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Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops , maintain landscapes , and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, [1] suppressing weed growth in grain fields [2] and preventing soil consolidation. Irrigation systems are also used for cooling livestock , dust suppression , disposal of sewage , and in mining.

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Farm Management Software

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops , maintain landscapes , and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall.

Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, [1] suppressing weed growth in grain fields [2] and preventing soil consolidation. Irrigation systems are also used for cooling livestock , dust suppression , disposal of sewage , and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage , which is the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.

Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5, years and is the product of many cultures. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States.

Archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation in areas lacking sufficient natural rainfall to support crops for rainfed agriculture. The earliest known use of the technology dates to the 6th millennium BCE in Khuzistan in the south-west of present-day Iran. Irrigation was used as a means of manipulation of water in the alluvial plains of the Indus valley civilization , the application of it is estimated to have begun around BC and drastically increased the size and prosperity of their agricultural settlements.

Large-scale agriculture was practiced, with an extensive network of canals used for the purpose of irrigation. Farmers in the Mesopotamian plain used irrigation from at least the third millennium BCE. The flood water remained until the fertile sediment had settled before the engineers returned the surplus to the watercourse. The lake swelled annually from the flooding of the Nile. The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a waterwheel -like device called a sakia. Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennia BCE.

In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet-season flooding and water harvesting.

These canals provide the earliest record of irrigation in the New World. Traces of a canal possibly dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th-millennium canal. Ancient Persia modern day Iran used irrigation as far back as the 6th millennium BCE to grow barley in areas with insufficient natural rainfall.

The system comprises a network of vertical wells and gently sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and of steep hills to tap groundwater. By BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced into the water.

The irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka , the earliest dating from about BCE in the reign of King Pandukabhaya , and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water.

Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa , because of the advanced and precise engineering. The system was extensively restored and further extended [ by whom? In the Sichuan region belonging to the state of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System devised by the Qin Chinese hydrologist and irrigation engineer Li Bing was built in BCE to irrigate a vast area of farmland that today still supplies water.

It was installed in irrigation tanks [ by whom? With this instrument, planners and farmers could make better use of the information gathered in the [ which? The earliest agricultural irrigation canal system known in the area of the present-day United States dates to between B.

In North America, the Hohokam were the only culture known to rely on irrigation canals to water their crops, and their irrigation systems supported the largest population in the Southwest by AD The Hohokam constructed an assortment of simple canals combined with weirs in their various agricultural pursuits. Between the 7th and 14th centuries they built and maintained extensive irrigation networks along the lower Salt and middle Gila Rivers that rivaled the complexity of those used in the ancient Near East, Egypt, and China.

These were constructed using relatively simple excavation tools, without the benefit of advanced engineering technologies, and achieved drops of a few feet per mile, balancing erosion and siltation. The Hohokam cultivated varieties of cotton, tobacco, maize, beans and squash, as well as harvesting an assortment of wild plants. Late in the Hohokam Chronological Sequence, they also used extensive dry-farming systems, primarily to grow agave for food and fiber.

Their reliance on agricultural strategies based on canal irrigation, vital in their less-than-hospitable desert environment and arid climate, provided the basis for the aggregation of rural populations into stable urban centers. The largest contiguous areas of high irrigation density are found:. Smaller irrigation areas are spread across almost all populated parts of the world. There are several methods of irrigation. They vary in how the water is supplied to the plants. The goal is to apply the water to the plants as uniformly as possible, so that each plant has the amount of water it needs, neither too much nor too little.

Surface irrigation is the oldest form of irrigation and has been in use for thousands of years. In surface flood , or level basin irrigation systems, water moves across the surface of an agricultural lands, in order to wet it and infiltrate into the soil. Surface irrigation can be subdivided into furrow, border strip or basin irrigation.

It is often called flood irrigation when the irrigation results in flooding or near flooding of the cultivated land. Historically, this has been the most common method of irrigating agricultural land and is still used in most parts of the world. Where water levels from the irrigation source permit, the levels are controlled by dikes, usually plugged by soil. This is often seen in terraced rice fields rice paddies , where the method is used to flood or control the level of water in each distinct field.

In some cases, the water is pumped, or lifted by human or animal power to the level of the land. The water application efficiency of surface irrigation is typically lower than other forms of irrigation.

Surface irrigation is even used to water landscapes in certain areas, for example, in and around Phoenix, Arizona. The irrigated area is surrounded by a berm and the water is delivered according to a schedule set by a local irrigation district. Micro-irrigation , sometimes called localized irrigation , low volume irrigation , or trickle irrigation is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it.

