Produce manufacturing nutmeg
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In Grenada, nutmeg heads up an economic revolution
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter.
The California nutmeg, Torreya californica , has a seed of similar appearance, but is not closely related to Myristica fragans , and is not used as a spice. If consumed in amounts exceeding its typical use as a spice, nutmeg powder may produce allergic reactions , cause contact dermatitis , or have psychoactive effects.
Nutmeg is the spice made by grinding the seed of the fragrant nutmeg Myristica fragrans tree into powder. The spice has a distinctive pungent fragrance and a warm slightly sweet taste; it is used to flavor many kinds of baked goods, confections, puddings , potatoes, meats, sausages, sauces, vegetables, and such beverages as eggnog.
The seeds are dried gradually in the sun over a period of six to eight weeks. During this time the nutmeg shrinks away from its hard seed coat until the kernels rattle in their shells when shaken.
The shell is then broken with a wooden club and the nutmegs are picked out. Dried nutmegs are grayish brown ovals with furrowed surfaces. Two other species of genus Myristica with different flavors, M. Mace is the spice made from the reddish seed covering aril of the nutmeg seed. Its flavour is similar to nutmeg but more delicate; it is used to flavour baked goods, meat, fish, vegetables and in preserving and pickling. In the processing of mace, the crimson-colored aril is removed from the nutmeg seed that it envelops and is flattened out and dried for 10 to 14 days.
Its color changes to pale yellow, orange, or tan. The most important commercial species is the common, true or fragrant nutmeg, Myristica fragrans Myristicaceae , native to the Moluccas or Spice Islands of Indonesia.
In the 17th-century work Hortus Botanicus Malabaricus , Hendrik van Rheede records that Indians learned the usage of nutmeg from the Indonesians through ancient trade routes. Nutmeg trees are dioecious plants which are propagated sexually seeds and asexually cuttings or grafting.
As there is no reliable method of determining plant sex before flowering in the sixth to eighth year, and sexual reproduction bears inconsistent yields, grafting is the preferred method of propagation. Epicotyl grafting a variation of cleft grafting using seedlings , approach grafting , and patch budding have proved successful, with epicotyl grafting being the most widely adopted standard. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place seven to nine years after planting, and the trees reach full production after twenty years.
Nutmeg and mace have similar sensory qualities, with nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange, saffron -like hue it imparts.
Nutmeg is used for flavouring many dishes, and nowadays is mostly found in Western supermarkets in ground or grated form. Whole nutmeg can also be ground at home using a grater specifically designed for nutmeg  or a multi-purpose grating tool.
In Indonesian cuisine , nutmeg is used in various dishes,  mainly in many spicy soups, such as some variant of soto , konro , oxtail soup , sup iga ribs soup , bakso and sup kambing. It is also used in gravy for meat dishes, such as semur beef stew, ribs with tomato, and European derived dishes such as bistik beef steak , rolade minced meat roll and bistik lidah beef tongue steak. In Indian cuisine , nutmeg is used in many sweet, as well as savoury , dishes predominantly in Mughlai cuisine.
In Kerala Malabar region , grated nutmeg is used in meat preparations and also sparingly added to desserts for the flavour. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. In traditional European cuisine , nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products; they are also used in soups, sauces, and baked goods.
It is also commonly used in rice pudding. In Dutch cuisine , nutmeg is added to vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and string beans. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider , mulled wine , and eggnog. In Scotland, mace and nutmeg are usually both ingredients in haggis. In Italian cuisine , nutmeg is used as part of the stuffing for many regional meat-filled dumplings like tortellini , as well as for the traditional meatloaf.
Nutmeg is a common spice for pumpkin pie and in recipes for other winter squashes , such as baked acorn squash. In the Caribbean, nutmeg is often used in drinks, such as the Bushwacker, Painkiller , and Barbados rum punch. Typically, it is a sprinkle on top of the drink. The pericarp fruit covering is used to make jam, or is finely sliced, cooked with sugar, and crystallised to make a fragrant candy. Sliced nutmeg fruit flesh is made as manisan sweets , either wet, which is seasoned in sugary syrup liquid, or dry coated with sugar, a dessert called manisan pala in Indonesia.
In Penang cuisine , dried, shredded nutmeg rind with sugar coating is used as toppings on the uniquely Penang ais kacang.
