers
Good food requires good ingredients. VFI offers a wide range of oils and fats for all uses in the food industry, and for commercial consumers. The highest product safety and the best quality for raw materials are a given. Our research and development team is permanently working on innovative solutions for particular challenges. So we encounter the latest trends in nutrition early on, and offer suitable products. We also develop tailor-made products for special requirements, together with our customers. VFI is the only manufacturer in Austria to offer AMA-certified rapeseed oil and sunflower oil for commercial consumers. Our range of organic oils and fats for industrial use is continually being expanded. Bakers and confectioners ensure variation in our diet with their range. The varied range and the demands on the quality of the products require optimum raw materials.
BUTTER AND DAIRY SPREADS
Of a variety of fat-and-oil products, a group of solid emulsion fat-and-oil products can be emphasized, including margarines, vegetable-cream and vegetable-fat spreads. These products were initially developed as an alternative to butter, however, their scope of application has significantly expanded at this stage of development of the food industry. It should be noted that the structure of consumption of solid fat-and-oil products has recently changed with a decrease in the proportion of consumed butter, margarines and spreads as edible products. The reason for these changes is due to a more attentive attitude of the population towards health and the fulfillment of the recommendations of the health authorities to reduce the consumption of fats, in particular, saturated fats. Despite this fact, the consumption of solid fat-and-oil products on the whole continues to grow.
Casimir C. Akoh , David B. CRC Press , 17 mar. Maintaining the high standards that made the previous editions such well-respected and widely used references, Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology, Third Edition tightens its focus to emphasize lipids from the point of entry into the food supply and highlights recent findings regarding antioxidants and lipid oxidation.
Structuring Fat Foods
Food Industry. Food fat provides taste, consistency, and helps us feel full. Fat is a major source of energy for the body, and aids in the absorption of lipid soluble substances including vitamins A, D, E, and K.
These guidelines are intended to provide a broad framework permitting the development of more specific group or individual standards, according to the requirements of individual countries. Fat spread: A fat spread is a food in the form of an emulsion mainly of the water-in-oil type , comprising principally an aqueous phase and edible fats and oils. Edible fats and oils: Foodstuffs mainly composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. They are of vegetable, animal, milk or marine origin. Tables
Margarine : Is a spread used for spreading, baking, and cooking. Margarine is made mainly of hydrogenated or refined plant oils and water. While butter is made from fat from milk, margarine is made from plant oils and may also contain milk. In some locales it is colloquially referred to as "oleo", short for oleomargarine. Margarine, like butter , consists of water-in-fat emulsion, with tiny droplets of water dispersed uniformly throughout a fat phase which is in a stable crystalline form. Margarine can be used both for spreading and for baking and cooking.
The aim of this study was to develop ice cream products using different types of oils, a sensory ballot to focus on the textural attributes of new ice cream products, evaluate physicochemical properties of these products and physical measurements. Ice cream is a frozen product consumed all over the world in dairy products [ 1 ]. After the first and general definition, ice creams have been defined as food systems called polyphasic. These daily products include ice crystals, air bubbles, protein-hydrocolloid structures, a cryoconcentrated aqueous phase, emulsified fat, proteins and salts.
Margarine is a spreadable vegetable fat that has been developed to serve as an alternative for butter. It has a similar taste to the animal product and can replace it in almost any recipe. It is usually found as either a spread with a soft texture or as sticks similar to butter. It is widely available in almost any store and usually much cheaper than real butter.
After introductory chapters which present the chemical, physical, functional and microbiological characteristics of dairy ingredients, the book addresses the technology associated with the manufacture of the major dairy ingredients, focusing on those parameters that affect their performance and functionality in food systems. The popular applications of dairy ingredients in the manufacture of food products such as dairy foods, bakery products, processed cheeses, processed meats, chocolate as well as confectionery products, functional foods, and infant and adult nutritional products, are covered in some detail in subsequent chapters. Topics are presented in a logical and accessible style in order to enhance the usefulness of the book as a reference volume.
Butter is made from the butterfat of milk, whereas modern margarine is made mainly of refined vegetable oil and water. In some places in the United States, it is colloquially referred to as oleo , short for oleomargarine. Due to its versatility, margarine can be used as an ingredient in other food products, such as pastries, doughnuts, cakes and cookies. In , the German structural chemist Wilhelm Heinrich Heintz analyzed margaric acid as simply a combination of stearic acid and the previously unknown palmitic acid. Emperor Napoleon III of France offered a prize to anyone who could make a satisfactory butter alternative, suitable for use by the armed forces and the lower classes.
Да я бы ничего и не взял у умирающего. О небо. Только подумайте. Беккер встревожился: - Так кольца у вас. - Боже мой, конечно. Беккер ощутил тупую боль в желудке.
- У кого же .
- Solo el escroto. Беккер даже прервал свое занятие и посмотрел на лейтенанта. Solo el escroto. Он с трудом сдержал улыбку.