Factory building other livestock products
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Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production , also known by its opponents as factory farming ,  is a type of intensive agriculture , specifically an approach to animal husbandry designed to maximize production, while minimizing costs. There is a continuing debate over the benefits, risks and ethics of intensive animal farming.
The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare ; health risks and the environmental impact e.
Intensive animal farming is a relatively recent development in the history of agriculture , and the result of scientific discoveries and technological advances. Innovations from the late 19th century generally parallel developments in mass production in other industries in the latter part of the Industrial Revolution. The discovery of vitamins and their role in animal nutrition , in the first two decades of the 20th century, led to vitamin supplements, which allowed chickens to be raised indoors.
Chemicals developed for use in World War II gave rise to synthetic pesticides. Developments in shipping networks and technology have made long-distance distribution of agricultural produce feasible. Agricultural production across the world doubled four times between and to ; to ; to ; and to to feed a global population of one billion human beings in and 6.
In the s, 24 percent of the American population worked in agriculture compared to 1. The era of factory farming in Britain began in when a new Agriculture Act granted subsidies to farmers to encourage greater output by introducing new technology, in order to reduce Britain's reliance on imported meat. The United Nations writes that "intensification of animal production was seen as a way of providing food security.
Intensive farms hold large numbers of animals, typically cows, pigs, turkeys, or chickens, often indoors, typically at high densities. The aim is to produce large quantities of meat, eggs, or milk at the lowest possible cost. Food is supplied in place. Methods employed to maintain health and improve production may include the use of disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, anthelmintics, hormones and vaccines; protein, mineral and vitamin supplements; frequent health inspections; biosecurity; and climate-controlled facilities.
Physical restraints, e. Breeding programs are used to produce animals more suited to the confined conditions and able to provide a consistent food product. Intensive production of livestock and poultry is widespread in developed nations. For , FAO estimates of industrial production as a percentage of global production were 7 percent for beef and veal, 0. Industrial production was estimated to account for 39 percent of the sum of global production of these meats and 50 percent of total egg production.
The major milestone in 20th century poultry production was the discovery of vitamin D, which made it possible to keep chickens in confinement year-round. Before this, chickens did not thrive during the winter due to lack of sunlight , and egg production, incubation, and meat production in the off-season were all very difficult, making poultry a seasonal and expensive proposition.
Year-round production lowered costs, especially for broilers. At the same time, egg production was increased by scientific breeding. After a few false starts, such as the Maine Experiment Station's failure at improving egg production success was shown by Professor Dryden at the Oregon Experiment Station.
Improvements in production and quality were accompanied by lower labor requirements. In the s through the early s, 1, hens provided a full-time job for a farm family in America. In the late s, egg prices had fallen so dramatically that farmers typically tripled the number of hens they kept, putting three hens into what had been a single-bird cage or converting their floor-confinement houses from a single deck of roosts to triple-decker roosts.
Not long after this, prices fell still further and large numbers of egg farmers left the business. This fall in profitability was accompanied by a general fall in prices to the consumer, allowing poultry and eggs to lose their status as luxury foods. Robert Plamondon  reports that the last family chicken farm in his part of Oregon, Rex Farms, had 30, layers and survived into the s. However, the standard laying house of the current operators is around , hens. The vertical integration of the egg and poultry industries was a late development, occurring after all the major technological changes had been in place for years including the development of modern broiler rearing techniques, the adoption of the Cornish Cross broiler, the use of laying cages, etc.
By the late s, poultry production had changed dramatically. Large farms and packing plants could grow birds by the tens of thousands. Chickens could be sent to slaughterhouses for butchering and processing into prepackaged commercial products to be frozen or shipped fresh to markets or wholesalers. Meat-type chickens currently grow to market weight in six to seven weeks, whereas only fifty years ago it took three times as long. Once a meat consumed only occasionally, the common availability and lower cost has made chicken a common meat product within developed nations.
Growing concerns over the cholesterol content of red meat in the s and s further resulted in increased consumption of chicken. Today, eggs are produced on large egg ranches on which environmental parameters are well controlled. Chickens are exposed to artificial light cycles to stimulate egg production year-round. In addition, forced molting is commonly practiced in the US, in which manipulation of light and food access triggers molting, in order to increase egg size and production.
Forced molting is controversial, and is prohibited in the EU. On average, a chicken lays one egg a day, but not on every day of the year. This varies with the breed and time of year.