Nutmeg rind is also blended creating a fresh, green, tangy taste and white colour juice or boiled resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice to make iced nutmeg juice. In Kerala Malabar region of India, it is used for juice, pickles and chutney. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of ground nutmeg  is used in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. The volatile fraction contains dozens of terpenes and phenylpropanoids , including d- pinene , limonene , d- borneol , l- terpineol , geraniol , safrol , and myristicin.
The oil is colorless or light yellow, and smells and tastes of nutmeg. It is used as a natural food flavoring in baked goods , syrups, beverages, and sweets. It is used to replace ground nutmeg, as it leaves no particles in the food. The essential oil is also used in the manufacturing of toothpaste and cough syrups.
Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. It is semisolid, reddish-brown in colour, and has the taste and smell of nutmeg itself. The earliest known usage of nutmeg is on the island of Pulau Ai around 3, years ago based on residue found on ceramic potsherds.
Until the midth century, the small island group of the Banda Islands , which are also known under the name "Spice Islands," was the only location of the production of nutmeg and mace in the world.
The Banda Islands are situated in the eastern part of Indonesia, in the province of Maluku. Nutmeg is known to have been a prized and costly spice in European medieval cuisine as a flavouring, medicinal, and preservative agent.
Saint Theodore the Studite c. In Elizabethan times, because nutmeg was believed to ward off the plague, demand increased and its price skyrocketed. Nutmeg was known as a valuable commodity by Muslim sailors from the port of Basra including the fictional character Sinbad the Sailor in the One Thousand and One Nights.
Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for high prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade , and no European was able to deduce its location. The Banda Islands became the scene of the earliest European ventures in Asia, in order to get a grip on the spice trade. In August , Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca , which at the time was the hub of Asian trade, on behalf of the king of Portugal.
Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java , the Lesser Sundas , and Ambon to the Banda Islands, arriving in early Full control of this trade by the Portuguese was not possible, and they remained participants without a foothold in the islands. In order to obtain a monopoly on the production and trade of nutmeg, the Dutch East India Company VOC waged a bloody battle with the Bandanese in Historian Willard Hanna estimated that before this struggle the islands were populated by approximately 15, people, and only 1, were left the Bandanese were killed, starved while fleeing, exiled or sold as slaves.
It included the nutmeg plantations for spice production, several forts for the defense of the spices, and a colonial town for trading and governance.
The Dutch were not the only occupants of this region, however. The British skilfully negotiated with the village leaders on the island Rhun to protect them from the Dutch in exchange for a monopoly on their nutmeg. The village leader of Rhun accepted King James I of England as their sovereign, but the English presence on Rhun only lasted until As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars , the British invaded and temporarily took control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees, complete with soil, to Sri Lanka , Penang, Bencoolen , and Singapore.
The national flag of Grenada , adopted in , shows a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit. It has been suggested that Connecticut received its nickname "the Nutmeg State", " Nutmegger " from the claim that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg", a term which later came to mean any type of fraud.
World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10, and 12, tonnes per year, with annual world demand estimated at over 9, tonnes; production of mace is estimated at 1, to 2, tonnes. Other producers include India, Malaysia especially Penang, where the trees grow wild within untamed areas [ citation needed ] , Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St.
Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. In the 19th century, nutmeg was thought to be an abortifacient , which led to numerous recorded cases of nutmeg poisoning. In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response, but in large doses, both raw nutmeg freshly ground from kernels, as well as nutmeg oil , have psychoactive effects,    which appear to derive from anticholinergic -like hallucinogenic mechanisms attributed to myristicin and elemicin.
Varying considerably from person to person, nutmeg intoxication may occur with side effects , such as delirium , anxiety, confusion, headaches, nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, eye irritation, or amnesia. Although rarely reported, nutmeg overdose can result in death, especially if combined with other drugs. Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient , but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy if used only in flavoring amounts.
While the spicy scent of nutmeg may be attractive to pets, there is potential for toxicity if large amounts are consumed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the spice. For other uses, see Nutmeg disambiguation. Red aril and seed within fruit. September Retrieved 29 October Retrieved Top Exotic Food Plants. CRC Press. New York Times. National Geographic. Retrieved 8 April Yes, and here's why". Retrieved 8 November Meyer; Jon M.
