Sign In. Despite the losses, wood product manufacturing is still a large industry in Oregon and is especially important to rural areas of the state. Employment Trends Between and , annual average employment in wood product manufacturing dropped 22,, or 46 percent. Although the industry has been in decline over the long term, it trended upward for a short period during a national housing boom between and During that period, the industry increased from an annual average of 31, jobs to 32,, an increase of 1,, or 5.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: An Introduction to our Timber Manufacturing Processes
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- Lumber & Plywood Product Manufacturing Industry Profile
- Recent and Emerging Trends in Forestry and Lumber
- Pushing the boundaries
- Wood Manufacturing Process
- Oregon’s Wood Product Manufacturing Industry Is Still Important, Especially in Rural Areas
- Wood Production: Manufacturing & Kiln Drying
- The Furniture Manufacturing Process: From Logs to Lumber
Lumber & Plywood Product Manufacturing Industry Profile
Lumber is a generic term that applies to various lengths of wood used as construction materials. Pieces of lumber are cut lengthwise from the trunks of trees and are characterized by having generally rectangular or square cross sections, as opposed to poles or pilings, which have round cross sections.
The use of wood as a construction material predates written history. The earliest evidence of wood construction comes from a site near Nice, France, where a series of post holes seems to indicate that a hut 20 ft 6m wide by 50 ft 15 m long was built there , years ago using wood posts for support. The oldest wood construction found intact is located in northwest Germany, and was built about 7, years ago. By B. The first reference to cutting wood in a sawmill, rather than using hand tools, comes from northern Europe and dates from about The sawmill was powered by the flow of water.
In North America, European colonists found vast forests of trees, and wood became the principal building material. The circular saw, which had been developed in England, was introduced in the United States in and was widely used in sawmills. A large-scale bandsaw was developed and patented by Jacob R. Hoffman in and replaced the circular saw for many sawmill operations. Lumber produced in early sawmills had varying dimensions depending on the customer's specific order or the mill's standard practice.
Today, lumber pieces used in construction have standard dimensions and are divided into three categories, depending on the thickness of the piece. Lumber with nominal thicknesses of less than 2 in 5 cm are classified as boards. Those with nominal thicknesses of 2 in 5 cm but less than 5 in 13 cm are classified as dimension.
Those with nominal thicknesses of 5 in The nominal widths of these pieces vary from in cm in 1 in 2. Most rough-cut lumber pieces are dried and then finished, or surfaced, by running them through a planer to smooth all four sides. As a result, the actual dimensions are smaller than the nominal dimensions. For example, a standard two-by-four piece of dried, surfaced dimension lumber actually measures 1.
Pieces of lumber that are not only surfaced, but also machined to produce a specific cross sectional shape are classified as worked lumber or pattern lumber. Decorative molding, tongue-and-groove flooring, and shiplap siding are examples of pattern lumber. Today, processing wood products is a billion-dollar, worldwide industry.
It not only produces construction lumber, but also plywood, fiberboard, paper, cardboard, turpentine, rosin, textiles, and a wide variety of industrial chemicals. The trees from which lumber is produced are classified as hardwoods or softwoods. Although the woods of many hardwoods are hard, and the woods of many softwoods are soft, that is not the defining characteristic. Most hardwood trees have leaves, During felling, the trees are cut down with chain saws and the limbs are removed.
At the mill, the logs are debarked and bucked, or cut to a predetermined length. Then they proceed to the bandsaw for further processing. Hardwood trees include oaks, maples, walnuts, cherries, and birches, but they also include balsa, which has one of the softest and lightest of all the woods.
Softwood trees, on the other hand, have needles instead of leaves. They do not shed their needles in the winter, but remain green throughout the year and are sometimes called evergreens.
Softwood trees include pines, firs, hemlocks, spruces, and redwoods. Hardwoods are generally more expensive than softwoods and are used for flooring, cabinetry, paneling, doors, and trimwork. They are also extensively used to manufacture furniture. Hardwoods are available in lengths from ft 1. Softwoods are used for wall studs, joists, planks, rafters, beams, stringers, posts, decking, sheathing, subflooring, and concrete forms.
They are available in lengths from ft 1. Both hardwood and softwood lumber pieces are graded according to the number and size of defects in the wood. Defects include knots, holes, pitch pockets, splits, and missing pieces on the edges or corners, called wanes. These defects primarily affect the appearance, but may also affect the strength of the piece.
