Manufacturing manufacture plant and animal fiber processing products
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- Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
- Clothing from banana fiber
- Textile manufacturing
- Natural fibre
- ブラックパンサー コスチューム 大人 男性用 コスチューム 衣装 コスプレ 仮装 ハロウィン シビルウォー キャプテンアメリカ 通常便は送料無料
- Man-made fibre
- Environmental and Ethical Issues In The Production Of Natural Fabrics and Fibres
- Utilization of Cotton Spinning Mill Wastes in Yarn Production
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Abstract Farmers annually harvest natural fibers from alpacas, goats, llamas, rabbits, and sheep. However, they have seen a decline in consumer demand due to the increased production of synthetics. Despite global trends of decline, New England farms involved in fiber production have increased. Data from and suggest that the niche market of textile artists can help farmers increase their profits through direct marketing strategies.
Extension professionals can use these strategies to develop educational materials and workshops. Farmers across the globe harvest tons of natural fibers from alpacas, goats, llamas, rabbits, sheep, and other more exotic fiber-producing animals such as bison.
However, these farmers have seen a decline in consumer demand due to the increased production of synthetics such as nylon and polyester Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations [FAO], This website suggests five key reasons for choosing natural fibers: 1 they are healthy to wear, 2 they provide jobs for small-scale farmers, 3 they are sustainable and environmentally friendly, 4 they have many uses, and 5 they are fashionable FAO, Although the IYNF International Steering Committee defined natural fibers as "those renewable natural fibers of plant or animal origin which can be easily transformed into a yarn for textiles" Common Fund for Commodities, , v.
There are six reasons for this article's specific production and geographic focus:. Developing marketing workshops for producers with similar expertise Flaskerund, and with similar product interests and geographical area would help Extension professionals provide better service to farmers through tailor made outreach initiatives that would enable farmers to connect with their end buyers through specialized distribution channels Kraenzel, Brown and Bewsell suggest market segmentation as a strategy for avoiding the pitfall of a one-size approach for assisting farmers.
Help with marketing related issues is a top priority for many farmers, and Extension specialists are frequently asked for assistance Chase, This article offers small-scale farmers who raise fiber-producing animals a niche market strategy for reaching a growing market segment in their local or regional environment as well as tactics for expanding their marketing reach through the Internet.
Our direct, point-of-sale strategies aim to help farmers who produce high quality fiber earn more per pound while simultaneously creating potential repeat business opportunities. The purpose of this article is to identify niche markets for natural animal fibers and provide farmers with marketing and sales strategies to successfully target these markets. Extension specialists can use these strategies to assist farmers through tailored workshops and educational materials.
Because there is limited information about niche markets for natural animal fibers, the data that were used to address this knowledge gap were obtain through exploratory methods that could address "who," "what," "why," and "how.
The New England region was selected as the site for data collection because data from the agricultural censuses of and USDA-NASS, , a show that both the production of animal fibers and the number of farms engaged in this production has increased in this region Table 1.
In addition, the New England region has numerous weaving, spinning, and multi-medium guilds and organizations as well as long standing sheep and wool festivals in each of the New England states. Two sets of data were used to identify niche markets for natural animal fibers and the receptiveness of these markets to purchase directly from farmers who raise fiber animals.
Table 2 provides an overview of these data sets. By combining the relevant data from two data sets that were collected from similar types of informants from the same geographical region of the U. The 6-year time differential between the two data sets allowed us the opportunity to assess the changes occurring in this market segment and craft more effective marketing and sales strategies for small-scale farmers. In addition, all of the data that were used to inform the findings of this article were from females.
This helped us further define and suggest strategies for reaching this unique niche market. Data such as textile medium, sources for fiber, and engagement with others could be aggregated into percentage reporting within categories without losing depth of response. Brief illustrative quotations and categorical exemplars are used to describe the respondents answers to these "why" questions. Findings from the analysis of both data sets suggest that women who engage in fiber-related activities such as knitting, spinning, weaving, felt making, rug hooking, and the dying of fibers were actively involved with turning natural fibers into yarn and were producing various types of textiles for their own use, for family and friends, and for purchase by others.