The use of nutmeg as a psychotropic agent
Nutmeg is the common name for a dark-leaved evergreen tree , Myristica fragans , that is cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit , "nutmeg" and "mace. The term nutmeg also is used to refer to just the seed of this tree or to the ground or grated spice developed from this seed. In addition, nutmeg is the name applied to members of the genus Myristica in general, while the family to which the genus belongs, Myristicaceae , is known as the nutmeg family. In addition to being the source of the spices nutmeg and mace, Myristica fragans common or true nutmeg also is commercially important as a source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter. Other nutmegs in the genus, such as the Papuan nutmeg, M.
Contents - Previous - Next. The process involves softening of the pods ripe by boiling in water. The soft pods are cooled and peeled using stainless steel knives, then processed in sugar syrup of desired strength and bottled. The bottled pods are further sterilized in boiling water and cooled. The product could be chilled and served as a dessert or can be used in ice cream manufacture or as pie filling.
Processing of Nutmeg and Mace (Practical Action Brief)
Nutmeg oil is produced by steam distillation or steam and water distillation of freshly comminuted, dried nutmegs. The nutmegs should preferably be free from most of their fixed oil prior to distillation. The fixed oil can be alcohol extracted to yield a small amount of essential oil which has been dissolved in the fixed oil during the expression. Our objective is to inspire the creative minds in the realm of beauty with exceptional ingredients! Based on more than a century of experience in Vallauris, France, Albert Vieille SAS has crafted exceptional savoir-faire in the realm of perfume plants. We have more than aromatic products — essential oil, floral water, scented water, absolute, concrete, resinoid, gum resin — for use in formulating scented and flavored creations. The fruit is a fleshy, pale-yellow drupe resembling an apricot.
Which Country Produces the Most Nutmeg, Mace and Cardamoms in the World?
Nutmeg is the seed of Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree native to the Molucca Islands. Interestingly, the tree produces both Nutmeg and mace, and grows up to 60 feet tall. Although the tree takes seven years to bear fruit, it may produce until the 90th year. Both spices come from the tree's fruit, which splits into a scarlet outer membrane, mace, and an inner brown seed, Nutmeg.
In , at age seventeen, Conrad Frederick Sauer began work for a retail and wholesale drug business in Richmond, Virginia. As a drug clerk, he dealt directly with customers who usually brought in their own bottles to be refilled with drugstore products. He soon noticed that flavoring extracts formed a large percentage of this business, because the housewives making the purchases were more assured of purity and strength from the drugstore products.
Exporting nutmeg to Europe
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Cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves and ginger are often key baking ingredients. But on the island of Grenada they are also central ingredients in a burgeoning economic revolution. The farmers received technical assistance and financial support from the Japanese Social Development Fund and the World Bank to buy seeds, fertilizer, pesticides and tools. The crux of the project is, however, the possibility of protecting themselves from climate and economic shocks, and to better coordinate their production, especially after two consecutive hurricanes. While there is little farmers in Grenada can do against inclement weather in a region extremely exposed to natural phenomena, the project aims to alleviate potential economic, and also planning, havoc.
The nutmeg tree is a large evergreen tree spice belonging to Myristicaceae family and grows to a height of about 18 m. It produces fruits eight to nine years after planting. The fruit of nutmeg tree, which is similar in colour and size to apricot, splits when ripe revealing the brilliant red arils encasing the brown nut. The red arils on drying become orange in colour and are the mace of commerce. The nut is also dried until the kernel inside rattles. Production tonnes. IISR-Viswashree is the only known variety.
Section III - Post harvest handling. Contents - Previous - Next. Harvesting 2. Post harvest handling operations in the field - preparation for marketing to GCNA 3.
The Edinburgh encyclopaedia, conducted by D. Edinburgh encyclopaedia. It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation; neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there ; but wild beasts of the desert shall lie there ; and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures ; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there. And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their desolate houses, and dragons in their pleasant palaces : and her time is near to come, and her days shall not be prolonged.
Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Biscuit Manufacture : fundamentals of in-line production. THE intention of this book is to provide a guide for potential management and supervisors and for those who wish to understand the fundamental principles of biscuit manufacture. It does not set out to be a learned treatise.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter. The California nutmeg, Torreya californica , has a seed of similar appearance, but is not closely related to Myristica fragans , and is not used as a spice. If consumed in amounts exceeding its typical use as a spice, nutmeg powder may produce allergic reactions , cause contact dermatitis , or have psychoactive effects. Nutmeg is the spice made by grinding the seed of the fragrant nutmeg Myristica fragrans tree into powder.
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