Traditional drip irrigation use individual emitters, subsurface drip irrigation SDI , micro-spray or micro-sprinklers, and mini-bubbler irrigation all belong to this category of irrigation methods. Drip or micro irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation, functions as its name suggests.

In this system water falls drop by drop just at the position of roots. Water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop. This method can be the most water-efficient method of irrigation, [33] if managed properly, evaporation and runoff are minimized. The field water efficiency of drip irrigation is typically in the range of 80 to 90 percent when managed correctly. In modern agriculture, drip irrigation is often combined with plastic mulch , further reducing evaporation, and is also the means of delivery of fertilizer.

The process is known as fertigation. Deep percolation, where water moves below the root zone, can occur if a drip system is operated for too long or if the delivery rate is too high. Drip irrigation methods range from very high-tech and computerized to low-tech and labor-intensive. Lower water pressures are usually needed than for most other types of systems, with the exception of low energy center pivot systems and surface irrigation systems, and the system can be designed for uniformity throughout a field or for precise water delivery to individual plants in a landscape containing a mix of plant species.

Although it is difficult to regulate pressure on steep slopes, pressure compensating emitters are available, so the field does not have to be level. High-tech solutions involve precisely calibrated emitters located along lines of tubing that extend from a computerized set of valves. In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns.

A system using sprinklers, sprays, or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system. Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors and are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle.

Guns are used not only for irrigation, but also for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging. Sprinklers can also be mounted on moving platforms connected to the water source by a hose. Automatically moving wheeled systems known as traveling sprinklers may irrigate areas such as small farms, sports fields, parks, pastures, and cemeteries unattended.

Most of these use a length of polyethylene tubing wound on a steel drum. As the tubing is wound on the drum powered by the irrigation water or a small gas engine, the sprinkler is pulled across the field. When the sprinkler arrives back at the reel the system shuts off.

This type of system is known to most people as a "waterreel" traveling irrigation sprinkler and they are used extensively for dust suppression, irrigation, and land application of waste water. Other travelers use a flat rubber hose that is dragged along behind while the sprinkler platform is pulled by a cable. Center pivot irrigation is a form of sprinkler irrigation utilising several segments of pipe usually galvanized steel or aluminium joined together and supported by trusses , mounted on wheeled towers with sprinklers positioned along its length.

These systems are found and used in all parts of the world and allow irrigation of all types of terrain. Newer systems have drop sprinkler heads as shown in the image that follows. As of [update] most center pivot systems have drops hanging from a U-shaped pipe attached at the top of the pipe with sprinkler heads that are positioned a few feet at most above the crop, thus limiting evaporative losses. Drops can also be used with drag hoses or bubblers that deposit the water directly on the ground between crops.

Crops are often planted in a circle to conform to the center pivot. Originally, most center pivots were water-powered. Many modern pivots feature GPS devices. A series of pipes, each with a wheel of about 1. Water is supplied at one end using a large hose. After sufficient irrigation has been applied to one strip of the field, the hose is removed, the water drained from the system, and the assembly rolled either by hand or with a purpose-built mechanism, so that the sprinklers are moved to a different position across the field.

The hose is reconnected. The process is repeated in a pattern until the whole field has been irrigated. This system is less expensive to install than a center pivot, but much more labor-intensive to operate — it does not travel automatically across the field: it applies water in a stationary strip, must be drained, and then rolled to a new strip.

The pipe doubles both as water transport and as an axle for rotating all the wheels. A drive system often found near the centre of the wheel line rotates the clamped-together pipe sections as a single axle, rolling the whole wheel line. Manual adjustment of individual wheel positions may be necessary if the system becomes misaligned.

Wheel line systems are limited in the amount of water they can carry, and limited in the height of crops that can be irrigated. One useful feature of a lateral move system is that it consists of sections that can be easily disconnected, adapting to field shape as the line is moved.

They are most often used for small, rectilinear, or oddly-shaped fields, hilly or mountainous regions, or in regions where labor is inexpensive.

Farming on the front line: Sheep in the Falkland Islands

The dairy and animal health centre of interest, located in Hall 1, is a space for meetings, discussions and solutions for everything related to your work. Located adjacent to Hall 2 and near the competition rings, the centre is also the start of a tour where you will find advice and technical solutions: milking equipment, special breeding equipment, services and advice, dairy farming, animal genetics, animals on exhibit, assistance organisations, biomethanisation, etc. Because animal health and human health are intimately linked, specialists devote themselves daily to researching and developing new products, tools and services, to assisting breeders and to the proper care of animals.

