Production building tape recorders and set-top boxes
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- Best Evp Recorder
- Home Studio Guide: How to Build a Home Recording Studio Setup
- Star Set Top Box
- This little-known inventor has probably saved your life
- How much does a recording studio cost to build?
- Linux Record Tv
- Buying A Used Tape Machine
- Why Video Cassette Recorders (VCRs)?
- Sound recording and reproduction
- Classifying audio and video equipment for import and export
Best Evp Recorder
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical , mechanical , electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music , or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record.
In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current , which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet , which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of sampling.
This lets the audio data be stored and transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers zeros and ones representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound.
Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems, such as wind-up music boxes and, later, player pianos , for encoding and reproducing instrumental music.
Long before sound was first recorded, music was recorded—first by written music notation , then also by mechanical devices e. According to Charles B.
Fowler, this " Carvings in the Rosslyn Chapel from the s may represent an early attempt to record the Chladni patterns produced by sound in stone representations, although this theory has not been conclusively proved.
In the 14th century, a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder was introduced in Flanders. A music box is an automatic musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc so as to pluck the tuned teeth or lamellae of a steel comb. The fairground organ , developed in , used a system of accordion-folded punched cardboard books. The player piano , first demonstrated in , used a punched paper scroll that could store a long piece of music.
The most sophisticated of the piano rolls were hand-played, meaning that the roll represented the actual performance of an individual, not just a transcription of the sheet music. This technology to record a live performance onto a piano roll was not developed until Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from to Supreme Court copyright case noted that, in alone, there were between 70, and 75, player pianos manufactured, and between 1,, and 1,, piano rolls produced. The earliest known recordings of the human voice are phonautograph recordings, called phonautograms , made in An phonautogram of Au Clair de la Lune , a French folk song, was played back as sound for the first time in by scanning it and using software to convert the undulating line, which graphically encoded the sound, into a corresponding digital audio file.
On April 30, , French poet, humorous writer and inventor Charles Cros submitted a sealed envelope containing a letter to the Academy of Sciences in Paris fully explaining his proposed method, called the paleophone. The first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical phonograph cylinder , invented by Thomas Edison in and patented in The next major technical development was the invention of the gramophone record , generally credited to Emile Berliner [ by whom?
Sales of the gramophone record overtook the cylinder ca. Edison, who was the main producer of cylinders, created the Edison Disc Record in an attempt to regain his market. The double-sided 78 rpm shellac disc was the standard consumer music format from the early s to the late s. In various permutations, the audio disc format became the primary medium for consumer sound recordings until the end of the 20th century.
Although there was no universally accepted speed, and various companies offered discs that played at several different speeds, the major recording companies eventually settled on a de facto industry standard of nominally 78 revolutions per minute. The specified speed was The difference in speeds was due to the difference in the cycle frequencies of the AC electricity that powered the stroboscopes used to calibrate recording lathes and turntables. Discs were made of shellac or similar brittle plastic-like materials, played with needles made from a variety of materials including mild steel, thorn, and even sapphire.
Discs had a distinctly limited playing life that varied depending on how they were manufactured. Earlier, purely acoustic methods of recording had limited sensitivity and frequency range. Mid-frequency range notes could be recorded, but very low and very high frequencies could not. Instruments such as the violin were difficult to transfer to disc. One technique to deal with this involved using a Stroh violin to which uses a conical horn connected to a diaphragm that in turn is connected to the violin bridge.
The horn was no longer needed once electrical recording was developed. In the US and most developed countries, the two new vinyl formats completely replaced 78 rpm shellac discs by the end of the s, but in some corners of the world, the 78 lingered on far into the s. The compact 45 format required very little material. Vinyl offered improved performance, both in stamping and in playback.
Vinyl records were, over-optimistically, advertised as "unbreakable". They were not, but they were much less fragile than shellac, which had itself once been touted as "unbreakable" compared to wax cylinders. Sound recording began as a purely mechanical process. Except for a few crude telephone-based recording devices with no means of amplification, such as the telegraphone , [a] it remained so until the s. Between the invention of the phonograph in and the first commercial digital recordings in the early s, arguably the most important milestone in the history of sound recording was the introduction of what was then called electrical recording , in which a microphone was used to convert the sound into an electrical signal that was amplified and used to actuate the recording stylus.
This innovation eliminated the "horn sound" resonances characteristic of the acoustical process, produced clearer and more full-bodied recordings by greatly extending the useful range of audio frequencies, and allowed previously unrecordable distant and feeble sounds to be captured. During this time, several radio-related developments in electronics converged to revolutionize the recording process.
These included improved microphones and auxiliary devices such as electronic filters, all dependent on electronic amplification to be of practical use in recording. In , Lee De Forest invented the Audion triode vacuum tube, an electronic valve that could amplify weak electrical signals. By , it was in use in long-distance telephone circuits that made conversations between New York and San Francisco practical. Refined versions of this tube were the basis of all electronic sound systems until the commercial introduction of the first transistor -based audio devices in the mids.