In , average egg production was 83 eggs per hen per year. In , it was well over In the United States, laying hens are butchered after their second egg laying season. In Europe, they are generally butchered after a single season. The laying period begins when the hen is about 18—20 weeks old depending on breed and season. Males of the egg-type breeds have little commercial value at any age, and all those not used for breeding roughly fifty percent of all egg-type chickens are killed soon after hatching.
The old hens also have little commercial value. Thus, the main sources of poultry meat years ago spring chickens and stewing hens have both been entirely supplanted by meat-type broiler chickens. Intensive piggeries or hog lots are a type of what in America is called a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation CAFO , specialized for the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughterweight.
In this system, grower pigs are housed indoors in group-housing or straw-lined sheds, whilst pregnant sows are confined in sow stalls gestation crates and give birth in farrowing crates. The use of sow stalls has resulted in lower production costs and concomitant animal welfare concerns.
Many of the world's largest producers of pigs such as U. Intensive piggeries are generally large warehouse-like buildings. Indoor pig systems allow the pig's condition to be monitored, ensuring minimum fatalities and increased productivity. Buildings are ventilated and their temperature regulated. Most domestic pig varieties are susceptible to heat stress, and all pigs lack sweat glands and cannot cool themselves. Pigs have a limited tolerance to high temperatures and heat stress can lead to death.
Maintaining a more specific temperature within the pig-tolerance range also maximizes growth and growth to feed ratio. In an intensive operation pigs will lack access to a wallow mud , which is their natural cooling mechanism. Intensive piggeries control temperature through ventilation or drip water systems dropping water to cool the system.
Pigs are naturally omnivorous and are generally fed a combination of grains and protein sources soybeans, or meat and bone meal. Larger intensive pig farms may be surrounded by farmland where feed-grain crops are grown. Alternatively, piggeries are reliant on the grains industry. Pig feed may be bought packaged or mixed on-site. The intensive piggery system, where pigs are confined in individual stalls, allows each pig to be allotted a portion of feed.
The individual feeding system also facilitates individual medication of pigs through feed. This has more significance to intensive farming methods, as the close proximity to other animals enables diseases to spread more rapidly.
To prevent disease spreading and encourage growth, drug programs such as antibiotics , vitamins , hormones and other supplements are preemptively administered. Indoor systems, especially stalls and pens i. In an indoor intensive pig farm, manure can be managed through a lagoon system or other waste-management system. However, odor remains a problem which is difficult to manage. The way animals are housed in intensive systems varies. Breeding sows spend the bulk of their time in sow stalls during pregnancy or farrowing crates, with their litters, until market.
Piglets often receive range of treatments including castration, tail docking to reduce tail biting, teeth clipped to reduce injuring their mother's nipples, gum disease and prevent later tusk growth and their ears notched to assist identification.
Treatments are usually made without pain killers. Weak runts may be slain shortly after birth. Piglets also may be weaned and removed from the sows at between two and five weeks old  and placed in sheds. However, grower pigs - which comprise the bulk of the herd - are usually housed in alternative indoor housing, such as batch pens. During pregnancy, the use of a stall may be preferred as it facilitates feed-management and growth control.
It also prevents pig aggression e. Group pens generally require higher stockmanship skills. Such pens will usually not contain straw or other material. Alternatively, a straw-lined shed may house a larger group i. Cattle are domesticated ungulates , a member of the family Bovidae , in the subfamily Bovinae , and descended from the aurochs Bos primigenius.
As of — it is estimated that there are 1. The most common interactions with cattle involve daily feeding , cleaning and milking.
Many routine husbandry practices involve ear tagging , dehorning , loading, medical operations , vaccinations and hoof care, as well as training for agricultural shows and preparations. The feed also contains premixes composed of microingredients such as vitamins, minerals, chemical preservatives, antibiotics , fermentation products, and other essential ingredients that are purchased from premix companies, usually in sacked form, for blending into commercial rations.
Because of the availability of these products, a farmer using their own grain can formulate their own rations and be assured the animals are getting the recommended levels of minerals and vitamins. There are many potential impacts on human health due to the modern cattle industrial agriculture system. There are concerns surrounding the antibiotics and growth hormones used, increased E.
As of , in the U. The beef industry is segmented with the bulk of the producers participating in raising beef calves.
