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The Internet of Things Connectivity Binge: What Are the Implications?
Internet of Things IoT management systems require scalability, standardized communication, and context-awareness to achieve the management of connected devices with security and accuracy in real environments. Interoperability and heterogeneity between hardware and application layers are also critical issues. To attend to the network requirements and different functionalities, a dynamic and context-sensitive configuration management system is required.
Thus, reference architectures RAs represent a basic architecture and the definition of key characteristics for the construction of IoT environments.
Therefore, choosing the best technologies of the IoT management platforms and protocols through comparison and evaluation is a hard task, since they are difficult to compare due to their lack of standardization. However, in the literature, there are no management platforms focused on addressing all IoT issues. For this purpose, this paper surveys the available policies and solutions for IoT Network Management and devices. Among the available technologies, an evaluation was performed using features such as heterogeneity, scalability, supported technologies, and security.
Based on this evaluation, the most promising technologies were chosen for a detailed performance evaluation study through simulation and deployment in real environments.
In terms of contributions, these protocols and platforms were studied in detail, the main features of each approach are highlighted and discussed, open research issues are identified as well as the lessons learned on the topic. Initially, computer networks were created for communicating as a mean of sharing endpoint devices with the same standards of networks, protocols, and operating systems. However, the fast evolution of networks combined with a reduction of computational resources costs motivated the increase of computer networks in all markets [ 1 ].
Considering this scenario, it becomes increasingly necessary to manage the network environment to keep it working properly. Due to the emergence of the Internet of Things IoT , it is expected an exponential growth of network endpoint devices NEDs becoming a challenge in the areas of infrastructure, security, energy saving, among others [ 2 ]. The continued growth in the number and diversity of network components has also contributed to the fact that network management activity has become increasingly indispensable [ 3 ].
For this reason, an efficient data management system is required by IoT networks, so the information is always available wherever and whenever requested [ 4 ]. IoT management presents two main scopes: devices and networks. In each of them, there is a huge variety of protocols and management platforms to minimize the challenges presented later [ 5 ]. Given the number of existing protocols and platforms, an evaluation should determine which IoT management protocols are capable of efficiently satisfying the application requirements and which platforms support these protocols for real environments real deployment.
Communication between devices performing machine-to-machine communication M2M , Wireless Sensor Networks WSNs for monitoring and control processes, and the interconnection of WSNs with the Internet are examples of some challenges of managing an IoT network [ 6 ]. Network devices using software-based communication known as software-defined networks—SDN gathers, detects, and configures data from sensors, thus creating the context of managing a network.
Figure 1 presents a typical scenario involving different communication technologies and a gateway where connected devices collect information from the environment e. One of the most important challenges in this IoT scenario is the network device heterogeneity [ 8 , 9 ].
Devices can support different communication protocols with different formats and data types, memory and processing capacity [ 10 ]. Another important factor is the data set produced in real time and the implicit semantics imposing challenges regarding the configuration and infrastructure of IoT environments [ 11 ].
An illustration of the heterogeneity of protocols for IoT is shown in Figure 1. IoT needs to support networking devices and services that involve i the use of a plethora of devices with diverse characteristics, and ii the IoT networks devices interaction through local or remote management context awareness.
WSNs should manage frequent communications failures and low security of wireless links i. The available IoT management architectures partially attend to these features [ 14 ]. Therefore, this survey elaborates on a deep study of the related literature focusing on available solutions, tools, and policies, including approaches for IoT networks and end devices management.
Among the available technologies for IoT, an evaluation was performed using features its heterogeneity, scalability, supported technologies and security. Then, the main contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows:.
An extensive review of the related literature considering network management protocols and platforms for IoT;. A comparative analysis of the available IoT protocols and network management platforms for IoT;. Identification of challenges and open research issues on IoT management and its importance for further studies on the topic. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 addresses important background information on network and device management.
The IoT Network Management protocols and the most relevant platforms available in literature are detailed in Section 4 and Section 5 respectively. IoT Device Management and its requirements are introduced in Section 6. Section 9 presents a performance evaluation study of IoT management technologies and proposes open research issues based on obtained results.
Finally, the lessons learned and the main conclusions are addressed in Section Computer networks are composed by heterogeneous communication devices and sharing resources [ 15 ]. Computer networks management emerged after a rapid evolution of network technologies, in addition to a major effort to reduce the costs of computing resources [ 16 ]. The offered services range from simple resources sharing to current technology and assume that every object can be connected to the Internet.
This is known to as the IoT. Network management goals controlling and monitoring network elements, physical or logical, ensuring a certain quality of service QoS level.
To accomplish this task, define network management as a collection of tools for monitoring or managing devices [ 17 ]. The traditional network management model can be summarized as follows: i data collection from monitoring managed resources automatically, ii diagnosis to analyze and solve identified problems throughout the monitored data, and iii action or control to solve a problem or modify the state of a device [ 18 ].
For Kurose et al. According to Gabdurahmanov [ 19 ], network management can be difficult for three reasons: i the managed network is heterogeneous because it contains hardware and software components manufactured by various companies; ii technology can change continuously with new services available; and iii the managed networks are large and the network nodes may be distant from other nodes. Kurose et al.
Performance management intends to analyze, measure, inform, and control the performance of different network components, i. In failure, the purpose is to log, detect, and react to network failure conditions.
The division between fault management and performance management is undefined [ 20 ]. Failure management can occur through transient network failures, such as the interruption of service on a link or routing software. Performance management, however, takes a long-term approach.