Table 3 shows the diversity of their fiber related activities. This multi-medium participation along with descriptive narrative that details how these textile artists used these media can help farmers to determine both product preparation as well as variety of products offered. For example, sometimes, the fiber artists purchased yarn that they then knitted, crocheted, wove, or perhaps dyed. At other times, the same fiber artist purchased fleece, top, or roving that they then either spun into yarn or felted, and perhaps dyed prior to the spinning or felting process.
This suggests that in addition to fleece, top, or roving from their fiber animals, farmers might also want to also offer yarn that can be used for knitting, crocheting, weaving, and hooking. Farmers with less skill or ability may actually cause their product to lose value as textile artists said that they will "not typically buy fiber of ordinary color or yarn that resembles mass produced, commercial yarn. The farmer also needs to be mindful of what products can realistically and aesthetically be made from their particular type of fiber animal.
A final product that will rest against the skin or become a sturdy outer garment, rug, or tapestry will not typically come from the same type of fiber animal. Results also suggest that fiber artists view some of their knitting, crocheting, and spinning as a social activity and frequently do so with others.
Farmers who also knit or spin and make the time to become involved in both formal and informal groups have the advantage of making personal connections with potential customers and the ability to show others their products on a regular basis. Farmers who neither knit nor spin may want to consider asking someone who actively participates in these fiber-related social activities to use some of their complementary fiber and take it with them on their social outings.
Where do fiber artists get their fibers? Most get their fibers from a variety of sources. The northeast region is home to some of the oldest fiber related fairs and festivals in the U.
These fiber enthusiasts travel with friends to attend these fiber-related events and look forward to the "treasures" they find and purchase. When asked about their fiber selection process, the following three aspects of the fiber emerged as their top motivators for purchasing a particular fiber and are expressed as exemplar quotes from the participants: "eye candy," "feel," and "unique qualities.
If they just wanted a product made from natural animal fibers, they could go to a store and buy the finished, machine-made product typically manufactured outside the U. From "just ladies who knit" to "not my grandmother's pass-time," women who are actively engaged in the production of handmade textiles are adamant that their art form is "not frivolous, useless, or old-fashioned.
The tools of their trade are often more expensive than golf clubs, cameras, or woodworking equipment, and many require dedicated work space in the same way that a woodworker needs shop space. They are equally sensitive to the marginalization they sometimes encounter when others perceive their knitting, crocheting, spinning, weaving, rug hooking, and dyeing as "just something old ladies do.
When and how did these traditional crafts become art forms? Harding describes how the U. One populist movement occurring in art schools was a push-back against the traditional art-hierarchy that located "crafts," particularly those related to fiber, at the lowest level or were viewed as "women's work" and not even considered as craft.
In addition, this art-to-wear movement wanted to involve the viewer in the artwork and considered the piece incomplete until the "viewer animates the piece by wearing it" Harding, , p.
During the s the movement gained momentum, exposure, and profitability. Its accessibility to mainstream culture and the talent of the artists involved contributed to its evolution. Was it still art, or had it become fashion? Or was it both? As the numbers of fiber artists have increased, so too have the number of fiber-related publications, software design programs, organizations, and on-line communities.
In addition, new and improved tools of the trade continue to be created as well as hundreds of types of commercially produced yarns and at least 80 types of hand-spun yarn.
Currently, all of these activities continue to grow and evolve. Ravelry, a 6-year-old on-line fiber community, is just one of the many indicators of the size and growth of this market. In its "year in review" it had "over 2 million members" Ravelry, , January By March of , it had 3 million members Ravelry, , March 8 , and by August of , it had grown to 3,, members Ravelry, , August Table 5 gives a few examples of publications that typify the evolution of the art-to-wear movement and provide insight on some of the characteristics of fiber artists.
A prevalent theme throughout these books is creativity as well as modern techniques and designs. Extension specialists can use these suggested educational resources to assist fiber-producing farmers who want to learn more about the niche market of textile artists. Table 6 shows the key thematic clusters that emerged from the data from the interview question that asked participants why they engage in textile arts. They are organized into groupings that represent inner-directed types of themes and outer-directed themes.
Just as "buy local," "organic," and "slow" are movements and practices that represent a return to more sustainable ways of living, so too is the desire to produce handmade textiles from natural animal fibers. This awareness of the need for more sustainable ways of living and the search for a creative outlet that provides many personal benefits that are not tied to taking care of home and family or career help fuel this niche market. It is what they do for themselves, and they work hard not to feel guilty about the time and energy they spend on their art form.