During World War I, engineers in the United States and Great Britain worked on ways to record and reproduce, among other things, the sound of a German U-boat for training purposes. Acoustical recording methods of the time could not reproduce the sounds accurately. The earliest results were not promising. The first electrical recording issued to the public, with little fanfare, was of November 11, funeral services for The Unknown Warrior in Westminster Abbey , London.
The recording engineers used microphones of the type used in contemporary telephones. Four were discreetly set up in the abbey and wired to recording equipment in a vehicle outside. Although electronic amplification was used, the audio was weak and unclear. The procedure did, however, produce a recording that would otherwise not have been possible in those circumstances.
For several years, this little-noted disc remained the only issued electrical recording. Several record companies and independent inventors, notably Orlando Marsh , experimented with equipment and techniques for electrical recording in the early s. Marsh's electrically recorded Autograph Records were already being sold to the public in , a year before the first such offerings from the major record companies, but their overall sound quality was too low to demonstrate any obvious advantage over traditional acoustical methods.
Marsh's microphone technique was idiosyncratic and his work had little if any impact on the systems being developed by others. They had the best microphone, a condenser type developed there in and greatly improved in ,  and the best amplifiers and test equipment. They had already patented an electromechanical recorder in , and in the early s, they decided to intensively apply their hardware and expertise to developing two state-of-the-art systems for electronically recording and reproducing sound: one that employed conventional discs and another that recorded optically on motion picture film.
Their engineers pioneered the use of mechanical analogs of electrical circuits and developed a superior "rubber line" recorder for cutting the groove into the wax master in the disc recording system.
By , such dramatic progress had been made that Western Electric arranged a demonstration for the two leading record companies, the Victor Talking Machine Company and the Columbia Phonograph Company.
Both soon licensed the system and both made their earliest published electrical recordings in February , but neither actually released them until several months later. To avoid making their existing catalogs instantly obsolete, the two long-time archrivals agreed privately not to publicize the new process until November , by which time enough electrically recorded repertory would be available to meet the anticipated demand. During the next few years, the lesser record companies licensed or developed other electrical recording systems.
By only the budget label Harmony was still issuing new recordings made by the old acoustical process. Comparison of some surviving Western Electric test recordings with early commercial releases indicates that the record companies "dumbed down" the frequency range of the system so the recordings would not overwhelm non-electronic playback equipment, which reproduced very low frequencies as an unpleasant rattle and rapidly wore out discs with strongly recorded high frequencies.
In the s, Phonofilm and other early motion picture sound systems employed optical recording technology, in which the audio signal was graphically recorded on photographic film. The amplitude variations comprising the signal were used to modulate a light source which was imaged onto the moving film through a narrow slit, allowing the signal to be photographed as variations in the density or width of a "sound track".
The projector used a steady light and a photoelectric cell to convert these variations back into an electrical signal, which was amplified and sent to loudspeakers behind the screen.
Ironically, the introduction of " talkies " was spearheaded by The Jazz Singer , which used the Vitaphone sound-on-disc system rather than an optical soundtrack. Optical sound became the standard motion picture audio system throughout the world and remains so for theatrical release prints despite attempts in the s to substitute magnetic soundtracks. Currently, all release prints on 35 mm movie film include an analog optical soundtrack, usually stereo with Dolby SR noise reduction.
This period also saw several other historic developments including the introduction of the first practical magnetic sound recording system, the magnetic wire recorder , which was based on the work of Danish inventor Valdemar Poulsen. Magnetic wire recorders were effective, but the sound quality was poor, so between the wars, they were primarily used for voice recording and marketed as business dictating machines.
In , a German engineer, Kurt Stille, developed the Poulsen wire recorder as a dictating machine. The BBC started using Blattnerphones in to record radio programmes. Because of the high recording speeds required, they used enormous reels about one metre in diameter, and the thin tape frequently broke, sending jagged lengths of razor steel flying around the studio. An important field of invention during this period was the tape recorder. Magnetic tape recording uses an amplified electrical audio signal to generate analogous variations of the magnetic field produced by a tape head , which impresses corresponding variations of magnetization on the moving tape.
In playback mode, the signal path is reversed, the tape head acting as a miniature electric generator as the varyingly magnetized tape passes over it. Acetate has fairly low tensile strength and if very thin it will snap easily, so it was in turn eventually superseded by polyester. This technology, the basis for almost all commercial recording from the s to the s, was developed in the s by German audio engineers who also rediscovered the principle of AC biasing first used in the s for wire recorders , which dramatically improved the frequency response of tape recordings.