The higher grades are called select grades. Hardwoods may also be graded as firsts or seconds, which are even higher than select. These grades have very few defects and are used for trim, molding, and finish woodwork where appearance is important.
The higher the grade, the fewer the number of defects. The lower grades are called common grades and are used for general construction where the wood will be covered or where defects will not be objectionable. Common grades are designated in descending order of quality by a number such as 1 common, 2 common, and so on. Pieces of softwood common grade lumber may also be designated by an equivalent name, such as select merchantable, construction, and so on.
Lumber intended for uses other than construction, such as boxes or ladders, are given other grading designations. In the United States, most trees destined to be cut into lumber are grown in managed forests either owned by the lumber company or leased from the government. After the trees have reached an appropriate size, they are cut down and transported to a lumber mill where they are cut into various sizes of lumber.
There are very few pieces of perfect lumber. Even though great care is taken to avoid or minimize defects when sawing the wood to the required sizes, there are almost always some defects present. The number and location of these defects determines the grade of the lumber, and the purchaser must choose the grade that is appropriate for each specific application.
As the number of older trees available for logging diminishes, so does the lumber industry's ability to selectively cut pieces of lumber to the sizes needed for construction. Many of the trees being logged today are second-generation or third-generation trees that are younger and smaller in diameter than the original old-growth trees.
These younger trees also contain a higher percentage of juvenile wood, which is less dimensionally stable than older wood. To counter this trend, the lumber industry is literally taking trees apart and putting them back together again to manufacture the sizes, strengths, and stability required for construction. Actually, they have been doing this for decades in the form of plywood and glue-laminated beams, and some of the new products use similar technology.
One of the new manufactured lumber products is called parallel strand lumber. It begins much like plywood with a thin veneer of wood being peeled off a log. The veneer passes under a fiber-optic scanner that spots defects and cuts them out, sort of like an automated cookie cutter. The veneer is then dried and cut into 0. The strips are fed into one end of a machine, which coats them with a phenolic resin glue and stacks them side-to-side and end-to-end to form a solid 12 in by 17 in 30 cm by 43 cm beam of wood.
The beam is zapped with , watts of microwave energy, which hardens the glue almost instantly. As the beam emerges from the other end of the machine, it is cut into 60 ft It is then further cut into various sizes of lumber, and sanded smooth. The resulting pieces are significantly stronger and more dimensionally stable than natural wood, while being attractive enough to be used for exposed beams and other visible applications. Bramwell, Martyn, ed.
The International Book of Wood. Simon and Schuster, Forest Products Laboratory. Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material.
United States Department of Agriculture, Hoadley, R. The Taunton Press, Hornbostel, Caleb. Construction Materials, 2nd Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Vila, Bob. Warner Books, Inc. Crosby, Bill. McCafferty, Phil. Wardell, C.
Toggle navigation. Made How Volume 3 Lumber Lumber. During felling, the trees are cut down with chain saws and the limbs are removed. Depending on the size of log, it may be cut in different ways to optimize the size and number of resulting boards. After boards are cut, they are dried and planed. Periodicals Crosby, Bill. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur. Also read article about Lumber from Wikipedia.
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Recent and Emerging Trends in Forestry and Lumber
Lumber is a generic term that applies to various lengths of wood used as construction materials. Pieces of lumber are cut lengthwise from the trunks of trees and are characterized by having generally rectangular or square cross sections, as opposed to poles or pilings, which have round cross sections. The use of wood as a construction material predates written history. The earliest evidence of wood construction comes from a site near Nice, France, where a series of post holes seems to indicate that a hut 20 ft 6m wide by 50 ft 15 m long was built there , years ago using wood posts for support.
The wood products industries utilize wood to a full degree. Half of the material ends up in wood products, and by-products, such as bark, sawdust, chips, trims, shavings and dust, make the rest. They are important feedstocks for pulp and paper, particle board and fibreboard industries as well as for bioenergy, and in the future also for chemical industries and manufacturing of bioactive products. More than half of our most important sawmill product, softwood sawn timber, and even more of other important products such as birch plywood, laminated veneer lumber, glued laminated timber and thermally modified wood are exported.