What is Farm Management Software? Capterra is free for users because vendors pay us when they receive web traffic and sales opportunities. Capterra directories list all vendors—not just those that pay us—so that you can make the best-informed purchase decision possible.

This site requires a JavaScript enabled browser. See also: 9 tips for minimising lamb production costs. But for some it represents the kind of lifestyle and challenge that they have always hankered for. One such individual is Hew Grierson, who grew up in the west of Scotland and came to the Falkland Islands in as a shearer. In all, the farm runs to about 7,ha, which is actually quite small by local standards.

Potato Equipment

The basic layout of the three main types of milking machines are the same. Each has a pump to remove air from the vacuum pipeline, a vacuum regulator and a container to collect the milk that comes into the teatcup assembly during milking. The principle of machine milking is to extract milk from the cow by vacuum. The machines are designed to apply a constant vacuum to the end of the teat to suck the milk out and convey it to a suitable container, and to give a periodic squeeze applied externally to the whole of the teat to maintain blood circulation. A milking machine installation consists of a pipework system linking various vessels and other components which together provide the flow paths for air and milk. The forces necessary to move air and milk through the system arise from the fact that it is maintained at a vacuum. Thus it is atmospheric pressure which forces air, and intra-mammary milk pressure which forces milk, into the system and the combination of these forces causes flow.

Dairy & Animal Health

Сьюзан просунула в щель ногу в туфле Феррагамо и усилила нажим. Дверь подалась. Стратмор сменил положение. Вцепившись в левую створку, он тянул ее на себя, Сьюзан толкала правую створку в противоположном направлении.

А вдруг это клиент. Новый клиент с севера.

Фильтр Х-одиннадцать уничтожен, - сообщил техник.  - У этого парня зверский аппетит. Смит начал говорить.

Irrigation

Коммандер Стратмор обошел систему Сквозь строй. Фонтейн подошел к ней, едва сдерживая гнев. - Это его прерогатива. Я плачу вам за то, чтобы вы следили за отчетностью и обслуживали сотрудников, а не шпионили за моим заместителем.

Мы с мисс Флетчер пробудем здесь весь день. Будем охранять нашу крепость. Желаю веселого уик-энда. Чатрукьян заколебался. - Коммандер, мне действительно кажется, что нужно проверить… - Фил, - сказал Стратмор чуть более строго, - ТРАНСТЕКСТ в полном порядке.

ГЛАВА 8 Двухмоторный Лирджет-60 коснулся раскаленной посадочной полосы. Голый ландшафт испанской нижней Эстремадуры бежал за окном, слившись в неразличимый фон, затем замедлил свой бег. - Мистер Беккер! - послышался голос.  - Мы на месте. Беккер встал и потянулся.

Tends folding machine that folds presewn binding over edge of shoe uppers to smooth and May specialize In research centering around a particular plant, animal, Fills cracks In fired pottery or porcelain ware with powdered clay to repair.

Оно есть, - кивнул Стратмор.  - Тебя оно не обрадует. - В ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ сбой. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ в полном порядке. - Вирус.

Не помассируешь мне спину? - Он надулся. Мидж покачала головой. - В Космополитене пишут, что две трети просьб потереть спинку кончаются сексом. Бринкерхофф возмутился.

Viste el anillo? - настаивал обладатель жуткого голоса. Двухцветный утвердительно кивнул, убежденный, что честность - лучшая политика. Разумеется, это оказалось ошибкой. В следующую секунду, со сломанными шейными позвонками, он сполз на пол.

Я найду свободную комнату и покажу вам Испанию с такой стороны, что вам будет что вспомнить, - И она сладко причмокнула губами. Беккер изобразил улыбку.

- Я - агент Колиандер. Рядом со мной агент Смит. -Хорошо, - сказал Фонтейн.  - Докладывайте. В задней части комнаты Сьюзан Флетчер отчаянно пыталась совладать с охватившим ее чувством невыносимого одиночества.

- Она мертва. Беккер обернулся как во сне. - Senor Becker? - прозвучал жуткий голос. Беккер как завороженный смотрел на человека, входящего в туалетную комнату. Он показался ему смутно знакомым. - Soy Hulohot, - произнес убийца.

Стратмор кивнул: - Думал. Но решил этого не делать. Сьюзан так и подумала. Старшие должностные лица АНБ имели право разбираться со своими кризисными ситуациями, не уведомляя об этом исполнительную власть страны.

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  1. Mazutilar

    What words... super, magnificent idea