Industrial Food Animal Production
Skip to content. Chickens Pigs Cattle Turkeys Aquaculture. The United States raises and slaughters almost 10 times more birds than any other type of animal. Approximately 9 billion chickens are killed for their meat every year, while another million chickens are used in egg production.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Understanding the place of animal feeding operations in the U. This chapter starts with information on the overall size of the major livestock feeding operations cattle, swine, dairy cows, and poultry and their relationship to crop agriculture.
Intensive animal farming
Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production , also known by its opponents as factory farming ,  is a type of intensive agriculture , specifically an approach to animal husbandry designed to maximize production, while minimizing costs. There is a continuing debate over the benefits, risks and ethics of intensive animal farming. The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare ; health risks and the environmental impact e. Intensive animal farming is a relatively recent development in the history of agriculture , and the result of scientific discoveries and technological advances. Innovations from the late 19th century generally parallel developments in mass production in other industries in the latter part of the Industrial Revolution. The discovery of vitamins and their role in animal nutrition , in the first two decades of the 20th century, led to vitamin supplements, which allowed chickens to be raised indoors. Chemicals developed for use in World War II gave rise to synthetic pesticides. Developments in shipping networks and technology have made long-distance distribution of agricultural produce feasible.
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Find information about food production, distribution, regulations and alternatives in the area or region where you live. Beyond Factory Farming Safe food. Healthy communities. Search this site:. Industrial vs.
Farm building , any of the structures used in farming operations, which may include buildings to house families and workers, as well as livestock, machinery, and crops. The basic unit of commercial agricultural operation, throughout history and worldwide, is the farm. Because farming systems differ widely, there are important variations in the nature and arrangements of farm facilities.
How Impossible Foods and Beyond Meat Convinced Meat-Lovers to Eat Plant Burgers
Consolidation in agriculture is the shift toward fewer and larger farms. The number of U. Over the same period, the average number of hogs per farm increased from 37 to 1, Most 60 percent hogs in the U.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: DIY Fodder System Cheap Livestock Winter Food
And then, I notice the eyes. Dark, compound orbs on a yellow speckled head, joined to a winged, segmented body. Redzepi, who founded the Nordic Food Lab in , became interested in serving insects at Noma and asked the researchers at the lab to explore the possibilities. Locusts - which are highly nutritious - are a prized treat across the planet Science Photo Library. I, along with three other gastronomes, am here to taste the results.
Contents - Previous - Next. Environmental challenges Conclusions. In , it provided more than half the global pork and poultry meat broiler production and 10 percent of the beef and mutton production. This represented 43 percent of total global meat production, up from 37 percent in Moreover, it provided more than two-thirds of the global egg supply. Geographically, the industrialized countries dominate intensive industrial pig and poultry production accounting for 52 percent of the global industrial pork production and 58 percent of the poultry production. Asia contributes 31 percent of the world's pork production Sere and Steinfeld, and Figure 4.
Industrial agriculture is currently the dominant food production system in the United States. It's characterized by large-scale monoculture, heavy use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and meat production in CAFOs confined animal feeding operations. The industrial approach to farming is also defined by its heavy emphasis on a few crops that overwhelmingly end up as animal feed, biofuels, and processed junk food ingredients.
Animals on Factory Farms
It is made of 21 ingredients , according to its website, including genetically modified soy protein concentrate, coconut oil, sunflower oil and other items most people have never heard of, such as cultured dextrose, soy protein isolate and zinc gluconate. Beyond Meat, one of the major companies competing in the plant-based meat business, said its products are made by layering in plant-based fats, binders, fruit and vegetable-based colors and flavors using a process of heating, cooling and pressure to create the fibrous texture of meat. Four organizations are challenging the law on behalf of plant-based meat companies. Cattle raised for beef and milk alone produce 65 percent of livestock emissions.
Plant-based meat alternatives—products that look, taste, and even sizzle like animal meat—are having a pretty big year. You might assume that the surge in popularity of these meat-free products is driven by a rising number of vegetarians in the U. In reality, Impossible Foods and Beyond Meat say that their customer bases are just as meat-loving as the general population.
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ГЛАВА 21 Голос американца, звонившего Нуматаке по прямой линии, казался взволнованным: - Мистер Нуматака, в моем распоряжении не больше минуты. - Хорошо.
Хейл наклонил голову набок, явно заинтригованный такой скрытностью. И, как бы желая обратить все в игру, сделал еще один шаг. Но он не был готов к тому, что произошло в следующее мгновение.