Pushing the boundaries
Wood Manufacturing Process
To understand economies and industry sectors related to forestry and lumber it is important to first understand the significance of forests to the U. Forests after all are where wood comes from. Source: U. Forest Service.
Descriptions of manufacturing processes 1. This analysis had to identify the amount, type and quality of energy required so as to identify possible energy savings compatible to the respective cost-benefit analysis. The following process descriptions of the manufacture of sawn timber, plywood and particleboard are of a general nature and should provide the reader with a broad outline of the production processes involved in the mechanical wood-based industry and the role in which energy plays a part. Sawmilling is a less sophisticated activity of the mechanical forest industries.
Oregon’s Wood Product Manufacturing Industry Is Still Important, Especially in Rural Areas
Lumber and wood products are created in the wood industry from the trunks and branches of trees through a series of steps, as follows. Mature trees are harvested from pine plantations and also from native forests. Trees harvested at a younger age can produce smaller logs, which can be turned into lower value products.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Logs to Lumber - An aerial journey through the sawmill
Lumber The Traditional House-building Material M ost North American homes today, as in the past, are constructed with wood framing using dimensional lumber. What is Dimensional Lumber? Dimensional lumber is the product of the sawmill where it is mechanically shaped to industry standard dimensions - width, thickness and length. How is Lumber Manufactured? Sawmill operations are varied as they are numerous. Typically, logs are transported to the mill by truck where they are graded for size and suitability for different uses.
The main activity of Sawmill 25 is the production of export sawn timber and wood pellets pellets. The company specializes in processing softwood spruce, pine. Today Sawmill 25 occupies the leading position among the timber processing enterprises of the North-West. The total capacity of the three production sites makes it possible to process more than 2 million m3 of raw material per year. The production site consists of 1. The manufactory for the production of wood pellets pellets of the company AS Hekotek Estonia. CHP with a capacity of 15 MW and a 2. Own mechanical repair base.
Lumber mills turn trees into manufactured wood products. Throughout the process, the moisture content MC of the wood is an important factor for producer and end user alike. In fact, kiln drying on some hardwood species can take up to and beyond a month, depending on the initial MC of the wood. Properly dried wood has many advantages over green wood for both producers and consumers alike. It reduces waste in manufacturing and extends the service life and usefulness of wood products, giving the consumer a stable product that will last for years.
Wood Production: Manufacturing & Kiln Drying
The lumber industry is a major natural resource-based industry around the world. Trees are harvested, for a variety of purposes, in the majority of countries. This chapter focuses on the processing of wood in order to produce solid wood boards and manufactured boards in sawmills and related settings.
The Furniture Manufacturing Process: From Logs to Lumber
Companies in this industry engage in the sawing of dimensional lumber or make veneers, plywood, engineered wood members, or reconstituted wood products. Annual worldwide sawnwood lumber production totals about million cubic meters, and wood-based panel production is about million cubic meters, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Demand is closely tied to the level of home construction.
Canfor is committed to continuous improvement in the environmental sustainability of our manufacturing processes. We consider energy efficiency, air and effluent emissions, waste volumes, and greenhouse gas emissions in assessing the sustainability of our sawmill and pulp mill operations. Canfor employs environmental management systems at all our facilities that are based on the International Organization for Standardization ISO Environmental Management Standard framework. Through this process we identify and rank the likelihood of potential impacts on the environment as a result of our activities and ensure our operations put appropriate systems in place to manage those risks. Our wood products facilities are audited every three years against our environmental management system requirements and the ISO standard, as well as for compliance against regulatory requirements, principles of due diligence and good industry environmental practice.
When you think of lumber, you think of one name: Georgia-Pacific. Our company was founded on lumber way back in From frame construction and trusses to pressure treating and industrial uses, we have you covered. To meet the increasing needs of our customers , we have three new mills starting operation in Improved production processes and technology ensure the design values, grades and specifications you need — as well as a steady stream of Southern Yellow Pine. For more on how we can help your truss manufacturing business, visit trusstheprocess.
Это было радостное избавление от вечного напряжения, связанного с ее служебным положением в АНБ. В один из прохладных осенних дней они сидели на стадионе, наблюдая за тем, как футбольная команда Рутгерса громит команду Джорджтауне кого университета.
- Я забыла: как называется вид спорта, которым ты увлекаешься? - спросила Сьюзан.