Units industry lumbering Products
Some largest producers are also among the biggest timberland owners. The wood industry plays a dominating role in today's wood economy. Processing and products differs especially with regard to the distinction between softwood and hardwood. Both types can be of use for building and residential construction purposes e.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Timber business 'booming' as global demand soars
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Wood Processing Residues
Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. Softwood, derived from coniferous trees , supplies most of the manufacturers in these industries and is cut primarily in British Columbia. The remainder of the industry is supplied by hardwood from deciduous trees, e. Though technically not hardwood, Alberta produces large volumes of aspen and poplar.
The products created by the lumber and wood industries include lumber, veneer, plywood, particleboard, oriented strand board formerly called flake, chip, or wafer board , wood pellets and wood composites or engineered wood. These products are created by mechanical processes such as sawing, peeling, slicing or chipping. They also produce, as residual by-products, wood chips, sawdust and shavings.
In addition, increasing attention is being paid to both the chemicals and fuels that can be extracted from wood. Of all these products, lumber is the most significant in terms of value and volumes manufactured. In Canada, the principal softwood lumber species are spruce , pine , hemlock , Douglas fir , larch and western red cedar , while the predominant hardwood species are birch , maple and oak.
British Columbia produces roughly two-thirds of the softwood lumber supply, and as a result, softwood plywood is manufactured predominantly in that province. Most of the lumber produced in Canada is exported; less than 40 per cent is consumed domestically. For nearly as long, however, and especially since the s, Canadian lumber producers have been subjected to a number of tariffs and restrictions that were imposed by the American government in an effort to protect lumber producers in the US from Canadian competition.
The result has been a long-simmering trade dispute that has been punctuated by agreements that have never resolved the issue see Softwood Lumber Dispute. As a result, Canadian lumber producers have endeavoured to decrease their dependence on the American market, enjoying considerable success in this regard.
The same can be said for India and Korea, which are now important purchasers of Canadian lumber. Over roughly the last half century, the number of large sawmills in Canada has decreased significantly. Although this attrition has been a function of the trend towards larger, more technically efficient manufacturing complexes, other factors have also been at work.
Mechanical or hydraulic debarking is the first step in converting a sawlog into lumber. In conventional sawmills, large logs are placed on a moving log carriage and passed repeatedly through a band or circular saw, each pass producing boards that normally require further processing on edgers, resaws and trimsaws. In sawmills that process small-diameter logs, the primary unit may be a chipper canter with integrated sawing units, or a system of multiple-band or circular saws, designed to operate at speeds up to m per minute.
About three-quarters of the lumber produced in Canada is further processed in planer mills that smooth the rough surfaces and dimension the pieces. Plywood is an engineered product. Wood is reduced to thin sheets of veneer, then glued together with the grain direction of adjacent sheets at right angles, making each panel stable and strong. Veneers are produced by holding a log firmly at each end in a lathe and rotating it against a knife.
The veneer exits from the lathe knife in a continuous ribbon that is clipped to desired widths or to eliminate defects. After drying, the veneers are sorted into sets, each of which will form a plywood panel of the desired thickness and size.
Alternate sheets are coated with glue that forms a waterproof bond when subjected to high temperature and pressure in a hot press. The rough plywood panels are then trimmed and may be sanded. To ensure uniform quality, lumber and plywood are graded into categories by standardized procedures.
Most of the lumber produced in Canada is used in construction, mainly for house building; it is classed as dimension lumber and is graded into width and use categories. Other classes of lumber include factory lumber and shop lumber used to manufacture high-quality mouldings , panelling and flooring. Softwood plywood is produced in three grades: sanded for high-quality finishing , unsanded for construction use and overlaid for special uses.
For general construction and other structural purposes, the most common type of panel is sheathing, the unsanded grade. About half the plywood consumed in Canada is used in house building and agricultural construction; industrial uses take up another third; the balance is consumed in a multitude of miscellaneous uses.
Wood particleboard is a panel product manufactured by bonding particles of wood together with an adhesive in a press. Since the product is manufactured from small pieces of wood, properties of the finished board, such as density, hardness and elasticity, can be engineered into the panel.
The various wood elements are screened and separated by size and shape so that their integration in the finished product can be controlled. The particles are then dried by heat and circulation and mixed with thermosetting bonding agents.
The mixture is then meshed together in a layup for final pressing under heat. The most common type of particleboard manufactured in Canada is the three-layered, graduated mat-formed variety. By preparing the core and surface material separately — segregating the coarser materials into the centre and the finer particles to the surface — the manufacturer can create a board that can be sanded to an even, smooth surface, with the desired mechanical properties in each layer.
The fibre lengths of the particles are distributed in a random pattern, so that internal stresses average to zero, resulting in an extremely stable finished product. Major uses of particleboard are furniture and cabinet panels and cores, and floor underlay; minor uses include interior-wall sheathing and mobile-home decking. Oriented-strand board is an engineered, structural panel made from large, thin strands cut from roundwood.
Like particleboard, the panel is manufactured from pieces of wood which can be designed in size, thickness and profile, allowing the properties of the board to be engineered into the panel. These strands are mixed with waterproof phenolic resin and interleaved together in thick mats, which are then bonded together under heat and pressure.