The administrator can know the managed network devices and their hardware configurations through management actions [ 21 ]. Accounting is intended to allow the network administrator to specify, register, and control access to users and devices of the network. Quotas and usage charges for privileged access to the network resources make up the accounting management. According to organization policies defined, the network resources access is performed with security management.
In Figure 3 , the general architecture of network management systems presents the following four basic components: elements, stations, protocols, and information on network management [ 18 ]. They are briefly described below. Agent : The managed elements have a software that allows monitoring and controlling the equipment through one or more management stations;.
Manager : Management station communicates with the agents, either for monitoring or controlling them. Usually, the management station offers an interface through which authorized users can manage the network;. Protocol : The standard protocol, used for operations of monitoring reading and control writing ; it is necessary for information exchange between manager and agent devices;.
Management information : The management information has the data that can be referenced for operations by the management protocol, i. Since the proposal of IoT years ago, many ideas have had three main constraints that restrict its development [ 23 ]: i proprietary communication protocols, ii security and privacy, and iii inconvenience to manage. Thus, the paper focuses on network and Device Management and if it is feasible to address management constraints.
Due to the specific characteristics and challenges of IoT, devices cannot be managed using only the traditional management tools. IoT Device Management is required to provide the device location and status information, e. IoT Network Management often needs to adapt the unknown topology of these networks by providing device location and status information. Managing services should have the capacity to disconnect and locate lost devices, modify security settings, delete device data, and more.
Delicato et al. Thus, it is important that a management platform enables the devices to dynamically detect other devices present in the environment to meet the requirements of the applications. All the time, new devices compose these networks, therefore, the IoT management platforms require a customized module driver to translate device functionality into the platform.
IoT management solutions must meet some requirements [ 14 ]. For example, there must be interoperability between platforms and network devices.
The platform must obtain the connected devices dynamically through discovery and management. A solution should be context aware and support scalability considering indications of intensive usage.
Security and dynamic adaptation should keep data integrity and privacy guaranteeing devices availability and QoS.
Existing IoT management platforms, however, only partially meet these requirements [ 14 ]. Due to lack of standardization, IoT management needs to specify data and information models, in which these models are used to define a format for storing and deploying other management services. In addition to the above requirements and other aspects such as security, authentication and authorization, there are characteristics in the scope of local and global management which are discussed in [ 26 ].
In the IoT reference architecture [ 27 ], network management includes functional components. Configuration self-configuration is responsible for initializing system configuration, i. The self-aware component, Failure, identifies, isolates, recovers, and records failures in an IoT system. For each occurrence of a failure, a notification is sent to the Failure component with the objective of collecting more data to identify the type and degree of the problem.
Member is responsible for monitoring and recovering members. Report refines and maintains the history of the information provided by management devices, e. State goals self-monitoring of the IoT system with the past, present, and future devices states. It is required by the Failure component, having the functions of changing or applying a particular state in the system.
It also checks the consistency of commands provided for this function and monitors the state, which makes it possible to predict and update the state for a certain time or to recover the state of the system through a history.
The section elaborates on the most relevant IoT Network Management protocols. The objective of the SNMP is to find and fix the bugs or problems of a network [ 28 ]. Through SNMP agents, the network administrator can view network traffic statistics and is able to change its configurations after analyzing this data.
Over the last years, other protocols have used the same concept, e. The SNMP continues to dominate the network management market, mainly because of its simplicity of implementation, since it consumes fewer network resources and processing, which allows the inclusion of very simple equipment.
SNMPv1: it offers a management solution with low cost and simple implementation, but with a lack of authentication and security mechanisms and limitation in the performance of messages in very large networks.
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The present invention relates to conveying information regarding a web architecture framework and more particularly to demonstrating priority among components of a system that are required for implementation of technology. These representations may take a variety of forms, such as alphanumeric characters, various sorts of graphs, as well as images of physical objects rendered on various mediums such as a computer display, paper product, transparency, etc. For example, various graphics such as line graphs, bar charts and pie charts have been quite popular in the presentation of business data such as sales, budgets and the like. Typically, a person can absorb and manipulate information placed in a visual or graphical context much faster than if the same information is represented merely by alphanumeric text or conveyed verbally. The person is also much more likely to retain that information. However, a balance must be maintained between presenting information in a manner so as to be more likely to be retained by the viewer and keeping the graphic presentation simple enough to be easily and quickly comprehended. Traditional graphs and charts, such as bar and pie charts, work well only for small amounts of information and are typically only useful for presenting statistical information. Attempting to produce such graphs and charts for large amounts of information leads to presenting the information in such small increments, such as bars in a bar chart or wedges in a pie chart , as to lead to confusion, not to mention the greatly reduced chance that a viewer would retain the information presented. Further, when similar types of information are being grouped together as a divisible unit, such as in the same bar or wedge of chart, the confusion is compounded. Still further adding to the confusion would be the addition of indicia coding to selected information in the divisible unit, such as attempting to indicia code certain portions of a bar in a bar chart already having four components while ensuring that the individual components remain identifiable.
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Internet of Things IoT management systems require scalability, standardized communication, and context-awareness to achieve the management of connected devices with security and accuracy in real environments. Interoperability and heterogeneity between hardware and application layers are also critical issues. To attend to the network requirements and different functionalities, a dynamic and context-sensitive configuration management system is required. Thus, reference architectures RAs represent a basic architecture and the definition of key characteristics for the construction of IoT environments.
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