Storage building frozen and deep-frozen foods
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- Difference between freezing and deep freezing
- Frozen Food
- Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream
- Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream
- Refrigerator and Freezer Storage
- DuPont Nutrition & Health Lays the Foundation for New Deep-Freeze Warehouse
Difference between freezing and deep freezing
Module 2. Food freezing. Lesson Food and dairy products are perishable in nature. They should be stored at low temperatures in order to increase their shelf life. Cold storages and deep freezers are used for this purpose. If the temperature in the room is up to 0 o C it is generally known as cold store and if temperature is 0 o C to — 22 o C it is known as deep freeze. Food, on being stored, may get spoilt by three mechanisms:.
In addition, rough handling, careless packing or unsuitable packaging can reduce storage life. The rate at which biochemical reactions occur in food increases with increasing temperature. The logarithm of the reaction rate is a linear function of temperature.
The lower the storage temperature, the more slowly do foods suffer degradation by those biochemical spoilage reactions listed above. In addition, the rate of growth of bacteria is reduced as the temperature falls and low temperature storage frozen storage has some bactericidal effect. Most insect activity is inhibited below about 4 o C although some insect species and insect eggs are capable of surviving long exposures to those temperatures. From all this, it might be inferred that a reduction in storage temperature inevitably results in an extension of the storage life.
Foods containing water will freeze, if their temperature is lowered much below 0 o C , the actual freezing temperature depending upon the nature of the aqueous solution in the food. Even if held above the freezing temperature, deleterious physiological changes can result in the spoilage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Apples stored close to their freezing point can exhibit forms of injury not observed at slightly higher temperatures.
Soggy or low temperature breakdown, internal browning, brown core or core flush result from storage at 0 o C , but are not a problem at o C. There is evidence that ripe tomatoes can be stored at lower temperature than green tomatoes which can suffer cold injury below 7 o C resulting in abnormal ripening and susceptibility to rots. Storage of potatoes below 3 o C is undesirable as they are susceptible to chilling injury. However, even above this temperature there can be a change in the starch — sugar balance leading to the accumulation of sugar in the tissues making the tubers unsuitable for processing into chips or crisps.
Storage at o C is recommended to avoid this. Another factor to be taken into consideration is the cost of storage when storage temperature is lowered. To the prime cost of foods put into storage must be added the cost of maintaining them under the chosen storage conditions. Thus, stored foods have increased costs even if they do not increase in value. Hence, storage temperatures need to be no more elaborate than those required to maintain the stored commodity in good condition up to the time of use.
This concept has been applied particularly to the storage and distribution of frozen food products. Here, provided the products are suitably packaged, the deterioration is almost entirely a function of temperature. Three factors influence the choice of the storage temperatures for a particular commodity:. If the humidity of a store atmosphere is below the equilibrium relative humidity of the food being stored that food will lose moisture to the atmosphere.
Conversely, if it is above ERH of the food, the latter will absorb water. Thus, ideally the RH of the store atmosphere should be adjusted to the ERH of the stored product, for instance, granulated white sugar has a moisture content of about 0. If the moisture content rises to 0. Thus, as with temperature, there is often an optimum condition for storage. The ERH of a product has a considerable bearing on its vulnerability to microbial attack. When expressed as a fraction, instead of percentage, the ERH is known as the water activity of the material.
But in materials with lower water activity, it is the fungi that cause the most trouble. Insects can also flourish in foods with comparatively low water activity. Packaging can be used to isolate the environment of the food from the store air and so allow foods to be held at ERH in storage atmospheres of undermined relative humidity. Occasionally, treatment of the surface of foods achieves the same purpose. Thus, shell eggs lose water freely and require high humidity environment if they are not to experience excessive weight loss.
This may lend microbial growth on the egg shell and consequent tainting of the egg. Treating the shell with oil improves its water vapor barrier properties and allows the humidity of the store to be lowered, so avoiding more growth.
Recommended levels of store RH have been published for many products. A variety of food materials are advantageously stored in atmosphere different from normal air. The most noteworthy example of this occurs in the refrigerated storage of fruit. Fresh fruits respire, taking up oxygen and evolving carbon dioxide.
The rate of respiration can be reduced by cooling so extending storage life, but can be further reduced by storing the fruit in an atmosphere richer in carbon dioxide and poorer in oxygen than normal air. In the case of apples and pears, particularly worthwhile increase in storage life is possible and this technique which is known as controlled atmosphere or gas storage is in extensive commercial use.
The oxygen and carbon dioxide levels used vary markedly between varieties and are controlled to optimum values, since too great a modification of the storage atmosphere can lead to secondary spoilage.
This technique is used extensively for the storage of fruits such as apples, pears and oranges and is receiving some attention for improving the quality of vegetables in storage and transportation. Storage in carbon dioxide was at one time also used with meat. If grain is stored in an air tight silo, insects, mites and moulds can be controlled by the atmosphere they generate.
These organisms use up the oxygen in the enclosed space and asphyxiate or suffocate themselves before becoming numerous enough to cause damage. Dry grain can be stored in this manner with little loss of its functional properties.
However, wet grain will lose its power of germination, making it unfit for seed or malting and develop a taint which is transmitted to baked goods made from it — though it remains suitable for animal feed.
Air tight storage is more satisfactory for non-viable food materials sufficiently dry to be protected against microbial growth, for example, ground roast coffee. In such cases, oxygen may be excluded from the container or package by replacing the air in it by inert gases like nitrogen or carbon dioxide or by a vacuum. Stored produce may pick up foreign odors and flavors from other food stuffs stored with it or from inappropriate packing materials or from storage chamber and environment. Foods with strong odors, like spiced meat, smoked fish, citrus fruits, etc and spoiled meat and fish are likely to cause tainting.
Packaging materials may either themselves contribute odors or be contaminated during production. Adhesives and printing materials may also cause trouble. Finally the constructional materials of the store may become contaminated or taints may be absorbed from vapors entering the store from outside, while such taints do not alter the nutritional status of the food, its commercial value can be seriously affected.
Fatty foods are particularly liable to absorb odors. Butter is very sensitive to tainting and meat shipped to England has been found to be tainted by diesel and fuel oil fumes, smoke and fruits, particularly oranges. Eggs will also pick up taints fairly easily. The most satisfactory method of avoiding problems of tainting during storage is to avoid taint absorbing foods in the presence of odoriferous materials.
Suitable packaging can help to preserve food untainted and activated charcoal and ozone have been used for removing odorous volatiles from food stores. Unfortunately, the concentrations of ozone for efficient action are toxic and so require special care, both in their use and in the purification of air in the chamber afterwards. To be efficient, after these treatments, the surfaces of the chamber and the refrigerator should be thoroughly cleaned treating all surfaces with a disinfectant.
It is worth remembering that these processes are all the more effective when the chamber temperatures are high enough. The UV in the Sun Rays will quickly impart a taint to the butter and milk by oxidizing their fats, potatoes exposed to light turn green due to formation of chlorophyll.
In storage buildings, the effect of light on produce is normally unimportant since daylight does not penetrate into them and a low level of artificial light is provided. Where high intensity lighting from fluorescent tubes is used to display foods, the UV rays from such lights are more intense than those from tungsten filament lighting and have been shown to be sufficient to oxidize fats, bleach colors and green the potatoes.
Packaging in colored plastic film or the use of color filters on the light fittings will reduce the effects but are not satisfactory from commercial point of view. Both spatial and temporal variations may be found in the conditions in a good food store.
Temporal variations may either be transient, resulting say from recently introduced material coming to an equilibrium state in the store — or they may be periodic in nature and a permanent feature of the storage situation. The main causes of variability in storage conditions are:. The effect of such variations is often complex, inter-related changes occurring in the temperature, humidity and atmosphere composition throughout the store.
The magnitude of spatial variations in storage conditions are considerably influenced by the mode of transfer of heat and gases within the stack of stored material. If the store air does not move through the stack diffusional mechanisms and thermal conduction predominate and larger variations will be observed than when the store air moves and promotes additional convective transfer.
Thus, in order to maintain uniform conditions throughout the store, such air movement is desirable. The produce must therefore be stacked in the store that air flow through the stack is facilitated. Air circulation through the stack may either be fan assisted or due solely to the thermally generated density gradients in the air. The latter system is more frequently used today because the cooling systems are less bulky and cheaper. The most frequently used forced convection systems use a cooling system and fan located in separate enclosures connected to the store by delivery and return air ducts located in a floor mounted vertical duct or built into a compact unit which may be suspended from the ceiling of the store.
These units use fin tube heat exchangers. It is sometimes advantageous of the fan and duct systems in forced ventilation stores are so constructed that the direction of air flow can be reversed. Periodic air reversal can reduce the spatial temperature variations during the initial cooling of a room full of, say, fruit to strange temperature. Refrigerated storage rooms are thermally insulated to reduce heat leakage. The insulation is normally fixed to the structural walls, ceiling and the floor of the room, though pre-fabricated panels have recently become more commonly used in conjunction with a steel or concrete load bearing framework.
Insulation is sometimes desirable in unrefrigerated storage. For instance, root vegetables and potatoes can be stored in clamps or barns using either earth or straw as an insulating material. The purpose of the insulation is to minimize the effects of sudden ambient changes on the produce and so prevent frost damage. Canned foods may be transported in insulated vehicles for the same reason, while too little insulation would lead to high refrigeration costs and over insulation would initially be more expensive and will reduce the available storage space in the building, cabinet or container.
Another important source of heat leakage into a refrigerated store is air exchange at the door. This exchange is reduced by a variety of methods. The time the door is open may be minimized by automatic opening and closing mechanisms, double doors may be installed forming an air lock or an air curtain fixed above the outside of the doorway.
Manufacturers and distributors of convenience foods require efficient refrigeration and freezing technologies for storage and transport of products. Investment in effective refrigeration management systems is a minimum requirement both for manufacturers and the distribution chain. GEA engineers can design an efficient, cost effective and environmentally sustainable refrigeration or freezing solution for every type of food. GEA chillers are suitable for just about any area of industrial refrigeration, and are available as piston compressor and screw compressor units. GEA freezer technology encompasses tunnel, carton and spiral freezers.
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Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream
Freezing is a quick and convenient way to preserve fruits and vegetables at home. Home frozen fruits and vegetables of high quality and maximum nutritional value can be produced done correctly. Our directions are based on:. Fresh fruits and vegetables, when harvested, continue to undergo chemical changes which can cause spoilage and deterioration of the product. This is why these products should be frozen as soon after harvest as possible and at their peak degree of ripeness. Fresh produce contains chemical compounds called enzymes which cause the loss of color, loss of nutrients, flavor changes, and color changes in frozen fruits and vegetables. These enzymes must be inactivated to prevent such reactions from taking place.
Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream
This report states that one of the main challenges facing this industry is the high amount of energy needed to run refrigerated and frozen warehousing facilities. With a majority of the frozen and refrigerated food and beverage industry investing in larger warehouse operations, it is no surprise that energy consumption is through the roof. Throughout the article, Hinchey discusses how implementing warehouse automation in refrigerated and frozen facilities will greatly reduce cost while optimizing the facilities. Our Mission: To deliver unparalleled warehousing solutions by earning the trust of our customers, understanding their business needs and honoring the commitments we make.
The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from
Refrigerator and Freezer Storage
Refrigerator temperatures do not destroy pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms. The lower temperature does, however, slow the growth of microorganisms already in the food. Perishable food will deteriorate, even at refrigerator temperatures, due to spoilage microorganisms, enzymes and oxidation.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: BEST way to freeze food & organize your deep freezer!
Refrigeration used to preserve foods dates back to prehistoric times. At the time, people used snow and ice to store hunting products. Slow freezing was risky; it was not until the 20 th century that the commercialization of frozen foods began with the discovery of a rapid freezing method: the deep freezing. In order to reach a negative core temperature for preservation, there are 2 options: freezing or deep freezing. Freezing is a technique which involves a slow decrease up to 24h in temperature.
DuPont Nutrition & Health Lays the Foundation for New Deep-Freeze Warehouse
The 70,square-foot state-of-the-art facility supports the growth of the local natural and organic frozen food processing, including frozen desserts dairy and non-dairy, fruits, vegetables, proteins, bakery, yogurt, beverages and more. Features include 7, racked pallet positions, LED lights, variable speed drives, insulation upgrades, refrigeration control systems and high-tech air curtains on freezer doors to eliminate frost buildup in the freezer. All of this adds up to a projected energy savings of more than 1,, kwh per year, which is the equivalent usage of homes in the United States. All SnoTemp warehouses are equipped with the latest in food safety and security systems. Custom handling solutions include case-picking, temperature-controlled, small-parcel shipping, re-pack operations, quick-freezing, container handling and rail logistics. This website requires certain cookies to work and uses other cookies to help you have the best experience. By visiting this website, certain cookies have already been set, which you may delete and block.
Module 2. Food freezing. Lesson
The new deep-freeze warehouse will be run with a temperature of minus 55 degrees centigrade. Furthermore, a heat recovery system will be integrated into the refrigeration technology. A two-story building with square meters of floor space at each level will be in front of the new deep-freeze warehouse.
If you work in the cold chain market, you understand the importance of temperature control. However, did you ever consider adding an ultra-low temperature freezer to your facility or store for storage purposes? A backup freezer storage container helps companies control the quality of their frozen products and prepare for the unexpected. To meet the global demand for frozen products, companies can benefit from boosting efficiency.
Cold chains are temperature controlled supply chains. That means that on their path from the producer to the consumer certain products have to be kept, transported and stored continuously under defined temperature conditions at each individual trade level. Cold chains guarantee the storage life of seafood products, linking up far-off regions of the world and thereby enabling global trade. The theoretical shelf-life of many products can often only be achieved if they are kept constantly within a certain temperature regime.
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