As one respondent said, "I keep reminding myself that the hours I spend creating textile art is no different than a golfer playing a round of golf - no one faults them for that! It sooths and relaxes them while also connecting them to a community of other women as textile production has been created by women throughout time. For them, however, this is an art form, not a necessity for the production of clothing and goods. They are proud of the wearable art or utilitarian pieces they create for themselves, family members, friends, charity, or for sale.
This niche market enjoys seeing and being with fiber animals. Findings from the two data sets showed that a quarter of the participants became so drawn to these animals that they have become small-scale farmers who raised rabbits, sheep, goats, llamas, and alpacas. Textile artists and farmers will continue to have a sustainable relationship because producing textiles from natural animal fibers and being around fiber animals give these women both pleasure and purpose while simultaneously connecting them to traditional art forms with new possibilities and a growing network of other fiber artists.
Farmers who recognize just how important and personal the creation of fiber art is to this niche market can develop lucrative opportunities for this sustainable relationship to occur. Although this article focuses on New England fiber-producing farmers and New England-based textile artists, we believe that the suggestions it contains can be adapted and used in other parts of the U.
It is imperative that Extension specialists provide niche marketing assistance as well as animal husbandry advice to the small-scale, new, and often women-operated farmers who raise fiber producing animals. This will enable these farmers not only to produce high quality fiber but also to successfully market and sell directly to buyers and maximize their earnings.
Niche marketing suggestions given in this article can be used to develop educational materials and various types of workshops for farmers as well as 4-H youth.
It can also help Extension professionals who work with the organizers of farmers' markets and agricultural fairs and festivals to develop programing and events.
The and data sets belong to the author of this article and are part of a larger, on-going longitudinal research project. Some aspects of the findings from the data set were presented at the National Extension Tourism Conference held March in Charleston, S. Anderson, S. The spinner's book of yarn designs: Techniques for creating 80 yarns. Barbercheck, M. Meeting the extension needs of women farmers: A perspective from Pennsylvania.
Boeger, L. Intertwined: The art of handspun yarn, modern patterns, and creative spinning. Beverly, MA: Quarry Books. Brown, M. Using a market segmentation approach to better target agricultural extension programs—Aligning learner needs with learning programs.
Chase, L. Targeted marketing: Lessons from an agri-tourism enterprise. Chin, L. Couture crochet workshop: Mastering fit, fashion, and finesse.
Clothing from banana fiber
Plant and animal fibers have provided humans with, among other things, shelter, vessels in which to hold water and cook food, and thread for making fabrics. Even tho most of the world has abandoned mud and waddle home construction and baskets smeared with clay as water vessels or cooking utensils, plant fibers as a source of weaving still remains current in use. In prehistoric times humans probably obtained flexible plant fibers simply by pulling off strips of bark or cutting stems and leaves onto thin, weavable ribbons. Altho these materials can be lashed and interlaced into mats and baskets, they produce only coarse, stiff items. Major innovation was the discovery that individual fibers could be separated from surrounding cells and used to weave textiles.
The hemp fibre industry in Canada is in its early stages of development. A number of fibre separation plants coupled with biocomposite manufacturing lines hempcrete, bioplastic, fibre mats, insulation, etc. Some smaller facilities focused on processing hemp fibre for textile applications are also likely to appear on the Prairies. Each commercial processing plant will be extending specific requirements regarding management of hemp harvest, including straight fibre cutting or post-combine straw, retting, etc.
Plant fibers come from plants, and the plant fibers are processed for use in papermaking from pulp. Pulp consists mainly of cellulose and is roughly categorized into two types: wood pulp and non-wood pulp. Wood pulp is made from wood fibers from the xylem of wood. Wood pulp is roughly categorized into two types: needle leaf softwood and broad leaf hardwood. Softwoods include the fir and pine tree families, and hardwood include eucalyptus, beech, birch, maple, willow, and rose apple families. In general, softwood tend to have long fibers, and the products made from long fibers tend to be stronger than those made from short fibers. Regarding the wood materials used in papermaking industry as raw material, due consideration is given to the global environment because waste needle leaf tree materials from lumbermills are utilized in a large portion and broad-leaf trees are planted in a systematic manner as tree-planting business. Non-wood pulp is made from seed fibers from vegetable seeds as well as bast fibers contained in the peel or stem.