The result is a solid, uniform building panel with high strength and water resistance, properties that make strand board suitable for most construction applications. Some examples of uses are wall and roof sheathing, subflooring and underlay, cladding and soffits. The panels are also widely used for farm structures, industrial packaging, crating and warehouse pallets.
These include the production of a range of wood composites that can be used to replace traditional materials, most often plastics. Many one-industry towns in Canada that previously relied upon the lumber and wood industries for their existence and have since lost their mills or watched them shrink in size are hopeful that applying technology to their traditional enterprise will reinvigorate their communities.
Search The Canadian Encyclopedia. Remember me. I forgot my password. Why sign up? Create Account. Accessed 10 January In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Article published February 07, ; Last Edited May 27, The Canadian Encyclopedia , s.
Article by David Milton , Mark Kuhlberg. Immense softwood lumber pile in Saguenay, Quebec. Photo taken on: August 21, Also called Canadian spruce, with female flowers top left , male flowers bottom left and cones artwork by Claire Tremblay. Pines are Canada's most common conifers. Jack Pine shown with male flowers and cones artwork by Claire Tremblay.
A young sapling western hemlock stands alongside more mature hemlocks in a coastal British Columbia Canada forest. Douglas fir with male flowers bottom left , female flowers top left and cones artwork by Claire Tremblay. Eastern larch, also called tamarack, with young fruit and older cones artwork by Claire Tremblay.
An old growth rainforest of Western Red Cedar remains protected witihn an ecological reserve in coastal southern BC. This was the birch that the native people found so useful for canoes and utensils. Shown with cones and flowers artwork by Claire Tremblay. A maple tree in autumn. Bur oak occurs as far west as Manitoba artwork by Claire Tremblay. Previous Next. Early in industrialization, usually only large factories were able to use the costly and heavy steam engine. David Milton , Mark Kuhlberg.
Wood products - production and trade
This article is part of a set of statistical articles that the Eurostat online publication "Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics" is based on. It presents statistics on production and trade in wood products in the European Union EU. Apart from the forests' ecological value, their role as an essential landscape element in the EU and their importance for some non-economic uses, such as recreation, forests are also an economic resource. This article presents indicators on the volume of roundwood and sawnwood production as well as on the performance and employment of the EU's wood-based industries. The last part of the article covers figures on international trade in timber, and in particular tropical wood.
Lumber North American English or timber used in the rest of the English-speaking world is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks , a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber. It may be supplied either rough- sawn , or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood , rough lumber is the raw material for furniture -making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping.
Forest Products Industry
Citation: Journal of Industrial Ecology 1 3 : — The forest and the creatures it shelters exemplify nature, and logging exemplifies the impacts of humans. Since population rose more than three times and gross domestic product GDP per person almost five. Despite more people, affluence, and logging, U. Consumers, millers, and foresters, responding to changes in style, ethics, and technology, have contributed to these outcomes. We examine the role of each actor in the industrial ecology of forests for their leverage for sparing forests. Millers became highly efficient at utilizing wood and recycled fiber for their material or energy, a success that limits their future leverage. Foresters have leverage to grow trees faster and thus use less forest land to grow and harvest timber. Steady or declining demand for trees coupled to productive forests could spare more U. Keywords: agriculture, forest land, forest management, forestry, forests, industrial ecology, intensity of use, land use, material efficiency, timer removals, wood products.
Log In. North Carolina has about Most of the wood and fiber resources available throughout the state have been consumed by several sawmills, pulp and Oriented Strand Board OSB mills, and recently pellet mills. That demand motivates the production of mature, sawtimber-sized trees suitable for producing lumber. Softwood tree species, predominantly the southern yellow pines Pinus spp.
Delayed shipments occurred first in the U. In the second half of fiscal , the opposite occurred: shipments swamped the market, plunging prices by 50 per cent. While average prices for U. The outcome is that higher-cost mills in western North America have been curtailing production to contend with below-cost prices, but overall supply and demand fundamentals continue to look reasonable for
Not a complete drying process! Lumber is piled in alternating layers separated by narrow sticks to permit air circulation around lumber with minimal stain. Band Sawn — Saw blade tooth markings kerf on face are at right angle to edge of board.
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To understand economies and industry sectors related to forestry and lumber it is important to first understand the significance of forests to the U. Forests after all are where wood comes from. Source: U. Forest Service. The forest themselves, along with the services to manage them, extract and produce wood, and turn or convert wood into products are all part of the supply chain industries that make of forest and lumber industries.
Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. Softwood, derived from coniferous trees , supplies most of the manufacturers in these industries and is cut primarily in British Columbia. The remainder of the industry is supplied by hardwood from deciduous trees, e.
Inventory analysis of the timber industry in Ghana
Michigan's 20 million acres of forest land support a diverse industry and some of the best hard maple and red oak timber in the world. Our forest products industry has:. A free, searchable directory listing Michigan's sawmills, pulp and paper mills, manufacturers of wood products, loggers, truckers, brokers and other forest products businesses.
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The effects in the US South, in particular, have created a market situation with both advantages and disadvantages for various stakeholders in the supply chain. The mills that survived invested in new technology that improved efficiency and lowered costs. At the same time, as demand dwindled and log prices collapsed, landowners simply chose not to sell timber, opting instead to wait out the down cycle.