Mullin with backing from Bing Crosby Enterprises. Mullin's pioneering recorders were modifications of captured German recorders. In the late s, the Ampex company produced the first tape recorders commercially available in the US. Magnetic tape brought about sweeping changes in both radio and the recording industry. Sound could be recorded, erased and re-recorded on the same tape many times, sounds could be duplicated from tape to tape with only minor loss of quality, and recordings could now be very precisely edited by physically cutting the tape and rejoining it.
Within a few years of the introduction of the first commercial tape recorder—the Ampex model, launched in —American musician-inventor Les Paul had invented the first multitrack tape recorder , ushering in another technical revolution in the recording industry. The ease and accuracy of tape editing, as compared to the cumbersome disc-to-disc editing procedures previously in some limited use, together with tape's consistently high audio quality finally convinced radio networks to routinely prerecord their entertainment programming, most of which had formerly been broadcast live.
Home Studio Guide: How to Build a Home Recording Studio Setup
And while many people are now upgrading to DVD for movie playback, our tried and tested VCRs still do one thing that DVD players can't yet do - record your favourite show. Sure there are recordable DVD players about, but they are still very expensive and until the format war has been settled most people would prefer to wait and continue using their video cassette recorders for time-shifting. Although there are a number of different types of VHS decks available, most models differ only by the number of features they include - or don't include. Mono VCRs are the bare-bones option.
Your home studio is your music creation hub. Advances in technology and consumer electronics have made recording at home more accessible than ever before. More and more musicians are choosing to record and produce at home, in their bedroom or garage rather than rent time at expensive studios—and you can too. A basic home studio is made up of several pieces of equipment that function together to let you produce music.
Star Set Top Box
It has a lot to do with the room in which you record and the experience of the engineer. The Doors? Probably a total of 8 microphones , all recorded live, at the same time, in the same room. My favorite way to record a band is to put them in the room and put microphones up in a way that works and have them play the song. A pro studio can be put together with just an MBox and a laptop. There is nothing wrong with being able to produce great music or work on film and TV shows at home with a simple setup. With that said, if you want to have a facility to bring an artist into and have them be creative and comfortable, having a world-class facility can be very expensive.
This little-known inventor has probably saved your life
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Hoarseness or total loss of your voice is caused by a condition called laryngitis in which the voice box larynx becomes inflamed. Experience the standard when it comes to conference call systems. YouTube; LinkedIn Click the icon on the right side of the box to copy the. Find out more about how OnStar has your back — no matter what life throws your way.
How much does a recording studio cost to build?
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Terrestrial television is a term which refers to modes of television broadcasting which do not involve satellite transmission or via underground cables. Terrestrial television broadcasting dates back to the very beginnings of television as a medium itself and there was virtually no other method of television delivery until the s with the beginnings of cable television, or community antenna television CATV. The first non-terrestrial method of delivering television signals that in no way depended on a signal originating from a traditional terrestrial source began with the use of communications satellites during the s and s of the twentieth century. The analogue television picture is "drawn" several times on the screen 25 in PAL system as a whole each time, as in a motion picture film, regardless of the content of the image. Satellite television is television signals delivered by means of communications satellites and received by satellite dishes and set-top boxes.
Linux Record Tv
Star Set Top Box. A study says your DVR and cable box draws more power than your fridge or air conditioner. Watch movie trailers and buy tickets online. If the message is open, click More Add Star. About Us; Careers; News.
Buying A Used Tape Machine
The company also produces, through its original Nagra Audio subsidiary, professional recording equipment for the film and television, security and law enforcement, and other industries, as well as high-end high fidelity equipment for the audiophile community. Until the s, recording on location — whether for movies, television, or sporting events — was a difficult endeavor, in particular because of the large bulk and heavy power demands of then-current mobile recording systems. Physics student Stefan Kudelski, who had fled Poland after the Communist takeover, was to revolutionize mobile recording.
Why Video Cassette Recorders (VCRs)?
ReVox is a brand name, registered by Studer on March 27, , for Swiss audio equipment. The first Studer-designed tape recorders were branded Dynavox. Revox was adopted as the brand name for amateur recorders, while the professional machines retained the Studer name.
No big manufacturer has built new machines for years, so some spare parts are becoming scarce and expensive. Motor bearings, tape guides and rollers, pinch wheels, brakes and tape heads are all essentially consumable parts. The electronics also need regular alignment, so recording and replay remain within appropriate tolerances. Most settings need adjusting as heads wear or if tape type is changed, and ideally should be optimised for each new batch of tape. If everything isn't aligned and properly maintained, quality suffers quickly and obviously.
Sound recording and reproduction
Парень побелел. Беккер попридержал его еще минутку, потом отпустил. Затем, не сводя с него глаз, нагнулся, поднял бутылки и поставил их на стол. - Ну, доволен. Тот потерял дар речи.
Classifying audio and video equipment for import and export
- А теперь прошу меня извинить. Мне нужно поработать. У Мидж отвисла челюсть. - Извините, сэр… Бринкерхофф уже шел к двери, но Мидж точно прилипла к месту.