Natural fibre , any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre may be further defined as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. Although nature abounds in fibrous materials, especially cellulosic types such as cotton , wood , grains, and straw , only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes. Apart from economic considerations, the usefulness of a fibre for commercial purposes is determined by such properties as length, strength, pliability, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency, and various surface properties. Most textile fibres are slender, flexible, and relatively strong.
As with many discoveries of early man, anthropologists believe the use of wool came out of the challenge to survive. In seeking means of protection and warmth, humans in the Neolithic Age wore animal pelts as clothing. Finding the pelts not only warm and comfortable but also durable, they soon began to develop the basic processes and primitive tools for making wool.
Efficient use of natural resources and utilization of recoverable wastes are getting more and more important day by day since recovering wastes have both economic and environmental benefits. As the source material costs constitute the majority of the yarn production costs, decreasing raw material costs provide considerable advantages for spinners. From the point of textile manufacturing, various production wastes can be reused in textile industry. Compared to research on r-PET, recovered cotton fibers inspired interest recently.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Banana Fiber Extraction Processing, Yarn Spinning & Weaving
Fibers are natural or chemical structures that can be spun into yarns. Yarns then can be weaved, knitted, or bonded into fabrics. Fiber properties and behavior are directly related to fabric performance and care. Learning about fibers and their characteristics will help you to understand fabrics better. Four major natural fibers and 23 man-made fibers are available. Natural fibers come from plants and animals.
Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature. The desire for better garment and apparel resulted in the development of textile fiber production and textile manufacturing process. Primarily the natural textile fibers meet the requirements for human consumption in terms of the comfort and aesthetic trends. Cotton, wool, and silk were the important natural fibers for human clothing articles, where cotton for its outstanding properties and versatile utilization was known as the King Cotton. The advancement of fiber manufacturing introduced several man-made fibers for conventional textile products; however, cotton is to date a leading textile fiber in home textiles and clothing articles.
Abstract Farmers annually harvest natural fibers from alpacas, goats, llamas, rabbits, and sheep. However, they have seen a decline in consumer demand due to the increased production of synthetics. Despite global trends of decline, New England farms involved in fiber production have increased.
Environmental and Ethical Issues In The Production Of Natural Fabrics and Fibres
There are a wide variety of fibers that are used to create yarns that you can use for knitting and crocheting and they come from a variety of sources. Yarns are made from a group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand. The fibers used to create these yarns include animal fibers, plant fibers and synthetic fibers. Alpaca fiber is similar to sheep's wool and is another natural, animal fiber.
Utilization of Cotton Spinning Mill Wastes in Yarn Production
Cotton fibre can be woven or knitted into fabrics including velvet, corduroy, chambray, velour, jersey and flannel. Cotton can be used to create dozens of different fabric types for a range of end-uses, including blends with other natural fibres like wool, and synthetic fibres like polyester. In addition to textile products like underwear, socks and t-shirts, cotton is also used in fishnets, coffee filters, tents, book binding and archival paper. Linters are the very short fibres that remain on the cottonseed after ginning, and are used to produce goods such as bandages, swabs, bank notes, cotton buds and x-rays.
Most textile materials originate from a single, fine structure called a fibre. Some fibres are naturally short in length and are known as staple fibres , eg cotton, wool and linen. Other manufactured synthetic fibres are known as continuous filament , eg polyester and nylon. Natural polymers , also known as natural fibres, come from animals, insects or plants. They all biodegrade so are sustainable , although the processing uses energy.
Many of us tend to believe that natural fibres, being products of nature, are naturally better than their synthetic counterparts. However, this isn't always the case. The production of most natural fibres such as cotton, wool and silk have their fair share of environmental and ethical issues too - it's just that 'natural' is often associated with 'good'. Although the impact on the environment, workers and animals or plants involved in the production varies for each fibre, the impacts nevertheless exist. The production process of non-organic cotton, for instance, is chemical-intense and this extensive use of toxic agents has been linked to severe health problems in farmers who grow it amongst a plethora of other environmental and social atrocities. Cotton is not alone here - every natural fibre has a background story that deserves attention for anyone who has concerns around human and environmental health. Commercial cotton is chemical-intensive.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes.